Escuela De Verano De Traducción Astorga


 Escuela De Verano De Traducción Astorga

Se ha abierto la inscripción de la Escuela de Verano de Traducción en Astorga (15.-19.7.2013),  curso extraordinario de la Universidad de León dirigido a estudiantes de alemán, francés, inglés y espanol así como a y jóvenes profesionales, cuyo programa adjuntamos en archivo en pdf  y en cuya codirección se ha implicado la Universidad de Kiel, donde ha cuajado un proyecto de traducción literaria (http://www.uni-kiel.de/lites/traductores.html). (Se reconocen 2,5 ECTS).

Alerta de artículos de revista 2013/05/02

 

Alerta de artículos de revista
InfoTrad
2 de mayo de 2013


Vaciado de artículos

DESCARGAR 

Para suscribirte a la lista escribe un correo a alar@usal.es

Monográfico: Colocaciones y Traducción

 
Monográfico
U
niversidad deS alamanca
F acultad de Traducción y D ocumentación
B iblioteca
Web

Monográfico I nfo T rad
15 de abril de 2013


Colocaciones y Traducción



Abdullah, K. (2000). “Vocabulary in LSP : A Case Study of Phrases and Collocations.” Babel: Revue internationale de la traduction/International Journal of Translation 46(2). http://www-fr.ebsco.com/online/direct.asp?ArticleID=K827KHYCJQC49JPT4VE8

The paper aims at exploring sorne of the conditions and ways ja whjch LSP (Language for Special Parposes) adult learaers perceive aasleadiag vocabulary. Specifically, the paper represents an attempt to fiad out whether adult learaers of English who know the meaaiag of certain words can or cannot work out the new meaaiag of phrases or collocation which would result from the combination of two or more words. un top of this, we will try tu give reasoas for the learners’ inaccurate guesses. The phrases and/or co]locations used ja this study were contextualised ja seatences tu show or miaror our learners’ ability in working out their collocatioaal new meanings. To achieve this objective, twu methods were followed. Pirst, individual general words (aot techaical) were taught aad thea a combination of two or more of these words (tu give specific meaaiags) was worked out by 80 LSP learaers through context. Secoad, after testing the same learners ja these words and grading their responses, both descriptive and infereatial statjstics were used to indicate.

Abdullah, K. (2001). “Vocabulary in LSP A Case Study of Phrases and Collocations Babel: Revue internationale de la traduction/International Journal of Translation 46(2): 97-111. http://ejournals.ebsco.com/direct.asp?ArticleID=K827KHYCJQC49JPT4VE8

The paper aims at exploring some of the conditions and ways in which LSP(Language for Special Purposes) adult learners perceive misleading vocabulary. Specifically, the paper represents an attempt to find out whether adult learners of English who know the meaning of certain words can or cannot work out the new meaning of phrases or collocation which would result from the combination of two or more words. on top of this, we will try to give reasons for the learners’ inaccurate guesses. The phrases and/or collocations used in this study were contextualised in sentences to show or mirror our learners’ ability in working out their collocational new meanings. To achieve this objective, two methods were followed. First, individual general words (not technical) were taught and then a combination of two or more of these words (to give specific meanings) was worked out by 80 LSP learners through context. Second, after testing the same learners in these words and grading their responses, both descriptive and inferential statistics were used to indicate both frequencies and statistical significance levels. The samples and teaching situation were taken from the Jordan University of Science and Technology. The study showed that JUST learners found difficulties in working out or guessing the specific meanings of phrases and collocations when combined to form new meanings though they knew the meaning of each word individually. These phrases look deceptively easy to our Arabic speaking LSP learners at first sight, but their meanings can be radically different from what our learners might expect. The study ends up with a number of practical teaching implications including paraphrasing and idiomaticity in the first place. Finally, some other research recommendations were suggested.

Almela Sánchez, M. (2002). “Propuesta para la incorporación de información pragmático-estilística en las bases de datos traduccionales de colocaciones (aplicación alemán-español).” Congreso Internacional sobre el español lengua de traducción(1).

La selección léxica en el contexto sintagmático de una palabra clave es relevante desde el punto de vista pragmático, ya que las colocaciones a menudo están asociadas a determinados tipos de situación comunicativa. Por ello, en los procesos de producción lingüística, entre los cuales se cuentan las fases terminales de la praxis traduccional, la adecuada selección del lexema colocativo es imprescindible para dotar al texto (meta) de los rasgos de estilo y las funciones pragmáticas deseadas.

Alonso Calvo, R. (2009). “Lexicalización y colocaciones: una introducción a su estudio diacrónico.” Onomázein: Revista de lingüística, filología y traducción de la Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile(19): 33-56. http://dialnet.unirioja.es/servlet/fichero_articulo?codigo=3001515&orden=0

Lexicalización y colocaciones: una introducción a su estudio diacrónico también el de la no familiar colocación to choose … approach, a la que …

Alonso Calvo, R. (2009). “Lexicalización y colocaciones: una introducción a su estudio diacrónico.” Onomázein: Revista de lingüística, filología y traducción de la Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile(19): 33-56. http://dialnet.unirioja.es/descarga/articulo/3001515.pdf

Este artículo se propone dos objetivos principales. El primero es proporcionar un cuadro resumen que abarque los distintos puntos de vista acerca de dos conceptos fundamentales en el estudio de la evolución y el cambio lingüísticos como son “gramaticalización” y “lexicalización”. En la bibliografía estudiada se han encontrado muy diferentes opiniones y argumentos sobre ambos conceptos y sus dominios respectivos, así como sobre la relación que existe entre uno y otro, es decir, en qué modo y grado interaccionan ambos procesos de cambio lingüístico. Para ello se tratará de dar, por lo tanto, un resumen crítico de todos los autores estudiados que servirá de base para la consecución del segundo objetivo: tratar de dilucidar por un lado en qué estadio del “continuum” evolutivo de la lengua se encuentran las llamadas colocaciones y por otro ofrecer un ensayo de rastreo diacrónico de algunos casos que servirá de base e introducción para posteriores desarrollos en el estudio de este tema.

Alonso Ramos, M. (2006). “Entón ¿é unha colocación ou non?: análise contrastiva das colocacións.” Cadernos de Fraseoloxía Galega(8). http://www.cirp.es/pub/docs/cfg/cfg08.pdf

Entón ¿é unha colocación ou non?: análise contrastiva das colocacións. Margarita Alonso Ramos. pags. 29-44

Alvarez Cavanillas, J. L. and R. Chacón Beltrán (2003). “La enseñanza de “colocaciones” en español como L2: una propuesta didáctica.” Elia: Estudios de lingüística inglesa aplicada(4): 237-253. http://alturl.com/oduuq

Lexical collocations are groups of two or more words that come up together up a regular basis. In non-native language teaching in general, and in the teaching of Spaaish as an L2, in particular, it seems necessary to pay attention to this linguistic feature from a pedagogical point of view. Failure in the productioa of appropriate lexical collocations does not usually lead L2 learners in a communicatioa breakdowa, but students lend to produce unnecessary circumlocutions when trying to convey their messages.This study provides an overall perspective to the analysis of lexical collocations, takes up previous research on the topic and makes use of mental maps as a convenient teaching technique. Sorne teaching matenials were designed and used with a group of students of Spanish as an L2. In this paper we report the effects of this empirical intervention and draw sorne pedagogical implications for the teaching of lexical collacations in Spanish as an L2.

Bahumaid, S. (2006). “Collocation in English-Arabic Translation.” Babel: Revue internationale de la traduction/International Journal of Translation 52(2). http://www.ingentaconnect.com/content/jbp/bab/2006/00000052/00000002/art00003

Collocation is considered one of the major `trouble spots’ for translators. This may be ascribed to the relative difficulty in predicting the constituent elements of a collocation, the considerag ble variation in collocability across languages and the lack of adequate resources on collocation. However, few empirical studies have been made so far on the types of collocations that are parg ticularly problematic to the translator, the specific sources of the problem and the procedures that translators actually resort to in handling such collocations. This paper investigates the areas just defined with special reference to collocation in English and Arabic. A translation test involving thirty sentencegcontextualized collocations of different types was designed. The test was administered to four Arab university instructors who taught translation and did translation work for different periods of time. The participants’ performance in the test was considerably low. A detailed analysis of the problem was conducted and the findg ings were then reported. It is hoped that a study of this kind would provide essential feedback for translation teachers and syllabus designers.<br />Résumé<br />La collocation est considérée comme un des principaux «points névralgiques » pour les traducg teurs. Cela peut s’expliquer par la difficulté relative qu’il y a à prévoir les éléments constitutifs d’une collocation, aux variations considérables de collocabilité entre langues et au manque de ressources adéquates en matière de collocation. Toutefois, peu d’études empiriques ont été efg fectuées jusqu’à présent en ce qui concerne les types de collocations qui s’avèrent particulièreg ment problématiques pour le traducteur, les sources spécifiques du problème et les procédures auxquelles les traducteurs ont effectivement recours pour les traiter. Cet article étudie les domaines que nous venons de définir et se réfère en particulier à la colg location en anglais et en arabe. Un test de traduction a été élaboré, comprenant trente collocag tions de différents types, replacées dans un contexte de phrases. Nous avons fait passer ce test à quatre assistants d’université arabes qui enseignaient la traduction et effectuaient des travaux de traduction à différentes époques. Les résultats obtenus par les participants au test étaient exg trêmement faibles. Une analyse détaillée du problème a été effectuée et les conclusions ont fait l’objet d’un rapport. Nous espérons qu’une étude de ce type fournira des informations esseng tielles aux professeurs de traduction et aux concepteurs de programmes d’ enseignement.

Bangalore, S. and G. Riccardi (2002). “Stochastic Finite-State Models for Spoken Language Machine Translation.” Machine Translation 17(3). http://ipsapp009.kluweronline.com/IPS/content/ext/x/J/4598/I/20/A/3/abstract.htm #

The problem of machine translation can be viewed as consisting of two subproblems (a) lexical selection and (b) lexical reordering. In this paper, we propose stochastic finite-state models for these two subproblems. Stochastic finite-state models are efficiently learnable from data, effective for decoding and are associated with a calculus for composing models which allows for tight integration of constraints from various levels of language processing. We present a method for learning stochastic finite-state models for lexical selection and lexical reordering that are trained automatically from pairs of source and target utterances. We use this method to develop models for English–Japanese and English–SPANISH translation and present the performance of these models for translation on speech and text. We also evaluate the efficacy of such a translation model in the context of a call routing task of unconstrained speech utterances.

Blanco Escoda, X. (2006). “Significacións gramaticais e sentidos colocacionais: ¿máis ca unha simple coincidencia?Cadernos de Fraseoloxía Galega(8). http://www.cirp.es/pub/docs/cfg/cfg08.pdf

Significacións gramaticais e sentidos colocacionais: ¿máis ca unha simple coincidencia? Xabier Blanco Escoda pags. 95-110

Bozdechová, I. (2006). “Sobre las colocaciones terminológicas en los textos médicos (checos).” Hermeneus: Revista de la Facultad de Traducción e Interpretación de Soria(8). http://recyt.fecyt.es/index.php/HS/issue/view/595/showToc

En el estudio se ofrece la concepción de la terminología en la lingüística checa y, partiendo de la confrontación del uso de los textos médicos escritos con los diccionarios (unilingües, bilingües) esboza los problemas de concepción y tipología de términos pluriverbales y de las colocaciones en general. Al diferenciar las colocaciones en el diccionario y en el texto se ofrece una propia concepción de diferenciación de los dos casos y se caracteriza el estado actual de la terminología y de la comunicación especializada checa, orientándose ante todo a la terminología médica con una visión contrastiva e histórica. Los análisis han confirmado la importancia que va cobrando la internacionalización de la terminología, sin descartar el papel que desempeña el desarrollo de la investigación científica como tal.

Brandimonte, G. (2011). “Breve estudio contrastivo fraseológico y paremiológico: El disputado voto del señor Cayo y su versión italiana.” Paremia(20): 77-88. http://www.paremia.org/paremia/PAREMIA20/7.BRANDIMONTE.pdf

La crítica literaria reconoce a Miguel Delibes el dominio absoluto del lenguaje, rico y expresivo, en busca de autenticidad, impregnado de esa castellanidad que ha sido una constante en su obra. Sus personajes viven precisamente a través de su propio lenguaje, reflejando las respectivas personalidades y situados en un ambiente descrito con inalcanzable maestría y extrema minuciosidad. La magnífica variedad del lenguaje, los tonos y registros presentes en sus novelas, más allá de su inestimable valor artístico, constituyen un interesante tema de investigación en el campo de la traducción. Los procesos y los problemas derivados de la singularidad del estilo proporcionan un amplio material de estudio y debate que, en esta ocasión, nos llevará a analizar la presencia de unidades fraseológicas en la obra El disputado voto del señor Cayo y a averiguar, desde una perspectiva traductológica, si las soluciones propuestas en la versión italiana Per chi voterà il signor Cayo mantienen cierta correspondencia con el original.

Bustos Plaza, A. (2006). “Verbos generales y verbos específicos: conjuntos y clases de argumentos en colocaciones de verbo y sustantivo.” Epos: Revista de filología(22): 51-65. http://dialnet.unirioja.es/servlet/extart?codigo=2582613

La alternancia de verbos generales y específicos en colocaciones verbonominales puede contribuir a identificar entre sus argumentos subconjuntos que comparten rasgos semánticos. Esto puede arrojar luz sobre la lógica subyacente a combinaciones no explicables a partir de la designación. Nos servimos del concepto de clase de argumentos de Bosque y del de clase de objetos del léxico-gramática. Nos centramos en la relación que se da entre el conjunto de argumentos seleccionado por dar y los seleccionados por los verbos específicos. La intersección de unos y otros proporciona conjuntos de argumentos con un alto grado de coherencia semántica pero con un desajuste entre intensión y extensión (esta es más reducida de lo que cabría esperar a partir de aquella), lo que probablemente representa una de las características de la combinatoria léxica restringida

Cotterill, J. (2004). “Collocation, Connotation, and Courtroom Semantics: Lawyers’ Control of Witness Testimony through Lexical Negotiation.” Applied Linguistics 25(4). http://ejournals.ebsco.com/direct.asp?ArticleID=4F5C9FA369579C77D7C3

A great deal has been written about the ways in which lawyers’ questioning strategies, particularly during cross-examination, may be considered coercive and intimidating for witnesses, even potentially contributing to the wrongful acquittal of guilty defendants. The primary focus of analytical attention in identifying such practices has been the use of closed and/or leading questions, which restrict the response options for the witness, either by prescribing a range of æacceptableÆ responses, or by restricting the witness to a yesûno answer. In contrast, relatively little attention has been paid to lexical aspects of witness (cross-)examination and, in particular, the role of lexis in creating nuances of meaning for the jury. This article draws on a 5-million word corpus of rape/sexual assault and domestic violence trials held in the late 1990s in the UK, and applies a combination of corpus linguistic and discourse analytic approaches to study the lexicalizations and re-lexicalizations of the crime, its participants and its circumstances and the process of lexical negotiation which takes place between lawyers and witnesses.

Dinçkan, Y. and im (2010). “Culture-Bound Collocations in Bestsellers: A Study of Their Translations from English into Turkish.” Meta 55(3): 456-473. http://id.erudit.org/iderudit/045065ar

Le présent article traite des collocations culturellement marquées dans les traductions en turc de trois best-sellers anglais récents. Les résultats de l’étude sont présentés en fonction de la nature des exemples et de la stratégie de traduction, et sont discutés en référence au cadre conceptuel de la naturalisation et de l’étrangéisation. Sont abordés l’étude des facteurs qui peuvent influencer le travail du traducteur tels que le contexte, les exigences de la maison d’édition et le type de roman traduit, ainsi que les liens entre best-sellers, culture populaire et traduction. Une réflexion sur la cohérence et le choix de stratégies de traduction et l’établissement d’une liste de onze facteurs à prendre en considération pour la traduction de best-sellers concluent l’étude. Il est suggéré que la langue source (l’anglais) et le type de roman (best-seller) ont dû influencer les choix opérés par les traducteurs. L’article se termine par un ensemble de suggestions pour la traduction de best-sellers ainsi que par une invitation faite aux théoriciens de la traductologie à se pencher non seulement sur les classiques de la littérature mais également sur les fictions populaires.

Edo Marzá, N. (2009). “The generation of active entries in a specialised, bilingual, corpus-based dictionary of the ceramics industry: what to include, why and how.” Ibérica: Revista de la Asociación Europea de Lenguas para Fines Específicos (AELFE)(18): 43-70. http://www.aelfe.org/documents/04_18_Edo.pdf

The generation of useful dictionary entries is a complex task since it is normally complicated to decide what to include, and how to include it. Accordingly, this research presents as its main goal to show how “active entries” have been generated in the specific case of the elaboration of a specialised, bilingual, corpus-based dictionary in the field of industrial ceramics. Thus, this article illustrates how final entries have been designed and how decisions have been adopted depending on the prospective users of the dictionary –specialists and translators in the ceramic industrial field. It proceeds reflecting on how active entries complement previous terminological creations with the inclusion of additional, pertinent information and on the intricate decision-making processes involved in the generation of this kind of entries. On the first part of the article, the theoretical considerations adopted are posed whereas the second part deals with the active entries as such and the way their different fields have been filled in; that is, how different pieces of information regarding contexts of use, pragmatic implications, semantic classification and definitions, among others, have been included in the entries to meet the users’ needs.

