Alerta artículos de revsita 2011/05/12


Alerta artículos de revsita 2011/05/12

Andres, D. and rte “Voices of the invisible presence: Diplomatic interpreters in post-World War II Japan.” Interpreting vol. 12, n. 2 (2010).  pp. 268-272.
            Kumiko Torikai. Voices of the invisible presence: Diplomatic interpreters in post-World War II Japan. Amsterdam/Philadelphia: John Benjamins, 2009. 197 pp. ISBN 978 90 272 2427 9. Reviewed by Dörte Andres

Antoine, F. “Synergies Italie.” Babel: Revue internationale de la traduction/International Journal of Translation vol. 57, n. 1 (2011).  pp. 117-122.
            Synergies Italie 4 (2008) : « Les mots migrateurs : l’interculturel en oeuvre. » (143 pages) Numéro coordonné par Marie-Berthe Vittoz, Professeur à l’Université de Turin (Italie) Compte-rendu de Fabrice Antoine, Professeur à l’Université Charles-de-Gaulle, Lille 3, BP 60144, 59652 Villeneuve d’ Ascq Cédex, France. E-mail:

Bidoli, C. J. K. “International perspectives on sign language interpreter education.” Interpreting vol. 12, n. 2 (2010).  pp. 273-279.
            Jemina Napier (Ed.). International perspectives on sign language interpreter education. Washington, DC: Gallaudet University Press, 2009. 312 pp. ISBN 1 56368 411 X, 978 1 56368 411 1. Reviewed by Cynthia Jane Kellett Bidoli

Bontempo, K. and J. Napier “Evaluating emotional stability as a predictor of interpreter competence and aptitude for interpreting.” Interpreting vol. 13, n. 1 (2011).  pp. 85-105.
            This paper proposes that variance in interpreter performance is dependent on factors of both general cognitive ability and personality. Whilst there is no doubt of the interplay between individual personality traits and job performance across many occupations, the greatest interest lies in determining which traits play the most important role; and to what extent these variables impact on learning and achievement. The paper reports on a study of 110 accredited signed language interpreters in Australia. Psychological constructs of self-efficacy, goal orientation and negative affectivity were measured, as were interpreter ratings of self-perceived competence as practitioners. The most significant finding revealed the dimension of emotional stability (represented on the negative end of the continuum by traits of anxiety and neuroticism, and measured in this study by the negative affectivity scale) as a predictor of interpreter’s self-perceived competence. Based on these findings, recommendations for admission testing and interpreter education curricula are discussed.

Bueno-Alonso, J. L. “Eorlas arhwate eard begeatan: Revisiting Brunanburhs (hi)story, style and imagery in translation.” Babel: Revue internationale de la traduction/International Journal of Translation vol. 57, n. 1 (2011).  pp. 58-75.
            The poetic insert known as <i>The Battle of Brunanburh</i> (<i>Anglo-Saxon Chronicle</i> 937) constitutes by no means one of the most interesting texts for the building of the Old English heroic geography. Its author, as Marsden states (2005: 86), “builds a sense of national destiny, using style, diction and imagery of heroic poetry”. There are many interesting issues to deal with when you want to revise how the elements Marsden quotes are used in the construction of a poem that uses history as a narrative device to build the inner story of the poem experimenting with the topics (style, diction, imagery) of heroic poetry. If the poem constitutes such a crucial text, if its emphasis is on “English nationalism” in an historical perspective rather than on individual heroics, as Marsden points out (2005: 86), it seems most evident that a careful consideration of these topics has to be made when translating the text into other languages. The aim of this article is to revisit the poem and its topics and to see how that careful consideration has been accomplished in several important English (Treharne 2004, Hamer 1970, Rodrigues 1996, Garmonsway 1953, Swanton 2000) and Spanish (Lerate & Lerate 2000, Bravo 1998, Bueno 2007) translations that consider the poem in isolation, in the context of the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle or as an excuse for poetic inspiration, i.e. the case of Borges’ 1964 and 1975 poems and Tennyson’s 1880 text.

