Monográfico: Interpretación Simultánea

Monográfico
Interpretación Simultánea
I nfo T rad 18 de julio de 2012


La interpretación simultánea se realiza sin que quien habla se detenga para que se traduzca lo que ha dicho antes de continuar. La interpretación consecutiva, por otra parte, se realiza cuando quien habla se detiene para que se traduzca lo que ha dicho antes de continuar. En la interpretación simultánea se exige, por tanto, menos precisión y corrección lingüística que en la consecutiva. Otra diferencia es que en la interpretación simultánea para un público numeroso se utiliza el sistema o tecnología de cabinas y trabajan como mínimo dos intérpretes por cabina y lengua, turnándose cada 30 minutos aproximadamente.

Ver en   APETI

¿EN QUÉ SE DIFERENCIAN INTERPRETACIÓN SIMULTÁNEA Y CONSECUTIVA?
¿EXISTEN ESPECIALIDADES EN LA INTERPRETACIÓN?
¿QUÉ APTITUDES DEBE TENER EL INTÉRPRETE?
¿ES IMPRESCINDIBLE EL USO DE LAS TIC EN LA INTERPRETACIÓN?
¿LA LEY RECONOCE LA PROPIEDAD INTELECTUAL DEL INTÉRPRETE?
¿PARA QUÉ SIRVE LA PROPIEDAD INTELECTUAL DE UNA INTERPRETACIÓN?
¿APETI RECOMIENDA ALGÚN TIPO DE CONTRATO?


 

Agrifoglio, Marjorie “Sight translation and interpreting : A comparative analysis of constraints and failures.” Interpreting vol. 6, n. 1 (2004).  pp.: http://www.benjamins.com/jbp/series/INTP/6-1/art/0004a.pdf

This experimental research describes sight translation by comparing it to simultaneous and consecutive interpreting. Since the beginning of interpreting research, sight translation has mostly been considered as a pedagogical exercise and interpreters are rarely trained in this task per se. However, sight translation, consecutive interpreting and simultaneous interpreting are performed under different conditions, and these determine how cognitive resources are managed and what strategies are adopted. The study compares the performance of six professional interpreters in sight translation, simultaneous interpreting and consecutive interpreting with a view to identifying particular constraints and problems. Results show that interpreters face different difficulties and use different efforts in each mode. Sight translation emerges as a complex and unique technique, whose cognitive demands on the interpreter are by no means less than those of simultaneous and consecutive.

Alya, M. H. Ahmad Al-Rubai’i “The effect of word order differences on English-into-Arabic simultaneous interpreters’ performance.” Babel: Revue internationale de la traduction/International Journal of Translation vol. 50, n. 3 (2005).  pp.: http://ejournals.ebsco.com/direct.asp?ArticleID=4FA99569F82F9E27EA02

Word order differences between English and Arabic represent one of the problems faced by English-into-Arabic simultaneous interpreters. This paper investigates this problem by testing the effect of six problematic English linear arrangements on the accuracy of performance of interpreters in three text types: the expressive, informative and vocative. These constructions are considered problematic because they contain key words which force the interpreter to lag too far behind the speaker before they are rendered into Arabic. This lagging behind entails a risk of short-term memory overload and consequently affects performance. <br />The assumption has been verified and departures in the form of omissions and errors have been identified in the interpreters’ performance. But the interpreters resorted to a tactic that helped them to stay as close as possible to the speaker, viz., tracking, particularly in the rendition of the vocative passage. However, this tactic was not always manipulated successfully due to inappropriate handling or to the fact that the construction itself did not lend itself to tracking.<br />It has also been found that departures are higher in the rendition of the expressive and informative passages than the vocative passage.

Bacigalupe, Luis Alonso “Sobre fases y modelos: hacia una propuesta explicativa del procesamiento de la información durante la interpretación simultánea.” Sendebar. Boletín de la Facultad de Traductores e Interpretes de Granada vol., n. 19 (2008).  pp. 257. http://dialnet.unirioja.es/servlet/extart?codigo=2956357

Luis Alonso Bacigalupe.Sendebar: Revista de la Facultad de Traducción e Interpretación, ISSN 1130-5509, Nº. 19, 2008 , pag. 257

Beaton, Morven “Interpreted Ideologies in Institutional Discourse: The Case of the European Parliament.” The Translator vol. 13, n. 2 (2007).  pp.: http://www.stjerome.co.uk/periodicals/journal.php?j=72&v=151&i=153