Fontenelle, T. (1994). “Towards the construction of a collocational database for translation studies.” Meta 39(1). http://www.erudit.org/revue/meta/1994/v39/n1/002756ar.pdf

Se presenta un experimento realizado en el marco de un proyecto de elaboración de una base de datos bilingüe (inglés-francés) en la Universidad de Lieja. Una vez terminada, ésta pondrá a disposición de sus usuarios informaciones léxicas y semánticas distribuidas en varios puntos de consulta. Se pretende demostrar que estas informaciones no están contenidas en ningún diccionario de colocaciones al uso, algo que se subsanará con la ayuda de este proyecto.

Forteza Fernández, R. and S. R. Rao Prahlad (2009). “Collocations in the vocabulary English teaching as a foreign language.” Acimed: revista cubana de los profesionales de la información y la comunicación en salud 19(6). http://scielo.sld.cu/pdf/aci/v19n6/aci06609.pdf

The teaching of a foreign language entails, among other things, dealing with the system of the language, i.e. the cultural, grammatical, lexical and phonological subsystems. In practice, most foreign language lessons dedicate extensive treatment to grammar and pronunciation, while vocabulary and the culture intrinsic to the language are often neglected. It is thought that with making clear the meaning of words and explaining some cultural concepts, it is enough for the learner.

Gallego Hernández, D. (2012). “Traducir en tiempos de crisis: estudio comparativo de la traducción francés-español de colocaciones en el lenguaje de los negocios.” Paremia(21). http://www.paremia.org/paremia/PAREMIA%2021/14-GALLEGO.pdf

El presente artículo estudia la traducción de las colocaciones formadas a partir del término crise, aparecidas en un corpus especializado. Tras reseñar algunos trabajos previos sobre lenguaje económico y metáfora en tiempos de crisis, se clasifican las colocaciones originales identificadas en el corpus según diversos conceptos metafóricos. Por último, se analizan las estrategias de traducción y se valoran con el apoyo de un corpus comparable ad hoc. El análisis revela, por una parte, que las metáforas identificadas pueden asociarse a conceptos como, entre otros, alimentos, catástrofes, enfermedades, objetos o pozos, y, por otra parte, que existe una clara tendencia a la traducción literal, especialmente en el caso de las expresiones asociadas a las enfermedades, si bien también se dan en menor medida otras estrategias de traducción. Los resultados del estudio son de utilidad para la enseñanza de la traducción y el lenguaje económico o en la elaboración de repertorios fraseológicos.

García-Page, v. (2002). “Adverbios restringidos y adverbios colocacionales.” Revista de Lexicografía 8. http://ruc.udc.es/dspace/handle/2183/5356/browse?type=title&submit_browse=T%C3%ADtulo

Adverbios restringidos y adverbios colocacionales

Giráldez Ceballos-Escalera, J. and J. Cantera Ortiz de Urbina (2007). Las colocaciones léxicas en el lenguaje jurídico del derecho civil francés. http://eprints.ucm.es/8061/1/T29838.pdf

El objeto de la tesis es el estudio de las colocaciones en el lenguaje jurídico, centrando nuestro trabajo en la lengua utilizada en el derecho civil francés. La diferencia entre lengua de especialidad y lengua general se basa fundamentalmente en el contenido de la especialidad, en los términos que sirven para designar los conceptos propios de la misma y en el tipo de discurso empleado. El lenguaje jurídico está compuesto por el conjunto de términos que designan los conceptos jurídicos y, aunque tiene unas características comunes, sin embargo, cada una de las especialidades del derecho tiene las suyas propias. En primer lugar abordamos las particularidades del lenguaje jurídico desde un punto de vista histórico, exponiendo su trayectoria y su evolución, para mostrar sus características como lengua de especialidad. En segundo lugar analizamos el concepto lingüístico de « colocación », las diferentes teorías existentes y su aplicación en el lenguaje jurídico. El término « colocación » se utiliza para definir aquellas concurrencias léxicas restringidas que se dan entre dos lexemas para formar un sintagma: La colocación es una combinación de al menos dos componentes, en donde uno (la base) determina el otro (colocativo) con el que puede ser combinado. Este fenómeno es aceptado como central en la competencia lingüística de los hablantes nativos y tiene mucha importancia para la enseñanza de lenguas extranjeras, la traducción y la lexicografía. Desde el punto de vista lingüístico, el estudio de las colocaciones plantea el problema de la irregularidad en la lengua. Los fenómenos colocativos, incluso cuando conservan una parte de motivación semántica, parecen situarse principalmente del lado de la idiosincrasia de la lengua más que en sus irregularidades. Para alcanzar el objetivo de nuestra investigación sobre las colocaciones y su aplicación en el lenguaje jurídico, nos hemos centrado en cinco tipos de colocaciones: sustantivo + adjetivo, verbo +sustantivo, verbo + adverbio, adverbio + adjetivo y sustantivo + (preposición)+ sustantivo. En el marco de nuestra tesis y como parte esencial de la misma, hemos creado el corpus lingüístico FRJUR, que contiene textos seleccionados en el dominio del francés jurídico, subdominio derecho civil, debidamente codificados y organizados.

González Grueso, F. D. (2006). “Las colocaciones en la enseñanza del español de los negocios.” MarcoELE. Revista de Didáctica(2). http://www.marcoele.com/num/2/0218f597f50ed1806/colocaciones_espanol_negocios.pdf

En el presente artículo se muestra una breve panorámica del tratamiento de las colocaciones en la enseñanza/aprendizaje del español de los negocios. Se comenzará con una breve introducción teórica a las UFS, para pasar a otra, no tan breve, de las colocaciones y su estatus dentro de la enseñanza de E/LE. Visto esto, se propondrá una actividad que pueda servir de modelo para la creación de otras. Por último, se añade un glosario de colocaciones en español extraído de los materiales al uso. (A.)

González Grueso, F. D. (2006). “Las colocaciones en la enseñanza del español de los negocios.” MarcoELE: Revista de didáctica(2). http://www.marcoele.com/num/2/0218f597f50ed1806/colocaciones_espanol_negocios.pdf

En el presente artículo se muestra una breve panorámica del tratamiento de las colocaciones en la enseñanza/aprendizaje del español de los negocios. Se comenzará con una breve introducción teórica a las UFS, para pasar a otra, no tan breve, de las colocaciones y su estatus dentro de la enseñanza de E/LE. Visto esto, se propondrá una actividad que pueda servir de modelo para la creación de otras. Por último, se añade un glosario de colocaciones en español extraído de los materiales al uso.

González Hernández, A. T. (2010). “Lexicologie contrastive: les collocations en français et leur traduction en espagnol.” Synergies Espagne(3): 69-81. http://ressources-cla.univ-fcomte.fr/gerflint/Espagne3/ana.pdf

L’article que nous présentons a pour objectif l’analyse de la problématique que soulèvent les collocations du point de vue de leur traduction.En prenant le français comme langue de départ, nous nous proposons de procéder, dans un premier temps, à l analyse d un corpus de différentes catégories de collocations pour étudier les diverses restrictions et combinaisons. Dans la deuxième partie de notre étude, nous adopterons une perspective contrastive pour mettre en relief les principales difficultés que posent les collocations dans le passage du français à l’espagnol. Le traitement que la lexicographie monolingue et bilingue accorde à ces unités lexicales, nous aidera à compléter notre analyse et nous permettra de poser d’autres propositions de traitement lexicographique en vue de la pratique de traduction. El artículo que presentamos tiene por objetivo estudiar la problemática que plantean las colocaciones desde el punto de vista de su traducción. Tomando en este caso el francés como lengua de partida, pretendemos analizar, en un primer momento, un corpus de diversas categorías de colocaciones, con el fin de poner de relieve las distintas restricciones y combinaciones. Posteriormente centraremos nuestra atención en la perspectiva contrastiva, haciendo hincapié en los principales problemas que plantean las colocaciones en el paso del francés al español. El tratamiento que la lexicografía monolingüe y bilingüe otorga a estas unidades léxicas nos ayudará a completar nuestro análisis y nos permitirá plantear nuevas propuestas de tratamiento lexicográfico con vista a la práctica de la traducción. The paper we present aims to make an overview of the problems raised by the collocations in terms of their translation. Taking the French as the source language, what we propose to do, first of all, is an analysis of a corpus of different categories of collocations to explore various combinations and restrictions. In the second part of our study, we adopt a contrastive perspective emphasizing in the main difficulty posed by the collocations in the transition from French to Spanish. The treatment that the monolingual and bilingual lexicography gives these lexical units, will help us to complete our analysis and it will allow us to propound other proposals of lexicographic treatment aimed at the translation practice.

Higueras García, M. (2007). Estudio de las colocaciones léxicas y su enseñanza en español como lengua extranjera, Ministerio de Educación, Centro de Investigación y Documentación Educativa. http://dialnet.unirioja.es/servlet/extlib?codigo=379827

Iain, M. (2012). “Collocation Dictionaries as Inductive Learning Resources in Data-Driven Learning – An Analysis and Evaluation.” International Journal of Lexicography 25(3): 319-319. http://ejournals.ebsco.com/direct.asp?ArticleID=40CDA1499D32268352E0

Advocacy of corpus-based data-driven learning (DDL) in foreign language learning classrooms has grown in recent years, though DDL has not become particularly widespread in practice. In the same period of time, there has been considerable publishing activity of corpus-based collocation dictionaries; however, the possible role that collocation dictionaries may play in DDL has not, to date, been considered. This paper seeks to analyse what contribution four English monolingual collocation dictionaries might make to ‘soft’ DDL inductive learning activities in the classroom. The paper provides a description and comparison of the dictionaries, and examines and compares the data provided by concordance lines for a series of DDL questions, with data from the collocation dictionaries. The paper ends by making a number of recommendations for the inductive use of the four collocation dictionaries, and suggests ways in which the dictionaries might be adapted to such usage.A

Jermol, A. G. (2009). “Oder: Wie schnell kann man sich beim Übersetzen juristischer Texte verlaufen.” Terminology 15(2): 214-232. http://www.swetswise.com/link/access_db?issn=0929-9971&vol=15&iss=2&year=2009&page=214&ft=1

The purpose of the paper is twofold: firstly, it analyses the most frequent problems in the translation of legal texts encountered by the university-level students of translation doing the course “The translation of legal texts” and, secondly, it describes the solutions applied. A fundamental difficulty in the translation of legal texts concerns the highly technical subject matter itself. There are important differences between legal systems, each of which has specific norms, as is reflected especially at the lexical level, in the terminology used. Different text genres (for example, legislation, contracts, indictments, legal textbooks, etc.) require different translation approaches and strategies. For students of translation, a particular problem may also be the high level of abstractness of legislative texts, which are among the most complex legal texts. The paper also discusses difficulties which students have with homonyms, synonyms and collocations in the translation of legal texts.

Kim, Y., et al. (2001). “Collocation Dictionary Optimization Using WordNet and k-Nearest Neighbor Learning.” Machine Translation 16(2): 89-108. http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/A:1014540107013

In machine translation, collocation dictionaries are important for selecting accurate target words. However, if the dictionary size is too large it can decrease the efficiency of translation. This paper presents a method to develop a compact collocation dictionary for transitive verb+óGé¼GÇ£object pairs in English+óGé¼GÇ£Korean machine translation without losing translation accuracy. We use WordNet to calculate the semantic distance between words, and k-nearestneighbor learning to select the translations. The entries in the dictionary are minimized to balance the trade-off between translation accuracy and time. We have performed several experiments on a selected set of verbs extracted from a raw corpus of over 3 million words. The results show that in real-time translation environments the size of a collocation dictionary can be reduced up to 40% of its original size without significant decrease in its accuracy.

Larreta Zulategui, J. P. (2002). “En torno a la semántica de las colocaciones fraseológicas.” Estudios de lingüística(16): 121-138. http://rua.ua.es/dspace/bitstream/10045/6204/1/EL_16_05.pdf

This paper intends to analyse some controversial questions about phraseological collocations. All these questions arise, at the level of semantics, when the most usually accepted definition of this term is compared with a variety of examples, considered as such phraseological units in literature. It is discussed if collocations conform a semantic unity or if they are both sintactically and semantically analytic sequencies; if collocations have idiomatic character or not; and if they are phenomena belonging to the functional system or to the norm in language. In order to carry out this analysis, we start pointing out a prototypical definition of collocations, trying to show next, through different classifications, some examples not corresponding plainly in their semantic structure to the referred prototypical definition.

L’Homme, M.-C. and P. Leroyer (2009). “Combining the semantics of collocations with situation-driven search paths in specialized dictionaries.” Terminology 15(2): 258-284. http://www.swetswise.com/link/access_db?issn=0929-9971&vol=15&iss=2&year=2009&page=258&ft=1

The systematic presentation of collocations is increasingly recognized as a very useful addition to specialized reference works. However, few dictionaries or terminological databases actually include this kind of data. More surprisingly still, no method has been designed yet to allow efficient access to and retrieval of specific specialized collocations from electronic reference tools. This article presents two new search paths for accessing and extracting collocations from an English-French specialized lexical database. The paths have been designed according to two specific user-defined situations: (1) translation from L1 to L2; and (2) text production in L2. We exploit a formal semantic encoding of collocations based on Lexical Functions (LFs). LFs allow us to establish an equivalence relationship between collocations that convey the same meaning in different languages without having to link the collocations formally. They also allow us to extract sets of collocations associated with specific meanings.

Martínez López, J. A. and G. Aarli (2008). “Locucións e colocacións: algunhas causas da coaparición dos seus formantes.” Cadernos de Fraseoloxía Galega(10): 189-205. http://www.cirp.es/pub/docs/cfg/cfg10.pdf

Martínez López, Juan A ; Aarli,Gunn. Localización: Cadernos de fraseoloxía galega, ISSN 1698-7861, Nº. 10, 2008 , pags. 175-188

Molina Plaza, S. (2004). La traducción de las unidades fraseológicas inglés- español: el caso de las colocaciones y las frases idiomáticas Las palabras del traductor. http://cvc.cervantes.es/lengua/esletra/pdf/02/035_molina.pdf

El objetivo de esta comunicación es analizar cómo presentan los diccionarios generales bilingües inglés- castellano / castellano-inglés las unidades fraseológicas. Estas unidades han sido clasificadas según varios criterios. Nos ocuparemos de dos tipos: las colocaciones (pull somebody’s leg) y las frases idiomáticas (to carry coals to Newcastle) y sus respectivas traducciones. Partiremos del análisis de contenidos de cuatro diccionarios bilingües (Longman English-Spanish Dictionary, Oxford Superlex, Gran Diccionario Oxford español-inglés / inglés-español y Richmond English-Spanish / Spanish-English Electronic Dictionary). Las colocaciones de diversos registros que estudiaremos son: to do, perform an abortion; to induce an abortion; to get, have an abortion; an illegal, criminal, induced abortion; to be tried in absentia; be absolutely fed up; height of absurdity; child abuse; a communications gap; credibility gap; culture gap; generation gap; gender gap; trade gap. Las frases idiomáticas son: get above oneself, absence makes the heart grow fonder, an ace in the hole / pack (BrE); (have) an ace in your hand / have an ace up in (sb.)’s sleeve; come/be within an ace of
something; hold all the aces; play your ace; be gagging for it; to play to the gallery (BrE); give the game away.

Molina, S. (2004). “La traducción de las unidades fraseológicas inglés- español: el caso de las colocaciones y las frases idiomáticas.” El español, lengua de traducción(2). http://www.toledo2004.net/html/contribuciones/molina.htm

El objetivo de esta comunicación es analizar cómo presentan los diccionarios generales bilingües inglés- castellano/ castellano-inglés las unidades fraseológicas. Éstas unidades han sido clasificadas según varios criterios. Nos ocuparemos de dos tipos: las colocaciones ( pull somebody’s leg) y las frases idiomáticas (to carry coals to Newcastle) y sus respectivas traducciones. Partiremos del análisis de contenidos de cuatro diccionarios bilingües( Longman English-Spanish Dictionary, Oxford Superlex, Gran Diccionario Oxford español- inglés/ inglés-español y Richmond English-Spanish/ Spanish-English Electronic Dictionary).Las colocaciones de diversos registros que estudiaremos son: to do, perform an abortion ;to induce an abortion .to get, have an abortion ; an illegal, criminal, induced abortion; to be tried in absentia; be absolutely fed up; height of absurdity; child abuse; a communications gap; credibility gap; culture gap; generation gap; gender gap; trade gap. Las frases idiomáticas son: get above oneself, absence makes the heart grow fonder, an ace in the hole / pack (BrE) ; (have) an ace in your hand/ have an ace up in (sb.)’s sleeve ; come/be within an ace of something; hold all the aces ; play your ace; be gagging for it; to play to the gallery (BrE) ; give the game away.