Calzada Perez, M. “Una aproximacion empirica a la clasificacion y traduccion de las figuras retoricas en la publicidad.” Babel: Revue internationale de la traduction/International Journal of Translation vol. 57, n. 1 (2011).  pp. 32-57.
            Since ancient times the suasive value of rhetorical figures has been vastly studied. In fact, Aristotle himself argued that the aim of rhetoric was not just to persuade but to find the best methods of persuasion (Aristotle, Retorica, ed. 1990). These methods have been frequently used in advertising, where they are employed to capture the consumer’s attention and, consequently, to sell the advertised product. However (despite the frequent appearance of rhetorical figures in advertising), there is a scarcity of studies on the role of these persuasive mechanisms in the translation of publicity. Bearing upon the “new rhetoric”, the present paper has a twofold purpose. On the one hand, it aims to import a clear taxonomy of rhetorical figures from advertising into translation studies and subsequently to illustrate the transfer of these figures. On the other hand, it analyses the behaviour of rhetorical figures in the translation process by means of an empirical investigation whose goal it is to further categorise them in a systematic and rational way. Drawing upon the seminal work of McQuarrie and his collaborators, the paper performs a quantitative analysis of a corpus of 120 matching pairs consisting of English advertisements and their existing Spanish counterparts. Results evidence that a great majority of rhetorical figures are “translated”, thus confirming the globalising tendencies of advertising.

Dimitrova, B. E. “Interpreting studies and beyond: A tribute to Miriam Shlesinger; Efforts and models in interpreting and translation research: A tribute to Daniel Gile.” Interpreting vol. 12, n. 2 (2010).  pp. 249-258.
            Franz Pöchhacker, Arnt Lykke Jakobsen and Inger Mees (Eds.). Interpreting studies and beyond: A tribute to Miriam Shlesinger. Copenhagen: Samfundslitteratur, 2007. 312 pp. ISBN 978 87 593 1349 7 [Copenhagen Studies in Language 35]. Gyde Hansen, Andrew Chesterman and Heidrun Gerzymisch- Arbogast (Eds.). Efforts and models in interpreting and translation research: A tribute to Daniel Gile.  Amsterdam/Philadelphia: John Benjamins, 2008. ISBN 978 90 272 1689 2 [Benjamins Translation Library 80]. Reviewed by Birgitta Englund Dimitrova

Disler, C. “Before Babel: In memoriam Daniel Simeoni and Brian Peckham.” Babel: Revue internationale de la traduction/International Journal of Translation vol. 57, n. 1 (2011).  pp. 1-14.
            The biblical story of Babel has long served as a powerful image for translators in western civilization, stimulating much productive discourse about translation history, mythology, theory and practice. It is therefore interesting to note that the biblical story itself, despite its apparent antiquity and remarkable brevity, has been strongly influenced by even earlier sources stemming from societies antedating its ancient Israelite authors. This article examines some of the most interesting examples of cross-cultural and intertextual references from ancient proverbs and writings including well-known works such as the <i>Gilgamesh</i> epic and the Babylonian creation epic, <i>Enûma Eliš</i>. The delightfully subtle translingual wordplay in the name `Babel’ is also clarified. The biblical Tower of Babel reveals a startling complexity resulting from the wealth of intercultural and multilingual contacts that constitute the distant foundation of western tradition

Gal, M. n, et al. “Juan Jose Martinez Sierra: Humor y traduccion. Los Simpson cruzan la frontera.” Babel: Revue internationale de la traduction/International Journal of Translation vol. 57, n. 1 (2011).  pp. 106-108.
            Juan José Martínez Sierra: Humor y traducción. Los Simpson cruzan la frontera. 2008. Publicacions Universitat Jaume I. Servei de communicació i Publicacions: 12071 Castelló de la Plana. 271 pp. Col·lecció Estudis sobre la traducción. Núm. 15. ISBN 978-84-8021-636-4 Reseña de Anabel Galán-Mañas, Departament de Traducció i d’Interpretació, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona. E-mail:

Harris, B. “Origins and conceptual analysis of the term traductologie/translatology.” Babel: Revue internationale de la traduction/International Journal of Translation vol. 57, n. 1 (2011).  pp. 15-31.
            The term <i>traductologie</i> was coined in the early 1970s to correspond to the establishment of translation as a valid object of scientific and academic study. Its English equivalent is usually <i>translation studies</i> but sometimes translatology.<p>Traductologie has two conceptual levels: the metalevel of study and analysis and the object level of what is thus examined, namely translations and translating. Both levels are variegated. The metalevel can usefully be mapped into broad `paradigms’ or disciplinary approaches: literary, linguistic, semiotic, philosophical, historical, lexico-terminological, automated (MT), prescriptive and pedagogical, scientific-experimental, text and corpus oriented, process oriented, social etc. The object level is traditionally divided between written translation and oral translation (<i>interpretation</i>), and the former is often categorized by `text types’.<p>Permutations of the meta and object categories characterize different varieties of traductologie. When discoursing about it, one should be aware that a statement that is meaningful in one variety may be meaningless in another.<p>

Hertog, E. “Multilingualism and educational interpreting: Innovation and delivery.” Interpreting vol. 12, n. 2 (2010).  pp. 263-267.
            Marlene Verhoef and Theodorus du Plessis (Eds.). Multilingualism and educational interpreting: Innovation and delivery. Pretoria: Van Schaik Publishers, 2008. 215 pp. ISBN 978 0 627 02777 2 [Studies in Language Policy in South Africa 7]. Reviewed by Erik Hertog

Hlavac, J. “Shifts in the language of interpretation with bi- or multi-lingual clients: Circumstances and implications for interpreters.” Interpreting vol. 12, n. 2 (2010).  pp. 186-213.
            Shifting from one language of interpretation to another (i.e. from language a and language x to language a and language y) is not an unknown phenomenon in mediated interactions between bi- or multi-lingual clients and multilingual interpreters. Typically, this occurs when clients wish to shift to their dominant language and interpreters also have proficiency (and accreditation) in this language. Twenty Australian-based interpreters (out of a sample of sixty) reported engaging in shifting in the course of interpreting. Language combinations and circumstances motivating clients to shift are presented and systematised to show that the two largest groups of potential shifters are clients who wish to revert to their (chronologically) first acquired language and those who shift from a ‘national’ or ‘majority-group’ language to a ‘minority’ or ‘regional’ one spoken in their country of origin. Responses to hypothetical shifts in the language of interpretation are discussed in which interpreter informants provide acceptability judgements of courses of action and justifications for accepting ­ or refusing to accept ­ a shift in the language of interpretation.

Horv and I. th “Creativity in interpreting.” Interpreting vol. 12, n. 2 (2010).  pp. 146-159.
            The objective of this paper is to examine how the findings of psychological research concerning creativity can be explored within the framework of interpreting studies. I will begin by reviewing the literature on the psychology of creativity, followed by the presentation and analysis of an empirical survey. Finally, I will suggest that creativity in interpreting can be examined on three levels, depending on the aspect we are focusing on: (1) the products; (2) mental processes; or (3) the behaviour of the interpreter. In the first case, the primary object is the product, while in the second and third, it is the process. What makes interpreting a special area of study in terms of creativity is not only the creative nature of the mental processes involved, but also, and perhaps even primarily, the creativity required of interpreters in terms of their professional behaviour in a communicational situation, where they are present but in which they are not natural participants.

Kalina, S. “Catherine Chabasse. Gibt es eine Begabung fur das Simultandolmetschen? Erstellung eines Dolmetscheignungstests.” Interpreting vol. 13, n. 1 (2011).  pp. 149-153.
            Catherine Chabasse. Gibt es eine Begabung für das Simultandolmetschen? Erstellung eines Dolmetscheignungstests. Berlin: SAXA, 2010. 220 pp. (with CD-ROM). ISBN 978-3-939060-19-2 [Beiträge zur Translationswissenschaft 4]. Reviewed by Sylvia Kalina