This article investigates the impact of simultaneous interpretation on ideology in the European Parliament, drawing on a larger empirical study (Beaton, in progress). The traditional Marxist definition of ideology is first rejected before a broader definition of ideology as ‘common sense’ is employed. The concepts of hegemony and axiology are then introduced to account for the struggle between the dominant institutional ideology and subjective interpreter beliefs and ethics. Comparative data analysis of German source texts and English target texts from European Parliament plenary sessions focuses on lexical repetition of key terms and hegemonic conceptual metaphor strings. The findings suggest that EU institutional hegemony is strengthened by simultaneous interpreters, primarily through extensive use of conceptual metaphor strings in the interpretation. In addition, contrary to conduit views of communication, this study provides evidence of interpreter mediation and agency and demonstrates that the simultaneous interpreter is an additional subjective actor in heteroglot communication

Bernstein, Jared “Design and development parameters for a rapid automatic screening test for simultaneous interpreters.” Complex Cognitive Processes: Simultaneous Interpreting As A Research Paradigm vol., n. (2000).  pp.: http://mambo.ucsc.edu/ascona/bernstein.doc

It would be convenient if a person who is interested in simultaneous translation could simply take a test that would reliably indicate whether or not that person has the skills required to start a course in simultaneous translation with some chance of success. This paper suggests that a reliable testing procedure valid for this use, taking no more than 45 minutes to administer and score, could be delivered on demand anywhere in the world at a reasonable cost. What would be the steps in the design and development of a procedure for testing such a person for the given purpose, and what resources would be required to develop such a test?

Besien, Fred Van “Anticipation in Simultaneous Interpretation.” Meta vol. 44, n. 2 (1999).  pp.: http://www.erudit.org/revue/meta/1999/v44/n2/004532ar.pdf

Anticipation refers to the simultaneous interpreter’s production of a constituent in the target language before the speaker has uttered the corresponding constituent in the source language. It is the result of hypothesizing on the content of the speaker’s utterance before it has been finished. In this article, existing material consisting of German-French simultaneous interpretation published by Lederer (1980, 1981) has been analyzed. Anticipation was revealed to be a very frequent strategy, occurring every 85 seconds. The fact that so many verbs were anticipated suggests that anticipation is a language-specific phenomenon. The material also contains cases of structural anticipation, a strategy which enables the interpreter to postpone the moment at which s/he has to produce a verb.

Besien, Fred Van and Chris Meuleman “Dealing with Speakers’ Errors and Speakers’ Repairs in Simultaneous Interpretation A Corpus-based Study.” The Translator vol. 10, n. 1 (2004).  pp.: http://www.stjerome.co.uk/periodicals/journal.php?j=72&v=140&i=141

The literature on the translation of impromptu speech tends to focus on the question of whether this text type is easier or more difficult to translate than prepared speech. Existing evidence, however, does not allow for decisive conclusions. In this article the authors attempt to identify the strategies adopted by interpreters when dealing with speakers’ errors and speakers’ repairs in impromptu speech. The material consists of three live Dutch speeches and their simultaneous interpretation into English by two professional interpreters. The material was analyzed with the help of the coding scheme presented in Levelt’s research on self-monitoring and self-repair in speech. The analysis reveals that in more than 4 out of 5 cases the interpreters corrected the speakers’ unrepaired errors and translated the speaker’s repairs without translating the original utterance. There was no significant influence of the type of repair (error repair vs. appropriateness repair), the moment of the repair, or the presence of an editing expression. The manner of restarting a repair, on the other hand, appeared to make a significant difference: a fresh start gave rise to more translation problems. In analyzing the errors and repairs produced by the interpreters themselves, it became clear that interpreters’ performances display stylistic differences.

Bogomílova Atanássova, Denitza “Bases psicolingüísticas de la interpretación simultánea. Un acercamiento a la escuela rusa.” Hermeneus: Revista de la Facultad de Traducción e Interpretación de Soria vol., n. 2 (2000).  pp.: http://recyt.fecyt.es/index.php/HS/issue/view/585/showToc