Muhammad Raji Zughoul, M. and A.-F. Hussein (2003). “Translational Collocational Strategies of Arab Learners of English: A Study in Lexical Semantics.” Babel: Revue internationale de la traduction/International Journal of Translation 49(1). http://ejournals.ebsco.com/direct.asp?ArticleID=HY5WWCKAKUYFPC32C1U0

Arab learners of English encounter a serious problem with collocational sequences. The present study purports to determine the extent to which university English language majors can use English collocations properly. A two-form translation test of 16 Arabic collocations was administered to both graduate and undergraduate students of English. The first form included the English translation in a multiple-choice format whereas the other was given as a free translation task. The findings confirmed the writers’ hypothesis that Arab learners of English at all levels face difficulty with English collocations. Moreover, the study aimed at the characterization of the communicative strategies implemented by the subjects in their attempts to convey the English meaning. Twelve such strategies have been identified, exemplified and described. The findings have substantiated the role of the NL in FL production as well as the need for explicit instructional focus on collocation in school and university.

Muñiz Álvarez, E. M. (2005). “Notas para unha análise comparativa das nocións de restrición léxica e colocación.” Cadernos de Fraseoloxía Galega(7). http://www.cirp.es/pub/docs/cfg07_09.pdf

As novas achegas sobre lexicoloxía recoñecen a existencia de leis que regulan a combinatoria léxica das linguas e, implicitamente, falan dunha dimensión da sintaxe que vai máis alá das descricións xerais que recollen as gramáticas e que configura un nivel de restrición lingüística ignorado ata hai ben pouco. No afondamento desta restrición xorden dúas nocións que artellan as actuais teorías lexicolóxicas do castelán: a colocación e a restrición léxica, que estas páxinas pretenden revisar dun xeito comparativo. Palabras clave: lexicoloxía, combinatoria léxica, colocación, restrición léxica

Orliac, B. (2006). “Colex: Un outil d’extraction de collocations sp??cialis??es bas?? sur les fonctions lexicales.” Terminology 12(2). http://www.swetswise.com/link/access_db?issn=0929-9971&vol=00012&iss=00002&year=2006&page=261&ft=1

We present a method for extracting verb + noun collocations from specialized corpora based on the lexical functions of the Meaning-Text Theory. Lexical functions offer a complete characterization of verbal collocations. They cover the three grammatical relations that obtain between a verb and its arguments and provide high-level semantic descriptors to represent the meanings of the common verbal collocates of terms. Our system uses morphosyntactic patterns to extract verb–argument relations from a parsed corpus of computer texts. We then apply two statistical tests to isolate the true collocations in the list of syntactically extracted combinations. While the better of the two statistical tests identifies collocations with a precision of 71 %, we argue that a semantic filtering of the combinations, based on their ability to be encoded as standard lexical functions, could achieve higher precision.

Pacheco López, M. M. (2003). “El diccionario de colocaciones: una herramienta para la enseñanza del Español como Lengua Extranjera.” Linguax: Revista de lenguas aplicadas(1). http://www.uax.es/publicaciones/archivos/LINCOM03_002.pdf

El presente estudio señala la ventaja del diccionario de colocaciones para adquirir léxico mediante su uso distribucional, en el aprendizaje del español como lengua extranjera.

Pamies Bertrán, A. and J. M. Pazos Bretaña (2003). “Acceso automatizado a fraseologismos y colocaciones en corpus no etiquetado.” Language Design: Journal of Theoretical and Experimental Linguistics(5): 39-50. http://elies.rediris.es/Language_Design/LD5/pamies-pazos.pdf

Sinclair define la colocación léxica como la [reiterada] ocurrencia de dos o más palabras a corta distancia una de otra en un texto (1991: 170). Esta definición, independiente de unos presupuestos lingüísticos particulares, ofrece un punto de partida idóneo para investigar la extracción automatizada en un corpus electrónico no anotado. Tiene la ventaja de prestarse a comprobaciones, y de que permite desarrollar distintas hipótesis para el análisis colocacional, tal como han propuesto, entre
otros, Church et al. (1989, 1990), Clear (1993), Dunning (1993), o Stubbs (1995). Por otra parte, con este tipo de aproximación es posible trabajar sin necesidad de un gran despliegue de medios técnicos y no se requiere ninguna información lingüística adicional (p.ej., puede aplicarse a un corpus que no requiera previamente ser etiquetado y aprovechar herramientas de análisis ya conocidas). De este modo, un primer abordaje con métodos meramente cuantitativos compensa por su economía el
carácter relativamente “primitivo” y aproximado de lo que, en principio, puede esperarse de ellos.

Peacock, M. (2012). “High-frequency collocations of nouns in research articles across eight disciplines.” Ibérica: Revista de la Asociación Europea de Lenguas para Fines Específicos ( AELFE )(23): 29-46. http://dialnet.unirioja.es/descarga/articulo/3893121.pdf

En este trabajo se analiza la distribución de las colocaciones más frecuentes de sustantivos abstractos en un corpus de 320 artículos de investigación en ocho disciplinas diferentes: Química, Informática, Ciencias de los Materiales, Neurociencia, Economía, Lengua y Lingüística, Administración de Empresas y Psicología. Se examina también la variación según las diferentes disciplinas, un aspecto poco tratado en investigaciones anteriores. En el análisis del corpus se utilizó WordSmith Tools. Se identificaron los 16 sustantivos más frecuentes en cada una de las ocho disciplinas así como las colocaciones más frecuentes en cada caso. En cinco disciplinas se dio hasta un 50% de variación respecto a los resultados combinados de todas las disciplinas examinadas. Se concluye que las diferencias identificadas guardan relación con las características de cada disciplina y que éstas también están relacionadas con la terminología estándar dentro de cada disciplina en relación con los temas tratados, los métodos de investigación empleados y el contenido de los artículos. Se concluye además que las colocaciones constituyen una parte importante de los significados y de las funciones de los sustantivos, y que la existencia de marcadas diferencias disciplinarias subraya la necesidad de investigar las colocaciones en las distintas disciplinas académicas.

Perona, J. (2006). “Algunas fórmulas y colocaciones en los periódicos.” Revista de Investigación Lingüística 9(1): 167-184. http://revistas.um.es/index.php/ril/article/viewFile/5381/5251

Las páginas que siguen son la ordenación alfabética de ciertas fórmulas encontradas en los periódicos. Cualquier lector de prensa sabe, al cabo de los años, que se encontrará con frases hechas, con fórmulas fijadas por el uso, en las páginas de política, economía, deportes, espectáculos o en las páginas del tiempo. Igualmente lo sabe el oyente radiofónico o el contemplador televisivo.

Piggott, G. L. (2000). “Against featural alignment.” Journal of Linguistics 36(1).

Morphemes are sometimes expressed by elements that are less than full segments, and, in a given language, the position of these elements in a word may vary. A recent analysis of these ‘mobile morphemes’ claims that their distribution is best explained in an optimality-theoretic framework that incorporates a set of featural alignment constraints (Akinlabi 1996). This paper argues that featural alignment plays no role in the realization of ‘mobile morphemes’. Instead, it recognizes a set of licensing constraints that explicitly identifies where featural exponents of such morphemes may appear in a word. Crucially, these licensing constraints, unlike featural alignment, are not morpheme-specific and therefore enjoy cross-linguistic support. Analyses of Chaha labialization, Terena nasalization, High tone realization in the Edoid associative construction and Southern Sami vowel lowering in terms of licensing are shown to be superior to the alignment-theoretic ones on both descriptive and explanatory grounds.

Rosso, P., et al. (2005). “Busqueda de colocaciones en la Web para Sinónimos de Wordnet.” Acta Universitaria 15(2): 50-55. http://users.dsic.upv.es/~prosso/resources/GuzmanEtAl_Acta05.pdf

La Web es sin lugar a dudas el repositorio de información más grande jamás construido por el ser humano. Con más de cuatro mil millones de páginas indexadas por los motores de búsqueda públicos, la Web representa el mayor y más amplio corpus textual disponible en la actualidad. Por su valor lingüístico, dado que contiene información en más de 1500 lenguajes, este corpus está siendo usado con gran éxito en muchas tareas de procesamiento del lenguaje natural. En particular, varios métodos de minería de datos se han aplicado para extraer de la Web algunos tipos de patrones lingüísticos útiles para tareas como la traducción automática y búsqueda de respuestas. En este articulo presentamos un método que permite encontrar combinaciones de palabras significativas a los diferentes sentidos atribuibles a una palabra polisémica. Los experimentos realizados, aunque preliminares, muestran el gran potencial del método propuesto para encontrar estas colocaciones por sentido usando la Web como corpus, así como la viabilidad de la incorporación de dichas colocaciones en sistemas de desambiguación del sentido de las palabras, que pueden a su vez ser usadas en sistemas de traducción automática y recuperación de información.

Royle, P., et al. (2009). “Is Bigger Better? Corpus and Dictionary Use in the Search for Compounds, Collocations, Derived Forms and Fixed Expressions.” Meta 54(3): 520-532. http://id.erudit.org/iderudit/038312ar

La création d’entrées dans le cadre de l’élaboration d’un dictionnaire bilingue mobilise habituellement des dictionnaires unilingues dans les langues source et cible, des dictionnaires bilingues ainsi que des corpus textuels. En outre, la fréquence élevée de certains mots dans le corpus impose une sélection des collocations, des mots composés, des formes dérivées et des expressions figées à inclure dans le dictionnaire. Le présent article offre un aperçu des avantages découlant de la combinaison de l’usage des sources dictionnairiques et des corpus de données. Nous proposons que la recherche par fréquence est un paramètre particulièrement utile pour résoudre les difficultés posées par l’étude de mots présents dans le corpus à une fréquence élevée.In the course of the development of a bilingual dictionary, a number of monolingual source language and target language dictionaries, bilingual dictionaries, and text corpora are typically used as tools to create entries. When dealing with words that occur at a high frequency in the corpus, determining which collocations, compounds, derived forms and fixed expressions are to be included in the dictionary is an additional complication. This paper presents the relative merits of using dictionary and corpus sources for searching for this type of information. We present frequency searching as an efficient and useful tool for corpus analysis, especially in the case of high-frequency words.

Ruiz Martínez, A. M. (2007). “La noción de colocación en ls partes introductorias de algunos diccionarios monolingües del español.” Revista de Lexicografía 13: 139-182. http://ruc.udc.es/dspace/handle/2183/5361/browse?type=title&submit_browse=T%C3%ADtulo

En este artículo revisamos, en primer lugar, las menciones explícitas e implícitas que algunos diccionarios de la lengua española realizan sobre el concepto de colocación en sus partes introductorias. Este análisis nos ha permitido determinar si los diccionarios emplean denominaciones específicas para referirse a las colocaciones y si las diferencian de otros tipos de combinaciones léxicas. En segundo lugar, identificamos qué mecanismos utilizan los diccionarios en su microestructura para incluir una colocación.

Sanromán Vilas, B. and M. Alonso Ramos (2000). “Construcción de una base de datos de colocaciones léxicas.” Procesamiento del lenguaje natural(26): 97-98. http://www.sepln.org/revistaSEPLN/revista/26/alonso.pdf

El proyecto “Base de datos léxica-semántica:unidades léxicas descriptivas y no descriptivas”(PGIDT99PXI10401B) tiene como unode los objetivos principales la creación de una base de datos cuya información fundamental se centra en la combinatoria léxica de los lemas en español. A diferencia de otros investigadores en Lexicografía computacional que se han concentrado en la adquisición del conocimiento léxico a partir de diccionarios legibles por el ordenador, nosotros hemos optado por un léxico
de nueva planta. Esta decisión se debe en gran medida a que los diccionarios actuales del español son todavía pobres en lo que se refiere a las relaciones léxico-semánticas sintagmáticas o colocaciones.

Santana Suárez, O., et al. (2011). “Extracción automática de colocaciones terminológicas en un corpus extenso de lengua general.” Procesamiento del lenguaje natural(47): 145-152. http://www.gedlc.ulpgc.es/art_ps/art60.pdf

Los sistemas automáticos de extracción de términos constituyen una herramienta fundamental cuando se afronta la tarea de compilación del léxico restringido a un campo de especialidad. Los análisis textuales llevados a cabo por este tipo de software deben incorporar estrategias que permitan detectar las colocaciones en la especialidad que se trabaje. En este trabajo se estudia la viabilidad del uso de corpus textuales extensos, sin información lingüística, como sucede con los que se pueden compilar a través de Internet, como fuente de información para la recopilación de colocaciones terminológicas. Con este propósito se analiza el
comportamiento de distintos indicadores basados en las frecuencias registradas para una colección de términos económicos en un corpus del español de 300 000 000 palabras.

Siepmann, D. (2005). “Collocation, Colligation and Encoding Dictionaries. Part I: Lexicological Aspects.” International Journal of Lexicography 18(4). http://ejournals.ebsco.com/direct.asp?ArticleID=4CE0A1BF03A94832B283

This article attempts to synthesise recent advances in collocational theory into a coherent framework for lexicological theory and lexicographic practice. By posing a number of fundamental questions related to the definition of collocation, it critically reviews frequency-based, semantic and pragmatic approaches to collocation. It is found, among other things, that two types of collocation, namely ‘long-distance’ collocation and collocation between semantic features, have suffered almost total neglect. This leads to suggestions for a new division of the collocational spectrum and for a revised definition of ‘collocation’ based on the notions of ‘usage norm’ (Steyer 2000) and ‘holisticity’ (Siepmann 2003). It is argued that this new view of collocation considerably widens the dictionary maker’s brief, since future lexicography will have to provide a full account of both structurally simple and structurally complex units, including fixed expressions of regular syntactic-semantic composition (see Part II of this article, to be published in the March issue of this journal).

Siepmann, D. (2006). “Collocation, Colligation and Encoding Dictionaries. Part II: Lexicographical Aspects.” International Journal of Lexicography 19(1). http://ejournals.ebsco.com/direct.asp?ArticleID=4BADB32A42E1F4742059

The present article starts from a broad definition of collocations as holistic lexico-grammatical or semantic units (see Part I for full details), asking how such units can be adequately represented in bilingual and monolingual encoding dictionaries. It is found that an onomasiological approach to dictionary making is better suited to this task than a semasiological, framework-based methodology whereby individual lexicographers work on small, alphabetically classified sections of the dictionary. Typically, semasiological dictionaries and corresponding methodologies have difficulty in arranging items in a clear and memorable way, give patchy or inadequate coverage to semantic-pragmatic collocations, cannot provide adequate cross-referencing between synonymous items and are prone to translation errors. It is shown how onomasiological dictionaries and methodologies can remedy such deficiencies. The Bilexicon project aimed at creating thematic learners’ dictionaries is the main source laid under contribution with a view to illustrating the suggestions made.

Teleoaca, A. I. (2004). “Computer Collocations and Computer Metaphors.” The Translation Journal 8(3). http://accurapid.com/journal/29colloc.htm

This article examines­from a linguistic point of view­the translation of some computer collocations which I consider typical, and analyze them in order to provide suitable translations in the TL (in this case, Romanian), because they generally play an important role in distinguishing meaning. This happens with computer terminology as well, in the sense that, when we are asked to give an account of the meaning of a term used in computing, say, blind, we instantly try to contextualize it in its most recurrent collocations, say, blind search, blind copy, blind key.

Travalia, C. (2006). “Las colocaciones gramaticales en español.” Anuario de estudios filológicos(29): 279-293. http://dialnet.unirioja.es/servlet/fichero_articulo?codigo=2243204&orden=0

Las colocaciones gramaticales en español. Autores: Carolina Travalia. Localización: Anuario de estudios filológicos, ISSN 0210-8178, Vol. 29, 2006 , pags. 279-293

Travalia, C. (2006). “Las colocaciones gramaticales en español.” Anuario de estudios filológicos(29): 279-293. http://dialnet.unirioja.es/descarga/articulo/2243204.pdf

Se llama colocación a una combinación de palabras que aparece en la lengua con más frecuencia de la que cabría esperar. Así, por ejemplo, negar categóricamente es una colocación, pues es habitual que la palabra negar vaya seguida de categóricamente. En las colocaciones, las palabras conservan su sentido original y por el hecho de que aparezcan combinadas no se cambia su significado; en esto se diferencian de las locuciones, que sí tienen un nuevo sentido que no se deduce de las palabras que las forman. Las colocaciones no siguen reglas fijas, sino que las hacen intuitivamente los hablantes nativos de una lengua; las colocaciones influyen mucho en lo que suena natural para un grupo de hablantes. Al no haber reglas que se puedan aprender, suelen ser una de las principales dificultades para los estudiantes de una lengua.

Travalia, C. (2006). “Las colocaciones implícitas.” Estudios de lingüística(20): 317-334. http://rua.ua.es/dspace/bitstream/10045/6086/1/ELUA_20_15.pdf

En este trabajo, se propone una nueva clase de colocaciones que no se caracterizan por la co-aparición frecuente de sus constituyentes. Estas combinaciones presentan un vínculo léxico entre dos elementos, A y B, con la particularidad de que B, corresponde al nombre de un campo léxico. A pesar de que A y B no co-ocurren en el discurso de forma frecuente, A coaparece habitualmente con los miembros específicos del campo léxico representado por B. No obstante, entre A y un miembro específico de B no existe ninguna relación léxica, ya que el conjunto constituye una combinación libre. Denominamos la combinación original colocación implícita, dado que constituye la base de otras combinaciones frecuentes, sin aparecer ella misma de forma habitual en el discurso.