Karlik, J. “Interpreter-mediated scriptures: Expectation and performance.” Interpreting vol. 12, n. 2 (2010).  pp. 160-185.
            There has been little empirical research into the practice of interpreter mediation of biblical discourse by natural (untrained) interpreters. As a contribution to this under-researched field, this paper first describes the sociolinguistic setting, the attitudes of participants, and the modes in use ­ short-segment consecutive and sight interpreting ­ in a group of Gambian churches where biblical discourse is rendered from English into Manjaku, the language of an immigrant community. Little is understood of the processes by which untrained bilinguals gain recognition in their communities as gifted interpreters. To address this issue, the paper investigates the interpreters’ performances for evidence of audience design, with particular attention to the output of two experienced and respected interpreters in the group. The findings indicate that they interpret biblical discourse in a highly communicative and persuasive manner, accommodating to audience expectations; and that they show a strong sense of responsibility to convey source text meanings faithfully, which is also expected of them by their audiences, though this is not always achieved with the same degree of success. Some suggestions are made for training at the level of fidelity.

Kayyal, M. “From left to right and from right to left: Anton Shammass translations from Hebrew into Arabic and vice versa.” Babel: Revue internationale de la traduction/International Journal of Translation vol. 57, n. 1 (2011).  pp. 76-98.
            The present paper discusses Anton Shammas’s translations of Modern Hebrew literature into Arabic and of Modern Arabic literature into Hebrew. The discussion focuses on the connection between hegemony and translation, particularly in light of the fact that these translations were carried out in the shadow of the political, social and economic hegemony of the Jewish majority over the Arab-Palestinian minority in Israel. Shammas began his translation activities with a series of translations from Hebrew into Arabic, but after establishing his status in Hebrew literature and journalism, he began to translate from Arabic into Hebrew as well. Evidently, this transition entailed a significant change in his translation paradigm and in his attitude toward the culture of the hegemonic majority.<p>His translations from Hebrew into Arabic aimed to preserve and reinforce that hegemony, not only through the direct or indirect involvement of bodies from the source culture and bodies identified with the establishment, but also in the multiple interferences of the Hebrew source language in the Arabic target language, and his disregard for the accepted linguistic, stylistic and ethical norms of the Arab target culture. By contrast, Shammas’s translations from Arabic into Hebrew aimed to challenge the discourse of the hegemonic culture through his meticulous selection of works that represent the oppressed narrative of the Palestinian people and adopting translation policies to enhance acceptability in the target culture, such as non-preservation of the integrity of the source text in the translation, elevation of linguistic and stylistic register in the translated text, and an inclination toward paraphrase.<p>

Macnamara, B. N., A. B. Moore, et al. “Domain-general cognitive abilities and simultaneous interpreting skill.” Interpreting vol. 13, n. 1 (2011).  pp. 121-142.
            This exploratory study examined domain-general cognitive abilities that may serve as aptitudes for interpreting skill by comparing highly skilled sign language interpreters (those considered competent in most interpreting situations) and less skilled sign language interpreters (those considered less than competent in most interpreting situations) on various measures. Specifically, the current study examined the feasibility of predicting interpreter skill level based only on a variety of cognitive abilities and personality traits. We collected data on several cognitive measures, including processing speed, psychomotor speed, cognitive control and task switching ability, fluid intelligence, working memory capacity, and mental flexibility, as well as several personality measures, including risk-taking orientation and emotion-cognition integration style, and intrinsic motivation to engage in complex cognitive tasks. Significant differences emerged between the two groups on both cognitive and personality measures suggesting that a combination of stable domain-general cognitive abilities and personality traits may be responsible for differentiating highly skilled from less skilled interpreters and may therefore be predictive of individuals’ future interpreting effectiveness and skill level.

Ozolins, U. “Telephone interpreting: A comprehensive guide to the profession.” Interpreting vol. 12, n. 2 (2010).  pp. 259-262.
            Nataly Kelly. Telephone interpreting: A comprehensive guide to the profession. [Bloomington:] Trafford Publishing, 2008. 302 pp. ISBN 978 1 4251 8501 5. Reviewed by Uldis Ozolins

Pochhacker, F. “Assessing aptitude for interpreting: The SynCloze test.” Interpreting vol. 13, n. 1 (2011).  pp. 106-120.
            Based on a review of some of the most promising approaches to aptitude testing in the literature this paper proposes a novel task piloted at the Center for Translation Studies of the University of Vienna. The SynCloze test combines an auditory cloze exercise with a task requiring high expressional fluency, that is, rapidly finding contextually appropriate synonymic sentence completions. The rationale and design of the SynCloze test as well as the scoring method, which takes into account both the degree of accuracy and the speed of response, are described. The results of four rounds of testing involving some 120 students in the final stage of their undergraduate studies show that the test effectively discriminates between undergraduate novices and a control group of interpreting students, and students for whom the test language (German) is the A vs. the B language. Most significantly, the test scores correlate, albeit moderately, with students’ performance on an intralingual consecutive interpreting exam at the end of the course.