La interpretación simultánea es una actividad de habla que existe libre e independientemente en la esfera de la realidad socio-comunicativa y se distingue por las peculiaridades de su estructura, por la velocidad de su realización y por el carácter de las transformaciones lingüísticas que cambian la organización léxico-gramatical de la exposición del orador. La interpretación simultánea tiene sus bases lingüísticas, semánticas, psicológicas y neurológicas y viola el principio de la separación de las dos lenguas mediante la inhibición de aquélla que de momento no está siendo utilizada. El modelo teórico del pronóstico probable en la percepción del Texto Original y de la síntesis adelantada en la emisión del Texto Traducido sugiere que en su trabajo el intérprete lleva a cabo una resintonización de los sentidos preparándose a actuar de la forma más fructífera posible para conseguir la meta marcada. El pronóstico probable y la síntesis adelantada explican la peculiaridad más específica de la interpretación simultánea: la coincidencia temporal de los procesos de oír y hablar. Gracias a este transfondo psicológico y a la premisa lingüística de la redundancia, el intérprete llega a extraer las implicaduras textuales, situativas y pragmáticas del discurso del orador.

Brander De La Iglesia, María “Simultaneous Interpreting from English (Ad-hoc Simultaneous Interpreting at Social Fora).” Gredos : Repositorio Documental de la Universidad de Salamanca vol., n. (2008).  pp.: http://hdl.handle.net/10366/56066

This OCW course will focus only on ad-hoc simultaneous interpreting at Social Fora. It is aimed both at students of Interpreting and other possible ad-hoc interpreters at Social Forum-related events, in the spirit of free knowledge available to all, a spirit defended by advocates of the Open Learning Model; Materiales de clase: 0.Foreword; 1.Tema 1: Introduction; 2.Tema 2: First-timers: Pre-interpreting exercises; 3. Tema 3: Interpreting: Instructions for each video; 4. Tema 4: Doing research on a given speaker at a Forum; 5. Tema 5: The risks of self-evaluation and how to criticise your performance faithfully; 6. Tema 6: Further advancing your interpreting skills; 7. Tema 7: Doing research on a given subject within the Forum: Super-specialising; 8. Tema 8: The Spirit of DidactiBels: Sharing collective work; 9. Tema 9: Further reading; 10. Tema 10: Last minute tips; 11. Acknowledgements and Bibliography

Bros-Brann, Eliane “Simultaneous interpretation and the media: interpreting live for television.” International Association of Interpreters Conference vol. 46, n. (2003).  pp.: http://www.aiic.net/community/attachments/ViewAttachment.cfm/a452p630-725.doc?&filename=a452p630-725.doc&page_id=630

Interpreting live for television requires special skills, namely even greater rapidity than for normal conference interpretation as well as constraints for delivery (pleasant lively voice, regular rhythm, good diction). Examples will be taken primarily from the coverage of the US Presidential elections for France 2 and from the new Franco-German Channel ‘Arte’ (Channel 5). I will attempt to sketch the present live TV interpretation ‘scene’ and to give some historical references.

Chang, Chia-Chien and Diane L. Schallert “The impact of directionality on Chinese/English simultaneous interpreting.” Interpreting vol. 9, n. 2 (2007).  pp. 137-176. http://dspace.lib.utexas.edu/bitstream/2152/295/1/changc71804.pdf

This paper addresses the issue of directionality in simultaneous interpreting by exploring professional Chinese/English interpreters’ experience of simultaneous interpreting, focusing specifically on the impact of language direction on their choice of strategies. Ten professional interpreters interpreted two speeches from English into Mandarin Chinese, and two speeches from Mandarin Chinese into English, each followed by a stimulated retrospective interview. The processes which seemed to be at work in their simultaneous interpreting were explored through a qualitative analysis of their retrospections, and a model was constructed on the role of professional practitioners’ use of strategies in each of the two directions. The results suggest that professional interpreters who must regularly work in both directions may develop strategic approaches to cope with the different demands of A-to-B and B-to-A interpreting. The differences seem to be a result not only of the asymmetry between their A- and B-language proficiency, but also of the strategies available to them, their metacognitive awareness of the limits of their language abilities, their audience’s expectations and other norms they believe apply to their performance, as well as the discourse structures of their working languages.

Choi, J. “Interpreting Neologisms Used in Korea’s Rapidly Changing Society: Delivering the Meaning of Neologisms in Simultaneous Interpretation.” Meta vol. 51, n. 2 (2006).  pp.: http://www.erudit.org/revue/meta/

This study will review what kind of neologisms have appeared between the period of 2003-2004, categorize them, and examine how they have been interpreted in order to faithfully convey what the speaker’s intent is, that is the vouloir-dire. The presentation will cover the following points: 1) reasons for the formation of neologisms; their impact on TL expression and how it is managed in SI 2) review correspondence and/or equivalence strategies by neologism category. The latter part will discuss how the widespread use of neologisms should be reflected in the pedagogy of interpreters in order to ensure that they do not interpret the literal meaning but rather are faithful to the speaker’s meaning, in order to ensure intelligibility, thereby remaining competitive in this ever-changing interpretation market through clear and effective communication.