Ughetta Gouverneur, G. (2008). Evaluación del léxico en la enseñanza de ELE: léxico básico, disponible, colocaciones y concordancias. La evaluación en el aprendizaje y la enseñanza del español como lengua extranjera / segunda lengua: XVIII Congreso Internacional de la Asociación para la Enseñanza del Español como lengua Extranjera (ASELE) : Alicante, 19-22 de septiembre de 2007, Alicante : Servicio de Publicaciones de la Universidad de Alicante, D. L. 2008: 590-596. http://dialnet.unirioja.es/descarga/articulo/3192770.pdf

En la evaluación en general es importante considerar el nivel con el que se está trabajando, el tipo de enseñanza a la que ha sido sujeto el grupo o individuo objeto de la prueba, los tipos de pruebas y los objetivos que persiguen, el contexto en que se desarrolla, y en el caso del léxico, todo lo referido a una lectura pertinente de su competencia. Establecer parámetros válidos, viables y fiables es muy difícil, a pesar de que, en cuanto a baremos para léxico, los profesores de lenguas extranjeras cuentan en la actualidad con el MCER3  que propone para el aprendizaje y evaluación de palabras una buena base de referencia. En realidad el léxico es un sector de la enseñanza-aprendizaje de lenguas que atraviesa los otros sectores. El vocabulario es un componente crucial en el aprendizaje de la competencia comunicativa de una segunda lengua, puesto que todos sus aspecos pasan por él: la gramática, las destrezas, la construcción discursiva (Pastor, 2004: 222). Por esa razón llevar acabo una evaluación del proceso de aprendizaje de una Lengua Extranjera (LE) sin observar el comportamiento de su léxico, es sencillamente imposible

Walker, C. (2009). “The Treatment of Collocation by Learners Dictionaries, Collocational Dictionaries and Dictionaries of Business English.” International Journal of Lexicography 22(3): 281. http://ejournals.ebsco.com/direct.asp?ArticleID=47F68EA657A70F26FB8A

This paper examines the way in which collocation is treated in three different types of dictionary designed for learners of English. It starts by outlining the findings from a corpus-based study of the collocational behaviour of groups of semantically-related nouns (e.g. issue, aspect and factor) and verbs (e.g. run, head and manage) from the domain of business English (a total of eighteen items). The entries in three learnersÆ dictionaries, three collocational dictionaries and two dictionaries of business English for each of the eighteen items were examined and their content compared with the findings from the corpus-based study. The paper presents the results of this examination and discusses the differences between the content of the dictionary entries and the findings from the corpus-based study. The paper concludes by emphasising the need for a more consistent approach to collocation and by making specific recommendations concerning the type of collocations to be included in an entry and the way in which the collocations should be presented.

Wanner, L., et al. (2005). “The first steps towards the automatic compilation of specialized collocation dictionaries.” Terminology 11(1): 143-181.

Collocation dictionaries are essential in specialized discourse for understanding, production, and translation. Especially translation, which is often undertaken by professionals who are not specialists of the field, is in need of dictionaries with detailed syntactic and semantic information on lexical and semantic links between terms. However, collocation dictionaries are hardly available for general, let alone specialized, discourse. The manual compilation of collocation dictionaries from large corpora is a time consuming and cost-intensive procedure. A (partial) automation of this procedure recently became a high-priority topic in computational lexicography. In this article, we discuss how collocations can be acquired from specialized corpora and labeled with semantic tags using machine-learning techniques. As semantic tags, we use lexical functions from the Explanatory Combinatorial Lexicology. We explore the performance of two different machine-learning techniques, Nearest Neighbor Classification and Tree Augmented Bayesian Classification, testing them on a Spanish law corpus.

Williams, G. (2013). “Violeta Seretan. Syntax-Based Collocation Extraction.” International Journal of Lexicography 26(1): 90-94. http://www.ingentaconnect.com/content/oup/lexico/2013/00000026/00000001/art00005
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ijl/ecs015

This book tackles the question of Syntax-Based Collocation Extraction from a computational perspective. It first gives an overview of collocation studies over time and then details the creation of a collocation extraction tool developed by the author during her thesis at the University of Geneva. It is a relatively short book consisting of 127 of text pages divided into six chapters, including both the introduction and conclusion, and with six appendices, an extensive bibliography and an index covering a further 89 pages.

Wilss, W. (1998). “Adjektiv/Substantiv-Kollokationen Gemeinsprachliche und fachsprachliche Aspekte.” Fachsprache 20(3-4).

Se analiza, en el marco del lenguaje común y del lenguaje para fines específicos, la colocación adjetivo-nombre y se incide en su importancia. Estas estructuras proceden tanto de procesos cognitivos conscientes como de otros subsconcientes y son esenciales para un buen dominio de la competencia lingüística. Así, su transmisión constituye un aspecto primordial del aprendizaje y la enseñanza de lenguas, ya que el universo discursivo en que nos movemos ofrece un gran número de aplicaciones para este tipo de colocación

Wirrer, J. (2005). “Wat mehr regelt en Gesett. Versión baixoalemá da Constitución do Estado alemán de Bremen. Tradución de termos monoverbais, pluriverbais e colocacións da linguaxe xurídica a unha lingua non estandarizada.” Cadernos de Fraseoloxía Galega(7). http://www.cirp.es/pub/docs/cfg07_14.pdf

Neste artigo formúlase e analízase a cuestión da necesidade, posibilidade e status xurídico das posibles traducións das constitucións dos Estados setentrionais de Alemaña do alemán estándar ó baixo alemán, lingua propia destes territorios. Todo o anterior exemplifícase coa xa realizada tradución baixoalemá da Constitución do Estado de Bremen, de Carl V. Scholz, e mais a través da análise da tradución de termos monoverbais, pluriverbais e colocacións da linguaxe xurídica asentada do alemán estándar ó baixo alemán, unha lingua non estandarizada.

Xiao, R. and T. McEnery (2006). “Collocation, Semantic Prosody, and Near Synonymy: A Cross-Linguistic Perspective.” Applied Linguistics 27(1). http://ejournals.ebsco.com/direct.asp?ArticleID=4EE5A64E592CC6940DE6

This paper explores the collocational behaviour and semantic prosody of near synonyms from a cross-linguistic perspective. The importance of these concepts to language learning is well recognized. Yet while collocation and semantic prosody have recently attracted much interest from researchers studying the English language, there has been little work done on collocation and semantic prosody on languages other than English. Still less work has been undertaken contrasting the collocational behaviour and semantic prosody of near synonyms in different languages. In this paper, we undertake a cross-linguistic analysis of collocation, semantic prosody, and near synonymy, drawing upon data from English and Chinese (pu3tong1hua4). The implications of the findings for language learning are also discussed.

Yuseop, K., et al. (2001). “Collocation Dictionary Optimization Using WordNet and k-Nearest Neighbor Learning.” Machine Translation 16(2). http://ipsapp009.lwwonline.com/content/getfile/4598/14/2/abstract.htm

In machine translation, collocation dictionaries are important for selecting accurate target words. However, if the dictionary size is too large it can decrease the efficiency of translation. This paper presents a method to develop a compact collocation dictionary for transitive verb–object pairs in English–Korean machine translation without losing translation accuracy. We use WordNet to calculate the semantic distance between words, and k-nearest neighbor learning to select the translations. The entries in the dictionary are minimized to balance the trade-off between translation accuracy and time. We have performed several experiments on a selected set of verbs extracted from a raw corpus of over 3 million words. The results show that in real-time translation environments the size of a collocation dictionary can be reduced up to 40% of its original size without significant decrease in its accuracy.

Trabajos de Grado de la Licenciatura en Traducción e Interpretación

TG. Trabajos de Grado de la Licenciatura en Traducción e Interpretación

Fecha de publicación

Título

Autor(es)

20-mar-2013

Las dos traducciones españolas de “For Whom the Bell Tolls” e Ernest Hemingway : un análisis comparativo Fernández Redondo, Cristina

20-mar-2013

La traducción de los antropónimos en literatura infantil y juvenil de fantasía. Análisis de las traducciones española y francesa de Harry Potter and the Philosopher’s Stone y The Hunger Games. Reboredo García, Raquel

20-mar-2013

Competencias documentales del profesional de la traducción : optimización del proceso de documentación en la traducción Arroyo Izquierdo, Sonia

20-mar-2013

Estudio terminológico. La variación de la terminología de la alimentación en español: España e Hispanoamérica: base de datos terminológica en Multiterm García Alonso, Beatriz

20-mar-2013

La evolución del código deontológico de los intérpretes en tribunales penales internacionales Análisis comparativo entre los procesos de Núremberg y el Tribunal Penal Internacional para la ex Yugoslavia Muñoyerro González, Paloma

20-mar-2013

La eponimia en el lenguaje científico: razones de su existencia y principales problemas que plantea Esteban Arrea, Carolina

20-mar-2013

Las memorias de Maurice Béjart: una aproximación a la danza : traducción comentada y comparación entre versiones Fernández Martínez, Nerea

20-mar-2013

La traducción de las palabras tabú : el caso de la F-word Fernández Huertas, Rocío

20-mar-2013

Interpretación en el ámbito sanitario: preparación previa del personal médico La Greca Saint Esteven, Mariana

20-mar-2013

La propiedad intelectual en la interpretación de conferencias González Amador, Alejandro

19-mar-2013

Análisis contrastivo jurídicolingüístico como ejercicio previo a la traducción los testamentos en España y Alemania Diego Gutiérrez, Carlos

19-mar-2013

La ficción crossover y su traducción: La obra de Roald Dahl como ejemplo Hernández Sánchez, Elisa

19-mar-2013

Traducción y cultura: los elementos culturales en “Buchmendel” de Stefan Zweig y su traducción al español Isidro Gómez, Alejandro

19-mar-2013

Creación de filtros para documentos XML en la plataforma SDL Trados Studio 2009.Guía práctica para traductores Aranzana González, Raquel

19-mar-2013

Influencia de la cultura en la comunicación y la negociación: el caso de Corea del Sur Hernández Ramos, Laura

19-mar-2013

Metahistoria y Traducción : el caso de las Brigadas Internacionales Baños García, Inés

18-nov-2011

El papel del autor: análisis de la relación directa autor-traductor sobre el ejemplo de Günter Grass Toda Castán, Claudia

18-nov-2011

Análisis comparativo y consideraciones formales sobre el doblaje y subtitulado de la serie de televisión “Perdidos” González-Iglesias González, J. David

2-nov-2011

Estudio de Mercado sobre la Traducción en España Lozano Argüelles, Cristina

2-nov-2011

Traducción de una aplicación web : descripción del proceso técnico de traducción de una aplicación web con un sistema de memoria de traducción González Irureta-Goyena, Luis

2-nov-2011

La marca ideológica en el diccionario de la Real Academia : Un estudio sobre la neutralidad lexicográfica García Hervás, Pablo

6-sep-2011

Variación lingüística y doblaje : análisis del español de México en el doblaje de Buscando a Nemo Sánchez Talaván, Verónica

6-sep-2011

La importancia de la enseñanza de métodos de revisión en la primera lengua extranjera : revisión de textos traducidos y textos escritos en lenguas no maternas Vale Cisneros, Celeste Do

2-sep-2011

Teoría de la traducción : panorama de la traductología francesa 2000 – 2010 Signès, Chloé

2-sep-2011

Estudios interculturales de la traducción : Traducción en el ámbito poscolonial: la traducción de las obras de Salman Rushdie al castellano por Miguel Sáenz y el concepto de invisibilidad Gusano Merino, Elena

2-sep-2011

Imágenes de una guerra : análisis comparativo de las traducciones al español de dos poemas de Stephen Spender Fresco Quindós, Sara

2-sep-2011

La traducción y la comunicación en el ámbito turístico: el papel del traductor en la promoción del turismo cultural: el caso de Salamanca : trabajo de fin de Grado en Traducción e Interpretación de la Universidad de Salamanca Gómez Barrado, Beatriz

Manual de traducción inglés-español de protocolos de ensayos clínicos

Manual de traducción inglés-español de protocolos de ensayos clínicos. Pablo Mugüerza. Barcelona: Fundación Dr. Antonio Esteve, 2012

Descargar

“El protocolo es el registro pormenorizado por escrito de lo que entraña el ensayo clínico para todos los involucrados y que influye de manera decisiva en la calidad del estudio y en la fiabilidad de los resultados. Es un documento científico pero destinado a lectores muy diversos, desde los más especializados a los más comunes y corrientes. Si a toda traducción cabe exigirle rigor, precisión y claridad, estos atributos cobran aún más importancia en los protocolos de ensayos clínicos, ya que un error puede acarrear consecuencias graves e incluso poner en peligro la vida de las personas estudiadas…”

Monográfico : TRADUCCIÓN AUDIOVISUAL – Subtítulos, Doblaje, Cine, Televisión

Monográfico : TRADUCCIÓN AUDIOVISUAL

Subtitulos, Doblaje, Cine, Televisión

Descargar el monográfico en PDF

Ver en ISSU

La traducción audiovisual (TAV) es desarrollar la actividad traductora en un contexto caracterizado por la interacción del texto (ya sea oral o escrito) con el sonido y la imagen.

Dentro de este tipo de traducción los dos ámbitos más populares son el doblaje y la subtitulación, donde la utilización de uno u otro dependerá de los diferentes mercados. Por ejemplo, en el caso de España, prácticamente todo vídeo, película, serie, documental o documento audiovisual extranjero suele doblarse al español, e incluso, en determinadas zonas, los cines comunes prácticamente no ofertan películas en versión original con subtítulos sino que tienes que ir a cines exclusivos de este tipo de formato para las películas.

de “La traducción audiovisual” 5 de noviembre de 2010 (  )

The Translation Studies Reader

Venuti, L.  The Translation Studies Reader. London and New York, 2000

Descargar

THIS READER GATHERS essays, articles, and book chapters that represent many of the main approaches to the study of translation developed during the twentieth century, focusing particularly on the past thirty years. It was during this period that translation studies emerged as a new academic field, at once international and interdisciplinary. The need for a reader is thus partly institutional, created by the rapid growth of the discipline, especially as evidenced by the proliferation of translator training programs worldwide. Recent surveys indicate more than 250, offering a variety of certificates and degrees, undergraduate and graduate, training not only professional translators, but also scholar-teachers of translation and of foreign languages and literatures (Caminade and Pym 1995; Harris 1997). This growth has been accompanied by diverse forms of translation research and commentary, some oriented toward pedagogy, yet most falling within—or crossing—traditional academic disciplines, such as linguistics, literary criticism, philosophy, and anthropology. The aim of the reader is to bring together a substantial selection from this varied mass of writing, but in the form of a historical survey that invites sustained examination of key theoretical developments

Of course, edited volumes always work to define a field, a body of knowledge,a textbook market, and so they create as much as satisfy institutional needs,especially in the case of emergent disciplines. In translation studies, the broad spectrum of theories and research methodologies may doom any assessment of its “current state” to partial representation, superficial synthesis, optimistic canonization. This Reader is intended to be an introduction to the field recognizable to the scholars who work within it. But the intention is also to challenge any disciplinary complacency, to produce a consolidation that is interrogative, to show what translation studies have been and to suggest what they might be.

The readings are organized into five chronological sections, divided into the century’s decades and the date of publication for each reading appears at the foot of its first page. Whether a decade stands on its own or is combined with others depends solely on the volume of translation commentary published within it, sheer bibliographical quantity (cf. the bibliographies in Morgan 1959, Steiner 1975, Schulte and Biguenet 1992). The sections are each prefaced by introductory essays which present a history of main trends in translation studies, establishing a context for concise expositions of the readings and calling attention to the work of influential writers, theorists, and scholars who are not represented by a reading. The section introductions are historical narratives that refer to theoretical and methodological advances and occasionally offer critical evaluations. Yet the stories they tell avoid any evolutionary model of progress, as well as any systematic critique. I wanted to outline, however rapidly, the history of the present moment in translation studies. And to some degree this meant asking questions of the past raised by the latest tendencies in theory and research.

Alerta de articulos de revista 2013/’3/11

Alerta de articulos de revista
InfoT
rad 11 de marzo de 2013





“Professor Miriam Shlesinger.” Target: International Journal on Translation Studies vol. 25, n. 1 (2013).  pp. 1-1. http://ejournals.ebsco.com/direct.asp?ArticleID=41BDB78EE9515FD47FF9

At the time of writing this, and even more so, as you read this, there have been very many tributes to Miriam Shlesinger, who died from cancer on the 10th of November 2012. The community of Translation and Interpreting Studies scholars has come together in its grief at her loss, and in appreciation of all that she did for our discipline and for so many of its members.

Al-Ghazalli, Mehdi F. “Diminutives in Arabic-to-English Translation.” Babel vol. 58, n. 4 (2012).  pp. 395-407. http://dx.doi.org/10.1075/babel.58.4.02gha

Traditionally, the term diminutive has been used to refer to words that denote smallness and possibly also express the speaker’s attitude. On his part, Crystal (1997: 116) defines what is meant by diminutive as “a term used in morphology to refer to an affix with the general meaning of ‘little’.” Trask (1993: 82) maintains that it is “a derivational affix which may be added to a word to express a notion of small size, often additionally . . . a notion of warmth or affection.” It is a common myth that English has no diminutives, but one can find out that diminutives do exist in it due to the fact that it is rare to find a book on English morphology that does not touch upon diminutives. English diminutives are categorized as synthetic and analytic: the latter are lexis signalling the sense of ‘smallness’. English has lexical units that carry the sense referred to. The units concerned do not receive morphological affixes to convey the sense in question and they are not many in number i.e. they can be counted and they belong to different word classes (e.g. (a) few, (a) little, merely, minor, solely, tinny, meager).