Puppo, R. “Juan Jesus Zaro (ed.), Traductores y traducciones de literatura y ensayo (18351919).” Babel: Revue internationale de la traduction/International Journal of Translation vol. 57, n. 1 (2011).  pp. 109-116.
            Juan Jesús Zaro (ed.), Traductores y traducciones de literatura y ensayo (1835–1919). 2007. Editorial Comares. Polígono Juncaril, parcela 208, 18220 Albolote (Granada). v + 410 pages. ISBN 978-84-9836-258-9. (Colección Interlingua). Price: €29. Reviewed by Ronald Puppo, Dept. de Llengües Estrangeres, Universitat de Vic, 08500 Vic, Spain. E-mail:

Roberts, R. P. “Claudia V. Angelelli and Holly E. Jacobson (Eds.). Testing and assessment in translation and interpreting studies.” Interpreting vol. 13, n. 1 (2011).  pp. 143-148.
            Claudia V. Angelelli and Holly E. Jacobson (Eds.). Testing and assessment in translation and interpreting studies. Amsterdam/ Philadelphia: John Benjamins, 2009. 386 pp. ISBN 978 90 272 3190 1 / ISBN 978 90 272 8902 5.

Rosiers, A., J. Eyckmans, et al. “A story of attitudes and aptitudes?: Investigating individual difference variables within the context of interpreting.” Interpreting vol. 13, n. 1 (2011).  pp. 53-69.
            Unlike in the early days of interpreter training, most student interpreters nowadays are still in the process of acquiring their target language(s), which raises questions as to which skills ­ linguistic as well as non-linguistic ­ may be required at the outset of interpreter training. This study focuses on individual difference variables and how these relate to interpreting students’ performance. It aims to investigate the ways in which the profiles of translation and interpreting students differ by obtaining information regarding their self-perceived communication competence, self-perception of language skills, anxiety levels and integrative motivation. These profiles are then related to the students’ sight translation performances, arguably a hybrid activity between translating and interpreting that is as cognitively demanding as simultaneous and consecutive interpreting. The students’ performances were assessed by a `blind judge’ along two parameters: (1) overall interpreting performance and (2) fluency. The results suggest that the two groups indeed differ significantly with regard to some of the individual difference variables. However, no significant correlations between these variables and students’ sight translation performance were found.

Roziner, I. and M. Shlesinger “Much ado about something remote: Stress and performance in remote interpreting.” Interpreting vol. 12, n. 2 (2010).  pp. 214-247.
            The article describes the aims, methods, conclusions and recommendations of a large-scale experimental study designed to evaluate the feasibility and implications of the use of remote interpreting (RI) in the European Parliament and other large multilingual settings, where the introduction of a growing number of languages requires the extension of existing arrangements. While the study reveals a relatively small impact on either the quality of the interpreting or interpreters’ health and objective measures of stress, it nevertheless points to considerable psychological effects, including an increase in feelings of isolation and alienation. The study recommends greater use of technological support through the possible introduction of individually computerized workstations and a user-friendly working environment.

Russo, M. “Aptitude testing over the years.” Interpreting vol. 13, n. 1 (2011).  pp. 5-30.
            In the present paper I review the existing literature on aptitude testing with a view to highlighting the main emerging themes: which qualities indicate an aptitude in a prospective interpreter, how these qualities may be measured and which types of test should be administered, the issue of valid and reliable testing, proposals for test designs, and, finally, description of aptitude tests which have identified statistically significant predictors. The focus is on spoken language, but signed-language aptitude testing is also partially covered. Available results so far appear to show that interpreting-related cognitive skills and verbal fluency may be measured and may be predictive both for spoken-language and for signed-language interpreting candidates. In particular, the production of synonyms appears to be a strong aptitude predictor from several independent research projects.