Christoffels, Ingrid K., Annette M. B. De Groot, et al. “Memory and language skills in simultaneous interpreters: The role of expertise and language proficiency.” Journal of Memory and Language vol. 54, n. 3 (2006).  pp. 324-345. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/B6WK4-4J5T5VK-2/2/afacdfe1dfc79af30f529d7fab7639c9

Simultaneous interpreting is a complex skill in which language comprehension and production take place at the same time in two languages. In this study, we examined performance on basic language and working memory tasks that have been hypothesized to engage cognitive skills important for simultaneous interpreting. The participants were native Dutch speakers proficient in English as a second language. We compared the performance of trained interpreters to bilingual university students (Experiment 1) and to highly proficient English teachers (Experiment 2). The interpreters outperformed the university students in their speed and accuracy of language performance and on their memory capacity estimated from a set of (working) memory measures. The interpreters also outperformed the English teachers, but only on the memory tasks, suggesting that performance on the language tasks was determined by proficiency more than cognitive resources. Taken together, these data point to (working) memory as a critical subskill for simultaneous interpreting.

Christoffels, Ingrid K., Annette M. B. De Groot, et al. “Memory and language skills in simultaneous interpreters: The role of expertise and language proficiency.” Journal of Memory and Language vol. 54, n. 3 (2006).  pp. 324-345. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/B6WK4-4J5T5VK-2/2/afacdfe1dfc79af30f529d7fab7639c9

Simultaneous interpreting is a complex skill in which language comprehension and production take place at the same time in two languages. In this study, we examined performance on basic language and working memory tasks that have been hypothesized to engage cognitive skills important for simultaneous interpreting. The participants were native Dutch speakers proficient in English as a second language. We compared the performance of trained interpreters to bilingual university students (Experiment 1) and to highly proficient English teachers (Experiment 2). The interpreters outperformed the university students in their speed and accuracy of language performance and on their memory capacity estimated from a set of (working) memory measures. The interpreters also outperformed the English teachers, but only on the memory tasks, suggesting that performance on the language tasks was determined by proficiency more than cognitive resources. Taken together, these data point to (working) memory as a critical subskill for simultaneous interpreting.

Collados Aís, Angela “Efectos de la entonación monótona sobre la recuperación de la información en receptores de interpretación simultánea.” Trans. Revista de Traductología vol., n. 5 (2001).  pp. 103-110. http://www.trans.uma.es/Trans_5/t5_103-110_AAis.pdf

El artículo parte de la importancia que la comunicación no verbal tiene sobre la interpretación, en concreto se estudian los efectos que la entonación monótona pueda tener sobre la recuperación de la información en la interpretación simultánea. El análisis se basa en un estudio experimental realizado por la autora. Como material se utilizaron tres vídeos en los que se manipuló la entonación de la interpretación y que contenían tanto la exposición o ponencia original como las interpretaciones superpuestas. Los sujetos, 42 profesores de las Facultades de Derecho y Ciencias Políticas y Sociología de la Universidad de Granada, así como 15 intérpretes profesionales, fueron repartidos en tres subgrupos. Todos los sujetos vieron y contestaron a sendos cuestionarios sobre los vídeos. Los resultados confirman los efectos negativos de la entonación monótona sobre la recuperación de la información

Cowan, Nelson “Processing Limits of Selective Attention and Working Memory: Potential Implications for Interpreting.” Complex Cognitive Processes: Simultaneous Interpreting As A Research Paradigm vol., n. (2000).  pp.: http://mambo.ucsc.edu/ascona/cowan.pdf

First a caveat. This author has done little reading on interpreting and has not kept fully up to date in the psychology of language. My recent reading and research have emphasized selective attention and working memory and the strategy for this paper is to emphasize potential theoretical contributions from recent studies in these areas.

Dominic, W. Massaro “Multi media and language processing.” Complex Cognitive Processes: Simultaneous Interpreting As A Research Paradigm vol., n. (2000).  pp.: http://mambo.ucsc.edu/ascona/ms4.pdf

We biped big-mouthed creatures can perform the most amazing feats, spanning the range of skills from sexing chickens (SC) to simultaneous interpretation (SI). This paper is concerned with how we best understand SI and how it might be enhanced by technology. This challenge offers an ideal problem in human machine interaction or human factors, and language and communication.