Carballo, Pablo Zambrano “La vraisemblance linguistique: reflexions autour de la traduction du lexique balzacien.” Babel vol. 58, n. 4 (2012).  pp. 423-442. http://dx.doi.org/10.1075/babel.58.4.04zam

La vraisemblance de la langue constitue sans doute l’un des principaux piliers de l’ambitieux projet réaliste de Balzac dans La Comédie humaine. L’intention avouée de présenter un roman de romans, le roman absolu pour ainsi dire, qui, à l’aide de l’échafaudage de la fiction servirait de document exhaustif et minutieux de la société française de l’époque, ne pouvait éviter de reproduire plus ou moins fidèlement les multiples nuances qui caractérisent les façons de parler de l’ensemble bigarré de personnages, y compris le narrateur omniscient, de La Comédie humaine. En définitive, Balzac fait d’une telle reproduction une source de vraisemblance réaliste déterminante pour le succès de son projet. C’est surtout dans Illusions perdues, le roman central et exemplaire de l’ensemble, où sa conscience (méta) linguistique devient plus évidente et active, une conscience que toute traduction dans d’autres langues, exemplifiées dans cet article par l’espagnol et l’anglais, doit
tenir bien en compte.

Caroline, Disler “Oxyrhynchus 1381: In memoriam Daniel Simeoni.” Target: International Journal on Translation Studies vol. 24, n. 2 (2012).  pp. 225-252. http://ejournals.ebsco.com/direct.asp?ArticleID=4561B38AC2C2AA6EECEA

The Hellenistic Greek papyrus Oxyrhynchus 1381 contains a translator’s prologue that has been overlooked by translation historians despite its significance as evidence for a far more creative view of religious translation outside the confines of the Judaeo-Christian tradition. This important text is described in its historical context and compared to contemporaneous Pagan and early contending Judaeo-Christian developments in sacred translation as well as to classical secular translation practices. This will provide some valuable insights into the many factors informing the ancient origins and evolution of modern expectations and concerns in the western translation community such as translatability issues, preoccupations with fidelity, rigid adherence to the source text, the translator’s invisibility and lack of creative freedom.

Christina, Schäffner and Shuttleworth Mark “Metaphor in translation: Possibilities for process research.” Target: International Journal on Translation Studies vol. 25, n. 1 (2013).  pp. 93-106. http://ejournals.ebsco.com/direct.asp?ArticleID=4C2096E569D24C1E47E4

This paper explores potential benefits of closer interaction between metaphor studies and translation process research. It presents some developments within translation studies that make use of conceptual metaphor theory and illustrates some process research methods for investigating metaphors. The paper considers a number of methodological recommendations and argues that the need to take full account of insights from metaphor studies and associated disciplines is of greatest importance. Another significant potential innovation is the use of a multilingual approach in respect of both product- and process-oriented studies in order to increase both the amount and the generality of data available for analysis. Thirdly, it is important to extend the current source-text (ST) oriented approach. The paper concludes by suggesting some options for triangulating data gathered through a combination of methods.

Cosima, Bruno “The public life of contemporary Chinese poetry in English translation.” Target: International Journal on Translation Studies vol. 24, n. 2 (2012).  pp. 253-285. http://ejournals.ebsco.com/direct.asp?ArticleID=4A29B814B6B2AAAE7D8A

This essay is an exploration of some of the social and cultural factors that have played a role in the production, publication and reception of English translations of contemporary Chinese poetry, from the beginning of the 1980s to today. The aim is to link translations to the broader context, highlighting modalities and expectations of reception that have evolved within the social structures through which the translation of contemporary Chinese poetry has been circulating: the publishing industry, universities, the periodical press, public intellectual debates, and the market. The article does not try to establish if this or that expectation are either real or perceived features of the source texts. Nor does it deal with translators’ individual interpretations, their private readings. Instead, adopting a wider sociocultural approach, the analysis proposes to shed light on the industrial and commercial dimension ­ the public life ­ of contemporary Chinese poetry in English translation.

Fabio, Alves and Gonçalves José Luiz “Investigating the conceptual-procedural distinction in the translation process: A relevance-theoretic analysis of micro and macro translation units.” Target: International Journal on Translation Studies vol. 25, n. 1 (2013).  pp. 107-124. http://ejournals.ebsco.com/direct.asp?ArticleID=4976B8A864021F733242

This article draws on relevance theory (Sperber and Wilson 1986/1995) and its application to translation (Gutt 2000) to investigate processing effort in translation in relation to two different types of encodings, namely conceptual and procedural encodings (Blakemore 2002, Wilson 2011). Building on the experimental paradigm of data triangulation in translation process research (Alves 2003; Jakobsen 2005), it analyses the translation processes of eight professional translators when performing a direct and an inverse translation task. The analysis focuses on the number and types of encodings found in micro/macro translation units (Alves and Vale 2009; 2011). Results suggest that processing effort in translation is greater in instances of procedural than conceptual encodings.

Haidee, Kruger “A corpus-based study of the mediation effect in translated and edited language.” Target: International Journal on Translation Studies vol. 24, n. 2 (2012).  pp. 355-388. http://ejournals.ebsco.com/direct.asp?ArticleID=43CE96D8110CC0451F02

This paper presents the results of a study investigating the hypothesis that the recurrent features, or universals, of translated language are primarily the result of a mediation process that is shared among different kinds of mediated language, rather than the particularities of bilingual language processing. The investigation made use of a comparable corpus consisting of a subcorpus of English texts translated from Afrikaans, a subcorpus of comparable edited English texts, and a subcorpus of comparable unedited (and also untranslated) English texts. The frequency and distribution of linguistic features associated with three of the universals of translated language (explicitation, normalisation/conservatism, and simplification) across the three subcorpora were analysed. The study was guided by the hypothesis that the frequency and distribution of linguistic features associated with the universals of translated language would demonstrate similarities in the two subcorpora of mediated text (i.e., the translated and edited subcorpus), as compared to the subcorpus of unmediated text (i.e., the unedited subcorpus). However, the study yields almost no evidence for a mediation effect that is shared by translated and edited language, at least not along the linguistic features investigated. There is, however, evidence for what appears to be a separate translation-specific effect, which seems likely to be more unconscious, more proceduralised and more related to the linguistic level alone. This offers some support for the hypothesis of universals of translated language that are unique to this kind of text mediation specifically. Furthermore, the findings of the study suggest that editing may involve a different kind of mediation effect altogether, which frequently remains invisible in conventional corpus-based studies comparing translated and non-translated language, and which requires further investigation.

Hanna, Pita “Patterns in (in)directness: An exploratory case study in the external history of Portuguese translations of Polish literature (1855–2010).” Target: International Journal on Translation Studies vol. 24, n. 2 (2012).  pp. 310-337. http://ejournals.ebsco.com/direct.asp?ArticleID=497EA05B153E83E95EF5

The goal of this descriptive, exploratory paper is to identify and analyse patterns in a case study of direct and indirect literary transfer from Poland to Portugal between 1855 and 2010. By doing so, the paper intends to contribute to a deeper understanding of indirect translation. Firstly, relevant information concerning the corpus is presented. Secondly, the methodological issues are elucidated. Thirdly, the results of the study are discussed in detail. More specifically, the correlations between the dependent variables (directness and indirectness) and the independent variables (author profile, translator profile, publisher profile and target text literary genre) are examined. In addition, the correlation between the occurrence of the label ‘(in)direct’ is tested against the independent time variable. Finally, the preliminary conclusions and future research avenues are presented.

Hanna, Risku and Windhager Florian “Extended Translation: A Sociocognitive Research Agenda.” Target: International Journal on Translation Studies vol. 25, n. 1 (2013).  pp. 33-45. http://ejournals.ebsco.com/direct.asp?ArticleID=4F5F9566BD207D0B3205

Consideration of current developments in cognitive science is indispensable when defining research agendas addressing cognitive aspects of translation. One such development is the recognition of the extended nature of human cognition: Cognition is not just an information manipulation process in the brain, it is contextualised action embedded in a body and increasingly mediated by technologies and situated in its socio-cultural environment. Parallel developments are found in neighbouring disciplines, such as sociology with its actor-network and activity theories. This paper examines these approaches, their shared methodological tenets (i.e., ethnographic field studies) and the implications of the situated cognition approach for describing the cognitive aspects of translation, using a translation management case study to discuss conceptual and methodological issues.

Inger, M. Mees, Dragsted Barbara, et al. “Sound effects in translation.” Target: International Journal on Translation Studies vol. 25, n. 1 (2013).  pp. 140-154. http://ejournals.ebsco.com/direct.asp?ArticleID=454A87452C802FA0DD81

On the basis of a pilot study using speech recognition (SR) software, this paper attempts to illustrate the benefits of adopting an interdisciplinary approach in translator training. It shows how the collaboration between phoneticians, translators and interpreters can (1) advance research, (2) have implications for the curriculum, (3) be pedagogically motivating, and (4) prepare students for employing translation technology in their future practice as translators. In a two-phase study in which 14 MA students translated texts in three modalities (sight, written, and oral translation using an SR program), Translog was employed to measure task times. The quality of the products was assessed by three experienced translators, and the number and types of misrecognitions were identified by a phonetician. Results indicate that SR translation provides a potentially useful supplement to written translation, or indeed an alternative to it.

Isabelle, Delaere, Sutter Gert De, et al. “Is translated language more standardized than non-translated language?: Using profile-based correspondence analysis for measuring linguistic distances between language varieties.” Target: International Journal on Translation Studies vol. 24, n. 2 (2012).  pp. 203-224. http://ejournals.ebsco.com/direct.asp?ArticleID=4A298DF5875164E40741

With this article, we seek to support the law of growing standardization by showing that texts translated into Belgian Dutch make more use of standard language than non-translated Belgian Dutch texts. Additionally, we want to examine whether the use of standard vs. non-standard language can be attributed to the variables text type and source language. In order to achieve that goal, we gathered a diverse set of linguistic variables and used a 10-million-word corpus that is parallel, comparable and bidirectional (the Dutch Parallel Corpus; Macken et al. 2011). The frequency counts for each of the variables are used to determine the differences in standard language use by means of profile-based correspondence analysis (Plevoets 2008). The results of our analysis show that (i) in general, there is indeed a standardizing trend among translations and (ii) text types with a lot of editorial control (fiction, non-fiction and journalistic texts) contain more standard language than the less edited text types (administrative texts and external communication) which adds support for the idea that the differences between translated and non-translated texts are text type dependent.

Jeremy, Munday “The role of archival and manuscript research in the investigation of translator decision-making.” Target: International Journal on Translation Studies vol. 25, n. 1 (2013).  pp. 125-139. http://ejournals.ebsco.com/direct.asp?ArticleID=4DDE8D8100862928C953

This paper discusses the application of research methodologies from history and literary studies to the analysis of the translation process. Specifically, this concerns the use of literary archive and manuscript material to investigate the various stages in the construction of the translation product. Such material has been drastically underexploited in translation studies to date. The paper describes the type of material available for researchers and how this has been used. This is followed by a case study involving the detailed textual analysis of a translator’s drafts and revisions. The paper considers the value of such research methods in investigating the translation process and how they might complement and interact with other methodologies.

Juliane, House “Towards a new linguistic-cognitive orientation in translation studies.” Target: International Journal on Translation Studies vol. 25, n. 1 (2013).  pp. 46-60. http://ejournals.ebsco.com/direct.asp?ArticleID=4478A6C6343186C67B67

A new linguistic-cognitive orientation in translation studies is important today because it can complement the current strong wave of socially and culturally oriented research into and around translation. For balance, it is also necessary and insightful to describe and explain how strategies of comprehending, decision-making and re-verbalisation come about in a translator’s bilingual mind. In this paper I sketch some ideas about such a new linguistic-cognitive approach. I first review introspective and retrospective studies and behavioural experiments. Secondly, I assess the value of neuro-linguistic studies for translation. Thirdly, I suggest a new combination of a translation theory and a neuro-functional theory of bilingualism.

Kelly, Washbourne “Load-managed problem formats: Scaffolding and modeling the translation task to improve transfer.” Target: International Journal on Translation Studies vol. 24, n. 2 (2012).  pp. 338-354. http://ejournals.ebsco.com/direct.asp?ArticleID=47EB97DBCE35C780779E

Does the “expert blind spot”, our “unconscious competence”, lead us to undermine the effectiveness of our translation assignments? This study characterizes the translation task as schema-based, and thus prone to cognitive overload for the learner. Accordingly, schema acquisition tasks featuring reduced-goal specificity and goal-free problems for training the novice are reviewed. The argument is put forward that we need 1) to use more scaffolding to reduce cognitive load, 2) to vary task architecture for learning (including the use of planning pre-tasks), and 3) to provide diagnostic help for the student translator to attain context-independence for ‘high road transfer’. Formats for expertise modeling are considered ­ reverse tasks, completion examples, and other whole-task models ­ as instructional designs for load-managed translation tasks that improve problem-solving, schema acquisition, process-orientation, and metacognitive monitoring.

Kilian, G. Seeber “Cognitive load in simultaneous interpreting: Measures and methods.” Target: International Journal on Translation Studies vol. 25, n. 1 (2013).  pp. 18-32. http://ejournals.ebsco.com/direct.asp?ArticleID=47C1AF55FD828D878648

The mental effort required to perform a simultaneous interpreting task or the cognitive load generated by it has attracted the interest of many a researcher in the field. To date, however, there is little agreement on the most suitable method to measure this phenomenon. In this contribution, I set out to discuss four of the most common methods of measuring cognitive load and the way in which they have been applied in interpreting research, providing examples for each and highlighting their respective advantages and disadvantages. The main focus of the contribution will be on pupillometry, a psycho-physiological method I deem to be among the most promising approaches to objectively measure cognitive load during simultaneous interpreting in real time.

Le Poder, Marie-Evelyne “Perspective sociolinguistique des emprunts de langlais dans la section economique du quotidien espagnol El Pais.” Babel vol. 58, n. 4 (2012).  pp. 377-394. http://dx.doi.org/10.1075/babel.58.4.01pod

Les unités linguistiques, au sens large du terme, ont des origines diverses. Elles peuvent naître des règles du code linguistique d’une langue, de l’élargissement du signifié d’une unité lexicale déjà formée ou bien provenir d’unités appartenant à d’autres codes ; la « grande catégorie des emprunts » comme l’aime à le dire Marianne Lederer (Lederer 1990 : 1). Lorsqu’il est fait référence aux unités provenant de codes linguistiques étrangers, il convient d’établir une classification entre emprunts et calques linguistiques. Les emprunts comprennent les cultismes, d’une part, et les emprunts aux langues vivantes, d’autre part. Les cultismes sont des emprunts provenant du fonds gréco-latin que l’on retrouve dans diverses langues. Les emprunts aux langues vivantes, pour leur part, s’incorporent dans une langue, de façon consciente ou inconsciente, sans aucune modification (emprunts purs), ou par le biais d’adaptations d’ordre graphique et/ou phonétique.

Lee, Tong King “Anna Gil-Bardaji, Pilar Orero Sara Rovira-Esteva (eds.), Translation Peripheries: Paratextual Elements in Translation, 2012.” Babel vol. 58, n. 4 (2012).  pp. 493-495. http://dx.doi.org/10.1075/babel.58.4.09lee

Anna Gil-Bardají, Pilar Orero & Sara Rovira-Esteva (eds.), Translation Peripheries: Paratextual Elements in Translation , 2012. Peter Lang International Academic Publishers, Hochfeldstrasse, 32 CH-3012, Bern, Switzerland. 196 pp. ISBN 978-3-0343-1038-3. Reviewed by Tong-King Lee , School of Chinese, Centennial College, The University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam, Hong Kong. Email: leetk@hku.hk

Lee, Tong King “Translation and Language Power Relations in Heterolingual Anthologies of Literature.” Babel vol. 58, n. 4 (2012).  pp. 443-456. http://dx.doi.org/10.1075/babel.58.4.05lee

The heterolingual literary anthology is a discursive field through which we can observe language power relations in a plurilingual society as well as changes in such relations over time. Within this kind of anthology, translation serves as a mechanism in the negotiation of symbolic capital among various languages, and becomes an ideological site where languages struggle for visibility and prestige. In a struggle of this kind, languages engage one another in exchanges, either asymmetric or symmetric, in an attempt to move towards the centre of the sociolinguistic polysystem, or otherwise enhance their central position in the polysystem by relegating competing languages to the periphery. Drawing on Even Zohar’s polysystem theory and Pascale Casanova’s conception of literary translation as unequal linguistic exchanges, one may thus propose that complex sociolinguistic transactions underlie the making of a heterolingual literary anthology, and that such transactions may be described and explained by means of conceptual models.