Shaw, S. “Cognitive and motivational contributors to aptitude: A study of spoken and signed language interpreting students.” Interpreting vol. 13, n. 1 (2011).  pp. 70-84.
            This article reports the findings of a causal-comparative study with spoken language (primarily conference) and signed language (primarily public service) interpreting students carried out at four institutions in the European Union in 2008. The study was built on two previous investigations of essential characteristics, as reported by interpreting students and their professors, to measure these characteristics with standardized performance and motivation tests. It grouped participants as “entry-level” or “advanced” depending upon their prior experience in simultaneous interpreting coursework. The study documented cognitive and motivational scores of spoken language (SP) and signed language (SL) interpreting students at both levels, using a computerized neuropsychological screening test and an achievement motivation instrument. Significant differences between the SP and SL students were found in the areas of visual memory, concentration, and internality (belief that success is due to internal causes), and between the advanced and entry-level students in the areas of concentration and the eagerness to learn new concepts in the absence of external rewards.

Shlesinger, M. and F. Pochhacker “Aptitude for interpreting.” Interpreting vol. 13, n. 1 (2011).  pp. 1-4.
            The abilities and skills required for interpreting have been a topic of special interest ever since the very first scientific investigation into the professional occupation of conference interpreting by Jesús Sanz (1930). In the 1960s and 1970s, AIIC, the International Association of Conference Interpreters, made serious efforts to tackle this issue and come to a better understanding of the prerequisites for a career in professional interpreting (see Keiser 1978). Attempts to put the selection of candidates for interpreter training on a more scientific footing have been made since the 1980s, often drawing on insights from cognitive psychology (e.g. Moser-Mercer 1985). And yet, relatively little empirical research on aptitude for interpreting has been carried out to date, despite recurrent doubts over the reliability, validity and predictive power of tasks designed to test candidates for interpreter training programs (e.g. Dodds 1990).

Timarova, S. and H. Salaets “Learning styles, motivation and cognitive flexibility in interpreter training: Self-selection and aptitude.” Interpreting vol. 13, n. 1 (2011).  pp. 31-52.
            Admission testing for conference interpreter training programmes traditionally focuses on skills directly related to the interpreting skills, and while soft skills, such as motivation, are recognised as important, they are not systematically tested or researched. The present study attempts to address this gap by exploring three traits and abilities, namely learning styles, motivation and cognitive flexibility, and to relate them to students’ self-selection for interpreting and to their success on final exams. Three tests were used to compare a group of self-selected interpreting students and applicants (n = 32) and a subgroup of conference interpreting students (n = 14) to a control group of undergraduate students (n = 104), from among whom the majority of Lessius University College interpreting students are recruited: the Inventory of Learning Styles (Vermunt & Rijswijk 1987), the Achievement Motivation Test (Hermans 1968/2004) and the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (Grant & Berg 1948). The results show that self-selected interpreting students are cognitively more flexible and are less negatively affected by anxiety. Compared to the control group, successful conference interpreting students, but not unsuccessful students, are cognitively more flexible and benefit more from some level of anxiety. Moreover, all conference interpreting students are less affected by stress than the control group and seem to have more clearly developed learning preferences

Tryuk, M. “Interpreting in Nazi concentration camps during World War II.” Interpreting vol. 12, n. 2 (2010).  pp. 125-145.
            This paper is based on a study of the records of prisoners in the Auschwitz-Birkenau concentration camp with the aim of uncovering as much information as possible about camp interpreters, their work and their attempts to ease the hardships of other prisoners, often risking their own lives in the process. As will be demonstrated, the generally accepted deontological norms for interpreting in community settings were not applicable to concentration camps, and different norms were adopted which were clearly justified, under the circumstances. The paper in particular investigates why interpreters were needed in the concentration camps, who they were, how they were recruited for the job, what their language combinations were, what their duties were, when the interpreters were required, and how they performed their duties as well what their roles were.

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