García-Landa, Mariano “Diario de intérprete.” Hermeneus: Revista de la Facultad de Traducción e Interpretación de Soria vol., n. 1 (1999).  pp.: http://recyt.fecyt.es/index.php/HS/issue/view/584/showToc

Un intérprete lleva un diario mientras interpreta con otros dos colegas durante toda una noche en un Consejo de Ministros de Agricultura sobre el problema del azúcar de la Comunidad Europea para observar cómo se va constituyendo en su aparato cognitivo el mundillo de la economía azucarera, cuyo conocimiento- intenta mostrar- es necesario para comprender lo que dicen los hablantes y poder así reproducirlo en la otra lengua.

Gile, Daniel “La evaluacion de la calidad en interpretacion simultanea: parametros de incidencia.” Interpreting vol. 11, n. 1 (2009).  pp. 99-102. http://www.ingentaconnect.com/content/jbp/intp/latest

Author: Gile, Daniel. Source: Interpreting, Volume 11, Number 1, 2009 , pp. 99-102(4). Publisher: John Benjamins Publishing Company

Hamidi, Miriam and Franz Pöchhacker “Simultaneous Consecutive Interpreting: A New Technique Put to the Test.” Meta vol. 52, n. 2 (2007).  pp.: http://www.erudit.org/revue/meta/2007/v52/n2/016070ar.pdf

Pioneers and previous work – Ferrari and SCIC – Lombardi and Camayd-Freixas – The study – Design and procedure – Subjects and material – Pilot study – Output analysis – Results – Interpreters – Audience response – Transcript- and video-based analysis – Fluency – Source–target correspondence – Quality of expression – Prosody – Eye contact with the audience – Confidence and professionalism

Henriksen, Line “The song in the booth: Formulaic interpreting and oral textualisation.” Interpreting vol. 9, n. 1 (2007).  pp.: http://dspace.lib.utexas.edu/bitstream/2152/295/1/changc71804.pdf

This article applies the notion of formulaic language production, crucial to studies of oral cultures and specifically to the composition of the Homeric poems, to simultaneous interpreting. The definition of the Homeric formula presented by Milman Parry is adjusted to fit the SI context. It is argued that formulaic language production enhances the homogeneity of the SI output and, in an EU context, also that of individual booths, as interpreters tend to borrow formulaic phrases from colleagues. This process, which is seen as part of the overall creation of EU discourse, is connected to the concept of oral textualisation, also borrowed from Homeric studies. The study specifically discusses the Danish booth in the Joint Interpretation Service of the European Commission, and demonstrates the existence of formulas in an experiment in which ten Danish colleagues interpreted the same English and German speeches. The aesthetic and normative definitions of the formula as stereotype in, among others, Seleskovitch is discussed.

Hild, Adelina “Claudia Monacelli. iSelf-preservation in simultaneous interpreting: Surviving the role/i.” Interpreting vol. 13, n. 2 (2011).  pp. 251-257. http://www.ingentaconnect.com/content/jbp/intp/2011/00000013/00000002/art00006

http://dx.doi.org/10.1075/intp.13.2.06hil

Revisión de Claudia Monacelli. Self-preservation in simultaneous interpreting: Surviving the role. Amsterdam/Philadelphia: John Benjamins, 2009. 182 pp. ISBN 978 90 272 2428 6.

Hulme, Charles “Language processing mechanisms and immediate memory: Possible implications for simultaneous interpreting.” Complex Cognitive Processes: Simultaneous Interpreting As A Research Paradigm vol., n. (2000).  pp.: http://mambo.ucsc.edu/ascona/hulme.pdf

Language processing mechanisms and immediate memory: Possible implications for simultaneous interpreting.

Kaufmann, Francine “Éléments pour une histoire de l’interprétation simultanée en Israël.” Meta vol. 43, n. 1 (1998).  pp.: http://www.erudit.org/revue/meta/1998/v43/n1/003292ar.pdf

This article is a historical review of simultaneous interpretation in Israel. Starting with the precursors of Antiquity, it describes the early uses of interpretation in the State of Israel in the 1950s–even prior to the Eichman Trial (1961), the development of the profession in the 1960s, the early beginnings of interpreter training, and current university training provided since 1972 at Bar-Ilan University (Ramat-Gan).