Maureen, Ehrensberger-Dow and Perrin Daniel “Applying a newswriting research approach to translation.” Target: International Journal on Translation Studies vol. 25, n. 1 (2013).  pp. 77-92. http://ejournals.ebsco.com/direct.asp?ArticleID=44CFB2D0A0675E89987A

Translation is a situated activity that involves more than simply producing target texts from source texts. In order to understand what translators actually do when they translate, their psycho-biographies as well as the social setting of the workplace and the contextual resources must be considered. In this paper, we outline how a mixed-method approach originally developed to study the newswriting processes of journalists at their workplaces can be applied in translation process research. We argue that progression analysis, which combines keystroke logging, screen recordings, eye-tracking, and cue-based retrospective verbalization, can be profitably used along with version analysis to gain insights into cognitive aspects of the translation process.

Rengdong, Xiang “First Translation and Retranslation in the Historical, Social and Cultural Context: A case study of two Chinese versions of Tess of the DUrbervilles.” Babel vol. 58, n. 4 (2012).  pp. 457-470. http://dx.doi.org/10.1075/babel.58.4.06xia

In the history of Chinese literary translation, retranslation is a common phenomenon. Starting in the 1930s, retranslation has become more and more popular, accompanied by a boom in debates about retranslation. Retranslation, in the view of Zou Taofen, is not economical and instead translators should translate devote their attention to untranslated classics (Zou Taofen 1920: 06–04). Contrary to this Mao Dun asserts that if we are really for consideration of the reader’s “economy”, it is necessary to criticize false and inferior translations, and so retranslation is a necessary remedy (Mao Dun 1937: 5). Moreover, Lu Xun insists definitely that retranslation is inevitably linked to the evaluation of language use (Lu Xun 1998: 275). Furthermore, in the 1950s, Mao Dun and Zhou Zuoreng reemphasized the value of retranslation (Mao Dun 1984; Zhou Zuoreng 1950-04-02); Zhou Zuoreng even indicates that the number of retranslations is proportional to cultural development. During the 1980s and the 1990s after reform and opening, the scope and range of retranslation became larger and broader.

Sharon, O’brien “The borrowers: Researching the cognitive aspects of translation.” Target: International Journal on Translation Studies vol. 25, n. 1 (2013).  pp. 5-17. http://ejournals.ebsco.com/direct.asp?ArticleID=4333BFDBF4C99B3C3C38

The paper considers the interdisciplinary interaction of research on the cognitive aspects of translation. Examples of influence from linguistics, psychology, neuroscience, cognitive science, reading and writing research and language technology are given, with examples from specific sub-disciplines within each one. The breadth of borrowing by researchers in cognitive translatology is made apparent, but the minimal influence of cognitive translatology on the respective disciplines themselves is also highlighted. Suggestions for future developments are made, including ways in which the domain of cognitive translatology might exert greater influence on other disciplines.

Sue-Ann, Harding ““How do I apply narrative theory?”: Socio-narrative theory in translation studies.” Target: International Journal on Translation Studies vol. 24, n. 2 (2012).  pp. 286-309. http://ejournals.ebsco.com/direct.asp?ArticleID=44FEBBA4D7FCC5835B3D

Since the publication of Translation and Conflict: A Narrative Account(Baker 2006), there has been a growing interest in applying socio-narrative theory to Translation Studies, with Baker’s ideas extended and applied to several different areas of inquiry. This article gives a brief overview of these projects, and discusses in more depth the example of my own application and development of narrative theory. This includes a revised typology of narratives, the combination of narratological and sociological approaches, an intratextual model of analysis, and a new emphasis on the importance of narrators and temporary narrators in the (re)configuration of narratives. The article ends with a brief discussion on further topics within Translation and Interpreting Studies to which narrative theory might be applied.

Susanne, Göpferich “Translation competence: Explaining development and stagnation from a dynamic systems perspective.” Target: International Journal on Translation Studies vol. 25, n. 1 (2013).  pp. 61-76. http://ejournals.ebsco.com/direct.asp?ArticleID=4470A54C04CA5CF2A90A

This article introduces Dynamic Systems Theory (DST) as a framework for the investigation of translation competence development. After a presentation of the basic concepts and assumptions underlying this theory, results from the longitudinal study TransComp will be discussed against the background of DST. TransComp is a three-year product- and process-oriented longitudinal study of the development of translation competence in 12 students of translation, whose translation products and processes were compared with those of 10 professional translators. The article outlines both the difficulties involved in the application of DST to the investigation of translation competence development and the added value that it promises for our understanding of developmental processes in translators, including the ways they can be fostered in translation training.

Vilar Sánchez, Karin “Holger Siever: Ubersetzen Spanisch-Deutsch. Ein Arbeitsbuch. 2008.” Babel vol. 58, n. 4 (2012).  pp. 496-498. http://dx.doi.org/10.1075/babel.58.4.10san

Holger Siever: Übersetzen Spanisch-Deutsch. Ein Arbeitsbuch. 2008. Narr´Francke Attempto Verlag GmbH + Co.KG. Dischingerweg 5. D-72070 Tübingen. 166 Seiten. ISBN 978-3-8233-6391-0. Preis: €14,90. Rezension von Karin Vilar Sánchez , Facultad de Traducción e Interpretación, Universidad de Granada, E-18071 Granada. E-Mail: kvilars@ugr.es

Xiumei, Xu and Gong Qinyan “Translatability vs Untranslatability: A relevance-theoretic view.” Babel vol. 58, n. 4 (2012).  pp. 408-422. http://dx.doi.org/10.1075/babel.58.4.03xiu

Whether translation is possible or not has long been a topic in translation studies. Those who hold that translation is impossible mainly build their ideas on the fact that there is always something that gets changed, twisted or even lost in translation. The extreme example is the case of Robert Frost who claims that “poetry is what gets lost in translation”. But in fact, just as Susan Bassnett (2001: 70) states “when we compare different translations of the same poems, we can see the diversity of translation strategies used by translators”, “poetry is not what is lost in translation, it is rather what we gain through translations and translators”. A unanimously accepted truth is the long history of civilization has witnessed the important role played by translators and their works: man owes a lot of his knowledge of other nations, races and cultures to translators’ works.

Yuefang, Wang “Exploring Cultural Transmission and Translation Strategies in the Perspective of Functionalist Approaches: A case study of the two English versions of Hongloumeng.” Babel vol. 58, n. 4 (2012).  pp. 471-487. http://dx.doi.org/10.1075/babel.58.4.07wan

Hongloumeng, one of the four great classical novels of Chinese Literature written in the mid-eighteenth century during the Qing Dynasty, is considered as the encyclopedia of feudal Chinese culture. Since the first publication of this novel, a number of admirable translators or scholars both in China and overseas have attempted to translate it into other languages. The two completely translated versions are The Story of the Stone by David Hawkes and John Minford, and The Dream of Red Mansions by Yang Xianyi and Gladys Yang. The difficulties of the translation work lie primarily in the culture-specific items in the novel, including Chinese allusions, rituals and customs, dressing, architecture, food, medicine, naming system, religion, poems, plays, games, geographic elements, and so on. Translating cultural items can be a demanding and challenging task due to the fact that such items have specific meanings in the source culture and language but not necessarily in other cultures and languages. During the process of cultural de-coding, re-coding and en-coding translators are not only dealing with words written in a certain time, space and socio-political situation, but they should also take into account the “cultural” aspect of the text by employing different translation strategies.

Zhu, Ling “Xu Jianzhong. «»(Translation Geography).” Target: International Journal on Translation Studies vol. 24, n. 2 (2012).  pp. 389-390. http://ejournals.ebsco.com/direct.asp?ArticleID=4E18B00E6A6625A5965D

Aportaciones de las mujeres a la lengua y literatura castellanas

 

Heredero De Pedro, Carmen. [e-Book GRATIS]  Otras miradas: aportaciones de las mujeres a la lengua y literatura castellanas : para integrar en el curriculum de Secundaria Madrid, Instituto de la Mujer, 2013

Descargar

 

Esta Guía, Aportaciones de las Mujeres a la Lengua y Literatura castellanas, al igual que su predecesora en la colección Otras Miradas, se realiza con el propósito de suplir las insuficiencias que los actuales manuales de texto tienen en relación con las aportaciones de las mujeres, a lo largo de la historia, a la Lengua y la Literatura castellanas, así como a los estudios lingüísticos. En esta ocasión hemos elegido un total de 89 escritoras, algunas de ellas especializadas en Filología y Lingüística, a las que hemos dedicado más o menos espacio, dependiendo de la importancia que la crítica especializada les ha dado, así como de la repercusión social que han tenido, o bien, considerando nuestro específico criterio feminista. Somos conscientes de que muchas de ellas se merecen más páginas de las que les hemos podido dedicar, puesto que esta publicación tiene también sus propias limitaciones de espacio.Esta Guía se divide en seis grupos de autoras, creados en base a criterios cronológicos. En cada autora se ha tratado de abordar su biografía y su obra, contextualizándola en su época cuando el espacio lo ha permitido. Prácticamente la totalidad de las autoras son españolas.

El primero de los bloques es el que abarca los siglos XVI y XVII, los Siglos de Oro de la literatura española. Fue una etapa de esplendor para los escritores españoles: Lope de Vega, Calderón de la Barca, Góngora y, por supuesto, Miguel de Cervantes. Sin embargo, no han pasado a la historia de la misma manera nombres de mujeres, cuya ocultación solo responde a la situación relegada que la sociedad les ha dado. Para visibilizar a estas mujeres y sus obras, hemos recogido un total de nueve autoras que vivieron en unos años tremendamente difíciles para el acceso de las mujeres a la cultura y la educación. Sin embargo, y fruto de ese contexto, se desarrolló una importante literatura conventual, con autoras como Sor Juana Inés de la Cruz, Sor Marcela de San Félix o Sor María Jesús de Ágreda; mujeres que encontraron en los conventos el refugio perfecto para el acceso a la cultura y el desarrollo de su obra. No obstante, muchos de sus escritos fueron víctimas de las llamas o desaparecieron por diversos motivos, por lo que la tarea de recopilación de sus obras ha resultado bastante complicada.

El segundo bloque está formado por autoras de los siglos XVIII y XIX, los años de la Ilustración, una etapa de rupturas sociales y culturales, de progreso y de triunfo de la razón. Durante el siglo XVIII la literatura gusta de las reglas clásicas y se desarrollan con fuerza el género periodístico y el ensayo. Entre los autores más conocidos destacan Jovellanos y José Cadalso. De la misma manera que en apartado anterior, podemos decir que el conocimiento de importantes autoras de estos siglos también han sido ocultado o difuminado a las generaciones posteriores. En este apartado hemos incluido un total de nueve autoras, entre las que, además de Rosalía de Castro, Fernán Caballero o Emilia Pardo Bazán, que sí han logrado importante reconocimiento, se encuentran Concepción Arenal, Carolina Coronado o Gertrudis Gómez de Avellaneda, entre otras.

En tercer lugar figuran las autoras pertenecientes al siglo XX, una etapa marcada por la lucha de las mujeres por acceder a la vida política y al trabajo hasta entonces vetado para ellas, pero sobre todo, marcada por la Guerra Civil y el exilio. La Guerra Civil Española supone un antes y un después en la literatura, que nos ha llevado a subdividir este siglo en dos etapas correspondientes al antes y después de dicha guerra. Surge la literatura de la posguerra con autoras tan importantes como Ana María Matute, Carmen Martín Gaite o Mercè Rodoreda, entre otras muchas. En el conjunto del siglo hemos incluído un total de treinta y cinco autoras.

En cuarto lugar figuran las autoras actuales, un grupo de once mujeres que o bien siguen publicando o bien han fallecido muy recientemente, entre las que se encuentran escritoras como Blanca Andreu, Lourdes Ortiz o Soledad Puértolas, entre otras. Tras estos cuatro apartados hemos añadido un quinto en el que recogemos algunos nombres de mujeres lingüistas y filólogas que realizan una importante tarea de investigación sobre diferentes aspectos del lenguaje, de la gramática española y de la literatura.Al final de cada bloque se han incluido una serie de ejercicios para facilitar la reflexión del alumnado sobre las aportaciones de cada autora No se ha establecido una recomendación para un determinado curso dentro de la etapa de secundaria, ya que consideramos que consideramos que será el profesor o profesora quien mejor utilice o adapte esos ejercicios a su alumnado específico.Por último incluimos una extensa bibliografía y algunos recursos de fácil acceso para que tanto el profesorado como el alumnado pueda seguir investigando.

Libros electrónicos sobre Traducción Febrero 2013

Libros electrónicos de Traducción Febrero 2013
  I nfoTrad 12 de enero de 2012


[e-Book]  Mapping best multilingual business practices in the EU European Commission. Texto completo: http://www.google.es/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&frm=1&source=web&cd=1&cad=rja&ved=0CB0QFjAA&url=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.lt-innovate.eu%2Fsystem%2Ffiles%2Fdocuments%2F1326-BvD%2520study%2520on%2520multilingualism%25202011.pdf&ei=jvViUODFCanF0QW19oGIBw&usg=AFQjCNGZzmyK4B5J-WQQF9hZDL-yd-BrWw&sig2=91q5kWM-auSECXqK-FXhcw

The digital age and globalisation have together changed the European business environment for good. As companies and their employees deal with different languages and cultures on a daily basis, multilingualism can no longer be considered just as an asset or a competitive advantage, but rather as a fact of life. Thus, multilingualism has become a global issue as well as a transversal issue within organisations, since digital communication is erasing national and linguistic boundaries. Faced with this multilingual reality, companies have adopted a number of innovative business practices described in the case studies carried out in European companies. These include intercomprehension (the parallel use of different languages which have similar structures and vocabularies), collaborative interpretation and use of language technology tools, such as machine translation. However, social networks and collaborative methods have led to increasingly complex and technical content. Human resources will always be needed to validate translations, both the machine generated and the human variety. As well as case studies and analysis, this study on multilingual business practices contains a set of recommendations to enhance multilingualism in business. These include the development of multilingual business strategies, the establishment of a European Observatory of Multilingual Business Practices, a quality label for multilingual European company websites translated into more than four languages, and support for the European Company Statute

(2004). [e-Book]  A National Code of Ethics for Interpreters in Health Care. Washington The National Council on Interpreting in Health Care  Texto completo: http://hospitals.unm.edu/language/documents/ncihc.pdf

As the profession of health care interpreting in the United States matures and evolves, the importance of creating shared understandings of what is considered high quality and ethically appropriate principles and practices in the field becomes imperative.  To this end, the National Council on Interpreting in Health Care identified three steps that needed to take place on a national level in order to standardize the expectations that the health care industry and patients should have of interpreters and to raise the quality of health care interpreting.  The first step was to create and build support for a single Code of Ethics that would guide the practice of interpreters working in health care venues.  The second step was to develop a nationally accepted, unified set of Standards of Practice based on the Code of Ethics that would define competent practice in the field.  The third step was to create a national certification process that would set a standard for qualification as a professional health care interpreter.

(2008). [e-Book]  Professional Standards and Ethics for California Court Interpreters. San Francisco, Judicial Council of California. Texto completo: http://www.courts.ca.gov/documents/Ethics_Manual_4th_Ed_Master.pdf

This manual is intended to inform interpreters of their professional and ethical responsibilities so that they are better able to deal with the difficulties that commonly arise in matters involving non-English-speaking parties in the judicial system. It also serves as a reference and springboard for discussion in conjunction with the Judicial Council Ethics Workshop, which is provided as an integral part of the education and certification or registration of court interpreters in the State of California. In addition to the regulations and recommendations provided here, it is important to note that different courts have their own rules and ways of conducting business. It is the interpreter’s duty to learn and follow these rules as well. In the courtroom, the judge is the final arbiter of what is appropriate. The more prepared and informed you are about professional practices and the purpose of established norms and principles, the more you, together with all officers of the court, will be able to further the interests of justice. This manual is based largely on the rules and principles set forth in rule 2.890 of the California Rules of Court  (“Professional conduct for interpreters”, see appendix A); California Standards of Judicial Administration  adopted by the Judicial Council of California for interpreted proceedings (Standard 2.10 and Standard 2.11;  see appendix C); the Standards for Performance and Professional Responsibility for Contract Court  Interpreters in the Federal Courts (see appendix E) and W. E. Hewitt, Court Interpretation: Model Guides for Policy and Practice in the State Courts, Publication R-167 (Williamsburg, Virginia: State Justice Institute,  1995).

(2009). [e-Book]  Congreso Mundial de Traducción Especializada. La Habana, Unión Latina. Texto completo: http://dtil.unilat.org/cmte2008/actas/Actas%20CMTE.pdf

El Congreso Mundial de Traducción Especializada fue celebrado en el año 2008, que fuera proclamado por las Naciones Unidas Año Internacional de los Idiomas. En ese contexto, con el propósito de destacar la importancia del traductor como uno de los factores primordiales en la preservación de la diversidad lingüística, el Congreso congregó a diversos especialistas que trataron múltiples aspectos de la profesión del traductor bajo el gran lema “Lenguas y diálogo intercultural en un mundo en globalización”. Contó con cerca de 300 participantes, en su mayoría traductores, provenientes de los cinco continentes que pudieron expresarse en los cinco idiomas oficiales del Congreso: español, francés, inglés, portugués y ruso. Así, se ofrecieron durante este encuentro una variedad de comunicaciones que estudiaron, desde un punto de vista más político que científico, diferentes facetas de la traducción a escala internacional. Los grandes temas en los que se clasificaron las ponencias fueron: • La traducción en organismos internacionales y en las patentes y normas • Traducción automatizada • Herramientas lingüísticas y recursos en línea • Corpus lingüísticos y estudios de caso • La profesión del traductor: especialización, formación y sinergias • “La traducción es muy cara y lenta” o mentiras del monolingüismo

(2010). [e-Book]  Étude portant sur la contribution de la traduction à la société multilingue dans l’Union européenne Luxemburg, European Commission. Texto completo: http://www.lt-innovate.eu/system/files/documents/1348-Contribution%20de%20la%20traduction%20%C3%A0%20la%20soci%C3%A9t%C3%A9%20multilingue%20dans%20l%E2%80%99Union%20europ%C3%A9enne%202010.pdf

Economic, cultural, legal and political dimensions of translation in the EU, and different countries’ perceptions of translation. Translation (transposing a text from one language into another) unquestionably plays a major role in today’s world (daily life, information, interaction, cultural and economic activities, etc.) – and that role is growing with globalization and the consequent proliferation of interactions in which the partners speak different languages. In an ordinary day, a European citizen may drink coffee imported from Peru, on which the label has been translated, read an article in a newspaper translated by a news agency, check his or her emails on a localized interface installed on a computer with a localized operating system, read a translated Finnish novel in the bus or tube, operate a machine tool at work, of which the manual is translated, use an automatic translation website to obtain up-to-date news on events in Iceland, go home to watch a TV series with subtitles, and so on.

(2010). [e-Book]  Study on the size of the language industry in the EU. Luxemburg, European Commission. Texto completo: http://bookshop.europa.eu/en/study-on-the-size-of-the-language-industry-in-the-eu-pbHC8009985/downloads/HC-80-09-985-EN-N/HC8009985ENN_002.pdf?FileName=HC8009985ENN_002.pdf&SKU=HC8009985ENN_PDF&CatalogueNumber=HC-80-09-985-EN-N

A study on the rapid growth of the language industry, covering translation, interpreting, software localisation, website globalisation, language technology and related fields. Includes country factsheets.

(2011). [e-Book]  Lingua Franca: Chimera or Reality? . Luxemburg, European Commission. Texto completo: http://cordis.europa.eu/fp7/ict/language-technologies/docs/lingua-franca-en.pdf

The intensification of exchanges in our globalised world has dramatically increased the need for a common language. More and more often this common language is English, considered by many to be today’s lingua franca and only secondarily the mother tongue of specific communities of speakers. The issue, however, is extremely controversial and raises as many questions as it tries to answer. English is not the first language to play this role, other languages have been used as lingue franche in the past and others may therefore acquire this status in the future. Moreover, the concept of lingua franca itself is often questioned. Before examining the status of English in order to see whether it can be considered a lingua franca or, more precisely, today’s lingua franca, the very concept of lingua franca needs to be defined more precisely. In addition, a review of other lingue franche can provide a clearer image of how they develop and disappear, as well as the needs they are supposed to meet, in relation to the present situation. Based on the definition, this study will focus on the lingua franca as a vehicular language which allows inter-comprehension among people speaking different mother tongues, as a neutral language or jargon of which nobody can claim ownership, but also as the mother tongue of one of the parties in the exchange. Based on this analysis, the second part of the study will be devoted to English to try and define more precisely its new status as a global language and to explore the implications of this new role

(2012). [e-Book]  Crowdsourcing translation: Studies on translation and multilingualism. Luxembourg, European Commission. Texto completo: http://ec.europa.eu/dgs/translation/publications/studies/crowdsourcing_translation_en.pdf

The advent of the Internet  and its rash development in the past few decades have revolutionised our habits and patterns of behaviour. It offers huge opportunities for communication or access to information, but is often blamed for disrupting human relations. We all ­ and especially young people ­ spend more and more hours in front of the screen. An increasing number of tasks, which in the past involved direct human contacts, are now performed through a  machine ­ from carrying out banking transactions or buying plane  tickets, to playing interactive games with people living thousands of kilometres away, or even donating money for a worthy cause. However, new forms of communication are emerging thanks to the Web, notably the Web 2.0 ­ web applications that facilitate participatory information sharing, interaction and collaboration among users and creation of user-generated content, like social networks, blogs, and wikis. Among these applications, crowdsourcing deserves great attention. The term crowdsourcing was created at the end of the 1990s to indicate a new way of getting work done, by involving the ‘crowd’. It is constantly gaining ground and has by now penetrated a wide range of highly diversified areas. And yet, it remains for many an obscure concept. What does crowdsourcing exactly mean and what does it imply, notably in translation where it has lately become a hot topic?

(2012). [e-Book]  Intercomprehension: Exploring its usefulness for DGT, the Commission and the EU, European Commission. Texto completo: http://bookshop.europa.eu/en/intercomprehension-pbHC3012594/?CatalogCategoryID=ffIKABstvy4AAAEj0JEY4e5L

Intercomprehension is a relatively new field in linguistic research, which has focused mainly on the usefulness of intercomprehension in language teaching. The present study aims at broadening this scope. The study does not pretend to be academic, but to describe how intercomprehension is used in organisations, companies and society at large, and look into how the European Commission could benefit from intercomprehension. Intercomprehension refers to a relationship between languages in which speakers of different but related languages can readily understand each other without intentional study or extraordinary effort. It is a form of communication in which each person uses his/her own language and understands that of the other(s). Intercomprehension is used in society, education and the business world. Since its precondition is the existence of more languages, the same as for translation, it seems logical to explore to what extent translation can benefit from intercomprehension. The study aims to examine the potential of intercomprehension for: society and the European citizens, multilingualism within the European institutions

(2012). [e-Book]  Open translation tools, flossmanuals.net. Texto completo: http://en.flossmanuals.net/_booki/open-translation-tools/open-translation-tools.pdf

The first wave of the internet revolution changed expectations about the availability of information a great deal. Information that was stored in libraries, locked in government vaults or available only to subscribers suddenly became accessible to anyone with an internet connection. A second wave has changed expectations about who creates information online. Tens of millions of people are contributing content to the modern internet, publishing photos, videos, and blog posts to a global audience. The globalization of the internet has brought connectivity to almost 1.6 billion people. The internet that results from globalization and user-authorship is profoundly polyglot. Wikipedia is now available in more than 210 languages, which implies that there are communities capable of authoring content in those tongues. Weblog search engine Technorati sees at least as many blog posts in Japanese as in English, and some scholars speculate that there may be as much Chinese content created on sites like Sina and QQ as on all English-language blogs combined.

Allen, Esther (2007). [e-Book]  To be translated or not To be. Barcelona, Institut Ramon Llull. Texto completo: http://llull.cat/IMAGES_2/Trad%20ENG.pdf

This report therefore begins with the assessment of the unprecedented global scope of English and the current state of literary translation in the English-speaking world and particularly in the United States that will be undertaken in the first chapter. Then, by contrast and as context to the situation of English, the second chapter comments on responses from PEN Centers across the globe to a questionnaire about literary translation sent out by International PEN. To provide further points of comparison, the report presents in the third chapter six case studies from different parts of the world to describe what could be called the “translation economy” of each region: the Netherlands, Argentina, Catalonia, Germany, China and France. The subsequent chapter on experiences on literary translation describes the successful initiatives of a number of PEN Centers to address the need for more translation into English, as well as significant efforts by other institutions, both public and private, to engage with this issue in ways that can make a  difference. Finally, the conclusions try to summarize the main findings of the report and offer a general view of literary translation in today’s world. Three distinguished writers, Paul Auster, Narcís Comadira, and Ngu~g ~ wa Thiong’o, have contributed literary depth to what might otherwise have been a lamentably technocratic document by composing texts on the subject of translation especially for this report.

Bielsa, Esperanca (2005). [e-Book]  Globalisation as Translation: An Approximation to the Key but Invisible Role of Translation in Globalisation, CSGR Texto completo: http://wrap.warwick.ac.uk/1956/1/WRAP_Bielsa_wp16305.pdf

Two fundamental features of globalisation are the overcoming of spatial barriers and the centrality of knowledge and information. These developments, which result in the increased mobility of people and objects and a heightened contact between different linguistic communities (mass tourism, migration, information and media flows) signal, in spite of the predominance of English as a global lingua franca, an exponential growth in the significance of translation, which becomes a key mediator of global communication. Yet language and translation have been systematically neglected in the current literature on globalisation. This article critically examines current theories of globalisation and interrogates their lack of attention towards translation. It formulates an attempt to understand the significance of translation in a global context, conceptualising its analytical place in globalisation theory and its key role in the articulation of the global and the local.

Durand Guiziou, Marie-Claire, Francisca A. Muñoz Ojeda, et al. (1994). Los falsos amigos en su contexto. In: Actas del II Coloquio sobre los estudios de filología francesa en la Universidad española : (Almagro, 3-5 de mayo de 1993), [Cuenca] : Servicio de Publicaciones de la Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha, 1994: 103-110. http://dialnet.unirioja.es/descarga/articulo/613643.pdf

Este trabajo se inscribe dentro de una línea de investigación sobre los falsos amigos, fruto de unas observaciones pedagógicas llevadas a cabo en el aula universitaria y que han dado lugar a varias publicaciones (véase Gonzalez Santana R.D. y al., 1993a) y 1993b)). La presente comunicación está orientada hacia las implicaciones de estos falsos amigos en la adquisición de la competencia traslativa así como a su tratamiento mediante unas aplicaciones prácticas. Los falsos amigos dan lugar a faltas que perjudican la comunicación en el aprendizaje del francés lengua extranjera. El contacto entre dos lenguas vecinas ­como el castellano y el francés­ da lugar a numerosas interferencias1. El problema de las palabras supuestamente amigas en el plano semántico LM/LE y LE/LM (lengua materna/lengua extranjera) tiene igualmente consecuencias importantes en la adquisición de la actividad traslativa.

Dzeyk, Waldemar (2010). [e-Book]  Effektiv und nutzerfreundlich. Einsatz von semantischen Technologien und Usability-Methoden zur Verbesserung der medizinischen Literatursuche, Deutsche Zentralbibliothek für Medizin (ZB MED). Texto completo: http://eprints.rclis.org/14364/

OBJECTIVE: Modern language technology has many advantages in medical information retrieval. In combination with up-to-date search software the linguistic approach leads to more and better results in medical literature search (i.e. relevant hits) for phenomena such as synonyms, translations and linguistic variants (inflection, derivation, word-composition, etc.). Additionally, a normalization of laymen and expert queries can be achieved. The book presents the results of the MorphoSaurus project conducted by the German National Library of Medicine. It describes the implementation and evaluation of a computational linguistic approach to improve the quality of the information retrieval of the MEDPILOT medical search engine. Furthermore, the usability of the user interface was evaluated and improved. METHODS: Different collections of test queries were constructed for examining the performance of information retrieval characteristics based on a content analysis of the MEDPILOT log file. In addition, a usability test with 24 physicians was conducted. RESULTS: The findings show that the new search architecture performs much better than the old MEDPILOT system. Besides these results a benchmarking with competing search engines such as PubMed, GoPubMed, Scirus, Google and Google Scholar demonstrated the superior search characteristics of the new search system. Usability tests have shown that the implemented help functions such as “faceted search” or the “auto suggest function” could improve medical literature search. Physicians stated that they found the new interface more satisfying than the old one and that they felt well supported by most of the implemented help functions. Results and consequences for the development of user centered design and usability improvements of the search engine are discussed. CONCLUSION: The combination of up up-to-date search software, semantic technologies and the application of usability principles has shown a great potential for effective information retrieval in medical literature search. The positive effects of the linguistic approach can be adapted to other content domains for improving the processing of a variety of heterogeneous databases.

Hatim, Basil  and Jeremy  Munday (2004). [e-Book]  Translation: An advanced resource book. New York, Routledge. Texto completo: http://rahbar.iauq.ac.ir/imagesMasterPage/Files/rahbar/file/Translation-An%20Advanced%20Resource%20Book_041528306X.pdf

Translation, both commercial and literary, is an activity that is growing phenomenally in today’s globalized world. The study of translation, an interdisciplinary field known as Translation Studies, has also developed enormously in the past twenty years. It interfaces with a wide range of other disciplines from linguistics and modern languages to Cultural Studies and postcolonialism. This book attempts to investigate both the practice and the theory of translation in an accessible and systematic way. It is designed specifically with the needs in mind of students of Masters degrees and nal year undergraduates in translation or applied linguistics, research students beginning to investigate the eld, and practising translators who wish to examine the theory behind the practice. It is hoped that it will also provide useful insights and examples for more experienced researchers.

Kant, Immanuel, Maria Chiara Pievatolo, et al. (2011). [e-Book]  Sette scritti politici liberi, Firenze University Press. Texto completo: http://eprints.rclis.org/15848/

Hyper-textual, open access Italian translation of Kant’s seven major political writings. Its preface tries to explain why the translations of classics should be open access and open licensed. The editor’s annotation to the essay “On the Injustice of Reprinting Books” contends that Kant, far from being an intellectual property forerunner, builds his thesis on the relationship between the author and the public and justifies the publisher’s right only as far as he is acting as a spokesperson.

Lessig, Lawrence (2004). [e-Book]  Cultura libre: cómo los grandes medios están utilizando la tecnología y las leyes para encerrar la cultura y controlar la creatividad. Chile, LOM Ediciones. Texto completo: http://libros.metabiblioteca.org/bitstream/001/122/8/956-282-745-3.pdf

Free Culture debería traducirse en realidad con un título bimembre: “Cultura libre”, pero también “Liberen la cultura”.Lawrence Lessig, catedrático de Derecho en la Universidad de Harvard, se ha convertido en uno de los activistas más prestigiosos y reconocidos por sus trabajos en el campo de los derechos y libertades en Internet. Muy especialmente por su conocimiento y compromiso frente a los problemas y perjuicios que suscita la actual legislación sobre propiedad intelectual para el progreso cultural en el contexto de la sociedad digital. La tesis principal, que viene a defender a lo largo de este libro es que hoy en día junto a la privacidad, la forma en la que se están articulando las leyes del copyright es la principal barrera para el desarrollo de la cultura tal como se viene desarrollando y tal como la entendieron los padres fundadores de la Constitución de los EE UU. Tras la digitalización de los contenidos y con la llegada de Internet la aplicación restrictiva del copyright sitúa a los usuarios y a los nuevos creadores como potenciales infractores, en la mayoría de los casos incluso en posición de indefensión frente a los gestores y herederos de los derechos del copyright. En el libro Lessig aborda de forma muy detallada la evolución de los derechos de propiedad intelectual en los EEUU a lo largo de su historia. Entre los casos que se analizan, Lessig hace especial hincapié en el papel que desempeñan grupos como Disney o los lobbys vinculados a los grandes medios y productoras que presionan al Congreso para prorrogar el copyright de forma indefi nida, dándose la paradoja de que grupos y creadores que se han benefi ciado de la creación de dominio público durante años se han convertido en los mas convencidos defensores de su extinción. El libro muestra un panorama ciertamente preocupante ante el futuro. Por este motivo el título del libro, como bien indica el traductor puede entenderse como cultura libre, en el sentido que se aplica para el software libre o también podría traducirse por el imperativo, sin duda más elocuente: “Liberen la cultura”.

Lira Dias, Massilia María (2010). [e-Book]  Los conectores discursivos desde la retórica contrastiva: uso y contraste español-portugués. Salamanca, Universidad de Salamanca. Texto completo: http://gredos.usal.es/jspui/bitstream/10366/83132/1/DLE_LiraDiasMM_Losconectoresdiscursivos.pdf

[ES]La presente tesis de doctorado se centra en un an??lisis de tres grupos de conectores discursivos en espa??ol y en portugu??s: los opositivos, los causales-consecutivos y los aditivos, desde una perspectiva ret??rico-contrastiva (RC), fundamentada en las contribuciones te??ricas de Portol??s (1998;1999,2004); Montol??o (2001); Mart??n Zorraquino y Portol??s (1999), Dom??nguez (2002;2007), Connor (1996;2001) y Trujillo (2001,2002 y 2003), con el fin validar o matizar la hip??tesis de la RC cuando sostiene que existen diferencias significativas en la organizaci??n de los textos escritos en distintas lenguas y en diferentes contextos culturales. Por tanto, el objetivo fundamental de ese trabajo ha sido el de identificar las semejanzas y diferencias existentes en el uso de los conectores que marcan relaciones argumentativas en esas dos lenguas, en el g??nero discursivo cartas. Para ello, se analiz?? una muestra compuesta 240 cartas: un corpus de referencia textual en lengua espa??ola, con 120 cartas escritas por estudiantes brasile??os para el examen de Diploma de Espa??ol Lengua Extranjera – DELE, en el nivel superior (DSE), y el otro, con 120 cartas escritas por lectores de una revista de circulaci??n nacional en Brasil, la Revista Veja. Con base en esos corpora se han seleccionado los conectores y analizado su comportamiento discursivo, con el fin de identificar el grado de similitud, las diferencias sem??ntico-pragm??ticas, los valores socioling????sticos relacionados a la frecuencia de uso y las interferencias provocadas por la L1 en el uso de esos elementos en la L2. Concretamente, en el campo de la RC ese estudio discursivo nos ha permitido afirmar que desde el punto de vista de la utilizaci??n de los conectores argumentativos, dichos elementos, en su gran mayor??a, establecen relaciones argumentativas con id??nticos valores y matices sem??ntico-pragm??ticos en espa??ol y en portugu??s, lo que nos permite acercamos m??s al t??rmino transferencia que interferencia en su uso ret??rico-argumentativo.

Madramany Bonet, Carles (2011). [e-Book]  Técnicas de doblaje aplicadas al corto Heartless: The Story of the Tin Man. Valencia, Universidad Politécnica de Valencia. Texto completo: http://riunet.upv.es/bitstream/handle/10251/14728/Memoria.pdf?sequence=1

El objeto de estudio de esta tesina es el cortometraje “Heartless: The Story of the Tin Man”. Se trata de una producción de la compañía “Whitestone Motion Pictures” ubicada en Atlanta. Esta productora ha autorizado, con   ines educativos, a que se apliquen las técnicas de doblaje y postproducción a su cortometraje, para obtener la versión en español.

Marín Gallego, Cristina (2007). [e-Book]  La traducción para el doblaje de películas multilingües: Babel. Texto completo: http://acceda.ulpgc.es/bitstream/10553/4064/1/0536366_00000_0000.pdf

¿Cómo traducimos una película en la que aparecen diferentes lenguas? ¿Qué técnicas de traducción adoptamos? ¿Subtitulación o doblaje para una película multilingüe? ¿Adaptamos los referentes culturales? Todas estas preguntas surgirían al encontrarse con un encargo de traducción de este tipo. Posiblemente muchas de ellas las respondería el estudio de doblaje, teniendo en cuenta al cliente y a la audiencia. Sin embargo, este trabajo intenta responder a estas preguntas teniendo en cuenta también la teoría de la traducción y de los estudios culturales, tomando como ejemplo la película Babel.

Martín García, María Cruz (2011). [e-Book]  Inhibitory control in bilingualism. Granada, Universidad de Granada. Departamento de Psicología Experimental y Fisiología del Comportamiento. Texto completo: http://www.tdx.cat/handle/10803/80883

Tesis Univ. Granada. Departamento de Psicología Experimental y Fisiología del Comportamiento. Leída el 4 de noviembre de 2011

Mayoral Asensio, Roberto (1997). [e-Book]  La traducción de la variación lingüística. Sevilla, Excma. Diputación Provincial de Soria. Texto completo: http://www.ugr.es/~rasensio/docs/La_traduccion_variacion_linguistica.pdf

La traducción de la variedad lingüística estudia la traducción de las formas de hablar relacionadas con parámetros sociolingüísticos y situacionales, no sólo aquellos aspectos que dependen de la definición del perfil de un texto sino también en los niveles microtextuales señalados por marcadores específicos. La descripción del problema se hace a la luz de las aportaciones anteriores de la lingüística, la sociolingüística y los estudios de traducción. Tras una crítica de estas aportaciones, que todavía encuentran un enorme eco en el análisis de la traducción de nuestros días utilizando modelos lingüísticos que -sorprendentemente- ya van hacia las cuatro décadas de vida, este trabajo ofrece nuevas perspectivas de análisis del problema basadas en estudios empíricos, enfoques cognitivos y aportaciones de la teoría funcionalista de la traducción.

Nolan, James (2005). [e-Book]  Interpretation Techniques and Exercises Clevedon. Texto completo: http://tienganhdhm.com/Images/file/Intepretation-Techniques%20and%20Exercises.pdf

Over recent decades the explosive growth of globalization and regional integration has fueled parallel growth in multi-lingual conferences. Although conference interpreting has come of age as a profession, interpreter training programs have had varied success, pointing to the need for an instructional manual which covers the subject comprehensively. This book seeks to fill that need by providing a structured syllabus and an overview of interpretation accompanied by exercises, developed for the classroom, in the main aspects of the art. It is meant to serve as a practical guide for interpreters and as a complement to interpreter training programs, particularly those for students preparing for conference interpreting in international governmental and business settings.

Pérez Velasco, Juan Manuel (2001). Los falsos amigos: Adquisición de lenguas y cambio linguístico. In: Presencia y renovación de la lingüistica francesa, Salamanca : Ediciones Universidad de Salamanca, 2001: 377-384. http://dialnet.unirioja.es/descarga/articulo/600474.pdf

En el mundo de la pedagogía y en el de la traductología, especialmente, se viene hablando desde hace casi un siglo del fenómeno de los falsos amigos. Definidos como palabras de dos lenguas diferentes que presentan semejanzas formales y significados diferentes 1 (fr. table, esp. tabla ; fr. large, esp. largo ; fr. manège, esp. manejo…), los falsos amigos no han pasado de ser considerados como un fenómeno curioso que produce efectos más o menos graciosos o anecdóticos

Pwc (2012). [e-Book]  Translation Bureau Benchmarking and Comparative Analysis : Final Report May 15, 2012. Otawa, PWC. Texto completo: http://www.btb.gc.ca/publications/documents/rapport-report-benchmarking-eng.pdf

The Government of Canada’s Translation Bureau (‘the Bureau’) engaged PricewaterhouseCoopers LLP (‘PwC’) between January 16 and May 15, 2012 to conduct a benchmarking and comparative analysis study.  The objectives of the comparative analysis study
were to provide: • Information and analysis on the capacity of the Canadian industry to meet national and government demand; and
• Benchmarks for good practices in linguistic services with other organizations of comparable size at the national and international level.

Pym, Anthony, Alexander  Perekrestenko, et al. (2006). [e-Book]  Translation Technology and its Teaching (with much mention of localization). Tarragona, Intercultural Studies Group. Texto completo: http://isg.urv.es/library/papers/isgbook.pdf

More people than ever are being trained to translate. However, the most dynamic sector of the labor market requires more than mere translation. The demand is increasingly for professional competence in a range of new technologies. Translators now need professional competence in the use of programs for translation memories, terminology management, sometimes content management, and increasingly the integration of various forms of automatic or semi-automatic translation. At the same time, the use of these technologies is being associated, rightly or wrongly, with the development of what is known as the “localization industry”. Faced with these new technologies, and with the new terms, many of the institutions that traditionally train translators are asking how, and to what extent, the existing curricula need be changed. The papers brought together in this volume seek to address this question in various ways. All have been drawn from various activities organized by the Intercultural Studies Group in recent years. The first papers seek to give a general background to the recent developments in translation technology. The paper on “Technology and Translation”, by José Ramón Biau Gil and Anthony Pym, was first written as a chapter of a university-level coursebook in translation, to be published in Italy. Its aim is not only to introduce the range of new tools available, but to encourage critical thought about the use of electronic technologies. The second paper in this introductory section, Bert Esselink’s “The Evolution of Localization”, was first published in 2003 and has been updated for this volume. It tells a similar story of technology, but this time from within the industry. Esselink traces the expansion of the localization industry from a narrow concern with software to a major way of thinking about the marketing of products across borders. Section two of this volume is drawn from the online conference on Localization and Translator Training, which took place on the ITIT list (Innovations in Translator Training) from 19 to 29 November 2003, with about 530 participants. The conference was based on number of position papers written by representatives of some of the main translator-training institutions. In most cases, those papers were responses to a brief questionnaire designed to explore the relations between the terms “translation” and “localization” with specific reference to training needs. The replies reproduced here are by Minako O’Hagan from Dublin City University in Ireland, Bob Clark, Jo Drugan, Tony Hartley and Daming Wu from the University of Leeds, UK, and Patrick Drouin from the University of Montreal. The online discussions that followed those papers can be seen on the ITIT  list ( http://groups.yahoo.com/group/itit/). What we present here are summaries of some of the main topics, written up by students in the Tarragona PhD program

Ramírez Zúñiga, Andrea (2003). [e-Book]  Doblaje versus subtitulaje : Comparación traductológica, Universidad Nacional. Texto completo: http://www.mogap.net/pmt/AndreaRamirez.pdf

El presente trabajo consiste en una investigación acerca del doblaje y subtitulaje audiovisual a través de la comparación de ambas modalidades en términos de género y contexto diferentes. El propósito del análisis se hará en función de determinar los procesos traductológicos empleados como lo es definir la labor del traductor dentro de un área muy moderna y por tanto flexible para poner en práctica la traducción profesional. Esta monografía se basa en la traducción audiovisual, que contrasta el doblaje y el subtitulaje como modalidades traductológicas distintas que tienen por meta dar a conocer a miles de espectadores, películas producidas en países extranjeros. La idea consistió en escoger dos películas, Shrek y The Sound of Music de las cuales se seleccionaron tres pasajes o diálogos. Luego, se procedió
a escribir las transcripciones, utilizando la versión original en inglés, la subtitulada y la versión doblada al español, de manera que se delimitara el proceso y trabajo traductológico, el tipo de acepción, el contexto o ambiente y más; todo esto con el único objetivo de determinar cual modalidad requiere de más trabajo por parte del traductor. Como resultado se da la búsqueda de equivalencias según contextos socio culturales y se destaca el tiempo como factor indispensable en el desarrollo de la traducción audiovisual, sin dejar de lado consideraciones respecto a políticas lingüísticas o restricciones sociales, léxico, mensaje, cliente y público meta. La investigación en sí, fue favorable al revelar muchos detalles ocultos en la traducción de películas, la variación de género cinematográfico cambia el tipo de léxico y la intencionalidad y a grandes rasgos se puede decir que el doblaje en términos traductológicos es mucho mejor en las dos películas estudiadas, aunque cabe destacar que la idea original del subtitulaje, es decir en pocas palabras lo que sucede en una imagen junto con el diálogo, y el doblaje por su parte consiste en cambiar la banda sonora, es decir, las voces serán al español y deberán ir sincronizadas con los movimientos visuales y gestuales de un actor.

Shiyab, Said M. , Marilyn Gaddis  Rose, et al. (2010). [e-Book]  Globalization and Aspects of Translation. Cambridge Cambridge Scholars Publishing. Texto completo: http://www.c-s-p.org/flyers/978-1-4438-1965-7-sample.pdf

The present book came to light as a result of the ideas discussed during our 1st International Conference on Translation/Interpretation and the Impact of Globalization, held at the United Arab Emirates University. I am grateful to Marilyn Gaddis Rose, Juliane House, and John Duval for their dedication, efforts and professionalism. Their vision and every-present energy helped me understand and in fact appreciate the many venues within the fields of language, linguistics and translation. This book has attempted to capture the quintessence or the epitome
embodied in the concepts of translation and globalization. It also attempted to bridge the gap between the globalizing and globalized realms. Above all, it brings to light the diversity of areas in globalization and aspects of translation that have impacted the notions of cultural  communication, translator’s code of ethics, metaphorical meaning, code switching, media, etc. Scholars from all over the world contributed to this book, representing counties such USA, Canada, Germany, Portugal, Switzerland, Belgium, Austria, Tunisia, Bahrain, Jordan, and United Arab Emirates. Those scholars have done their research in their home countries on other parts of the world. Because of this diversity, I believe this book genuinely offers an international experience. In Chapter 1, Said Shiyab examines different aspects of globalization in relation to translation. Faces of globalization are highlighted to make the point that globalization does not only evolve around language and/or translation changes, but also around information technology. One of the most significant points that this chapter addresses is that scholars, including translators and interpreters, cannot control how languages change as globalization is a result of technological advancements our society is witnessing these days and, as a consequence of this, our languages changes in accordance with the translation market needs and those who use it for marketing purposes.

Somssich, Réka , Judit  Várnai, et al. (2010). [e-Book]  Lawmaking in the EU multilingual environment Luxemburg, European Commission. Texto completo: http://bookshop.europa.eu/en/study-on-lawmaking-in-the-eu-multilingual-environment-pbHC3110678/downloads/HC-31-10-678-EN-C/HC3110678ENC_002.pdf?FileName=HC3110678ENC_002.pdf&SKU=HC3110678ENC_PDF&CatalogueNumber=HC-31-10-678-EN-C

La politique du multilinguisme de l’Union européenne poursuit trois objectifs: – Encourager l’apprentissage des langues et promouvoir la diversité linguistique dans la société; – Favoriser une économie multilingue performante; – Donner aux citoyens un accès à la législation, aux procédures et aux informations de l’Union européenne dans leur propre langue. La présente étude aborde le troisième volet de cette politique, et plus précisément le processus d’élaboration multilingue du droit européen, le rôle des différents acteurs institutionnels dans ce processus et les méthodes visant à assurer la bonne qualité rédactionnelle, juridique et linguistique des actes juridiques produits par les institutions européennes.

Story, Alan, Colin Darch, et al. (2008). [e-Book]  El dossier copia/sur: problemas económicos, políticos, e ideológicos del copyright (derecho de autor) en el sur global, Copy/South Research Group. Texto completo: http://eprints.rclis.org/11451/

In 2005, a group of scholars and activists, mostly from the global South, created the Copy/South Research Group to analyse, criticise, and confront the oppressive nature of current global copyright regimes, such as those defended by the World Intellectual Property Organisation, and similar ones around the globe. In May 2006, 22 of us, including 15 people from the global South, published THE COPY/SOUTH DOSSIER: Issues in the economics, politics, and ideology of copyright in the global South. The aim of the Dossier was to open up a critical and radical debate on the real impact of copyright laws and how they affect the daily lives of people living in more than 150 developing countries of the global South. We also highlighted issues that are not unique to the Global South, but also affect both sides of the North-South divide. This publication of more than 50 articles was addressed to researchers, educators, librarians, musicians, activists, organizations concerned about access to knowledge, and all of those who want to learn more about the oppressive global role of copyright laws and, in particular, their largely negative role in the developing countries of the global South. Given the democratic objectives of the Copy/South Research Group, the Dossier was not restricted by copyright. Therefore, it has been accessed openly and freely in both electronic and paper formats by thousands of readers from around the world in English. But English is not spoken by all citizens in the global South. With this in mind, the entire 200-page Dossier was translated into Spanish in late 2007 by an enthusiastic team of voluntary translators from Argentina, Bolivia, Cuba, Mexico, Spain, and Venezuela. As for this Spanish version, made with the support of the Intellectual Property Automous Service (SAPI), from the Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela, we must acknowledge the prior SAPI’s General Director Eduardo Samán for promoting the making of this translation. Besides the general revision of Gerardo Cárdenas and his labor as main translator, some other volunteers translated or revised important sections of the Spanish edition: María Jesús Morillo (Spain), Oscar Pérez Peña and Gilda Gil (Cuba), Edgardo Civallero (Argentina) and Rafael Carreño (Venezuela), who coordinated the process of translation in 2007. Also it is worth to mention the additional colaboration of Ana Lía López (Bolivia), Richard Castro, Rafael Bellota and Carmen Chirinos (Venezuela), Zapopan Muela and Gonzalo Lara (Mexico), and Lilian Álvarez (Cuba). But what is still more extraordinary about this Spanish translation is that it was completely coordinated and edited by the Servicio Autonomo de la Propiedad Intelectual (SAPI) of the democratic government of the Venezuelan Bolivarian Republic. The Dossier provides “useful material to introduce this topic to teachers and students” and does a good job of “summarizing a complex and conflicting situation” for developing countries, Jumersi La Rosa, SAPI’s new director, said last week in announcing the release of the Spanish edition. She has written a special new introduction for the Spanish-language edition. The Copy South Research Group is very pleased that the radical message of resistance found in the Dossier can now be read by thousands of Spanish-language speakers who are questioning the current copyright regime and who hopefully will be ignited by the ideas in the Dossier to take up the fight against oppressive regimes based on copyright. You can get a copy of the Dossier in Spanish and English by downloading it, free of charge, at http://www.copysouth.org . We also still have a limited number of printed and bound copies of the English-language version of the Dossier. If you would to be mailed a copy of the English-language version, which contains eight posters, send us an e-mail (contact@copysouth.org) and include your full postal details. COPY/SOUTH RESEARCH GROUP, 28 April 2008.

Thesauri, Working Group on Guidelines for Multilingual (2009). [e-Book]  Guidelines for Multilingual Thesauri. La Haya, IFLA. Texto completo: http://archive.ifla.org/VII/s29/pubs/Profrep115.pdf

Multilingual indexing vocabularies exist in different forms, e.g. subject heading lists, thesauri, enumerative classifications, analytico-synthetic classifications. In a multilingual indexing vocabulary both the terms and the relationships are represented in more than one language. In this document the emphasis is on multilingual thesauri. Since the drawing up of the Guidelines for the Establishment and Development of Multilingual Thesauri in the 1970s two developments have played important roles in the thinking about multilingual access to information: the building of nonsymmetrical thesauri and the linking of two or more thesauri and/or controlled vocabularies.

Yueh-Wen, Fang (2012). [e-Book]  Falsos amigos español-inglés en estudiantes de español como lengua extranjera: el caso de taiwanés. Salamanca, Universidad de Salamanca. Texto completo: http://gredos.usal.es/jspui/bitstream/10366/115556/1/DTI_YuehWenF_FalsosAmigosEspa%c3%b1olIngl%c3%a9s.pdf

[ES] Esta tesis estudia los falsos amigos entre los idiomas espa??ol-ingl??s que se le presentan a estudiantes taiwaneses en el proceso de aprendizaje de la lengua espa??ola, y se proporcionan algunas soluciones a este tipo de problemas.

Seguir

Recibe cada nueva publicación en tu buzón de correo electrónico.

Únete a otros 4.665 seguidores