Lambert, Sylvie “The Effect of Ear of Information Reception on the Proficiency of Simultaneous Interpretation.” Meta vol. 38, n. 2 (1993).  pp.: http://www.erudit.org/revue/meta/1993/v38/n2/003385ar.pdf

The Effect of Ear of Information Reception on the Proficiency of Simultaneous Interpretation

Lambert, Sylvie, Valeria Daró, et al. “Focalized attention on input vs. output during simultaneous interpretation: possibly a waste of effort!” Meta vol. 40, n. 1 (1995).  pp.: http://www.erudit.org/revue/meta/1995/v40/n1/003384ar.pdf

Para investigar hasta qué punto se concentra la atención en el texto de llegada o en el de partida, se pidió a 16 intérpretes que interpretaran textos generales y técnicos siguiendo cuatro pautas de trabajo diferentes: las suyas propias, concentrándose en el mensaje de partida, centrándose en el de llegada e interpretando sólo una voz aunque oyeran más. Los resultados indican que se obtuvieron mejores resultados -aunque en un grado poco significativo- con la primera estrategia. Parece que los profesionales eligen insconcientemente el modo que más les conviene.

Lee, T. “A Comparison of Simultaneous Interpretation and Delayed Simultaneous Interpretation From English Into Korean.” Meta vol. 51, n. 2 (2006).  pp.: http://www.erudit.org/revue/meta/

This article examines real-time simultaneous interpretation (SI) and delayed SI, recorded speeches broadcast on TV through SI. The results showed that interpreters’ factors in two modes of SI had a high correlation thus showing that interpreters use a similar strategy when the speakers’ variables are identical. As expected, the quality of delayed SI was higher than that of live SI due to longer pauses, EVS and Korean sentences in live SI than those of delayed SI. Thus it was found that the quality of incoming sentences deteriorates when interpreters spend more time than allowed on a sentence. Interpreters in delayed SI, thanks to their strong sense of anticipation, produced a high quality SI by following the proper strategy. This implies that securing scripts in advance or obtaining a detailed outline by the interpreter is key to ensuring a quality SI.

Lee, Taehyung “English into Korean Simultaneous Interpretation of Academy Awards Ceremony Through Open Captions on TV.” Meta vol. 56, n. 1 (2011).  pp. 145-161. http://id.erudit.org/iderudit/1003514ar

This article used video-editing software to explore the temporal aspects of the live coverage of the Academy Awards Ceremonies, which employed simultaneous interpretation (SI) and open Korean captions at the same time. The results showed that the Korean captions appeared 7.24 seconds after the beginning of the original sentences and remained on the screen 7.52 after the end of original. These figures were statistically longer than other live coverage of the same events with SI alone and other TV programs carrying live captions. It was also found that relatively short original sentences were omitted in SI and the long EVS (ear-voice-span) also left the sentences that followed uninterpreted. In spite of the long time lag, questionnaires indicated that viewers preferred SI through open captions to SI alone presumably because they could listen to the original voices of entertainers without being disturbed by the voice-over of SI.

Lee, Tae-Hyung “Simultaneous Listening and Speaking in English into Korean Simultaneous Interpretation.” Meta vol. 44, n. 4 (1999).  pp.: http://www.erudit.org/revue/meta/1999/v44/n4/003444ar.pdf

This quick retrieval of Korean expression with minimum attention will prevent the loss of well understood and converted messages at the final stage. Through this training, interpreters can save considerable amounts of attention which can be allocated to understanding phases or to anticipation. Then they will have a concrete understanding of SL and come up with omission-free TL production.

Lee, Tae-Hyung “Speech Proportion and Accuracy in Simultaneous Interpretation from English into Korean.” Meta vol. 44, n. 2 (1999).  pp.: http://www.erudit.org/revue/meta/1999/v44/n2/003443ar.pdf

This article examines the relationship between the speech proportion in the sentences of speaker and interpreter, and the accuracy of simultaneous interpretation from English into Korean. Audio tapes of simultaneous interpretations from TV broadcasts and international conferences by professional interpreters were analyzed with voice-editing computer software, and data were statistically processed. The results suggest that high sentence speech proportion in English had a negative effect on the accuracy of simultaneous interpretation; accuracy increased when the Korean interpreters maintained high sentence speech proportion in their simultaneous interpretation.

Liu, Minhua, Diane L. Schallert, et al. “Working memory and expertise in simultaneous interpreting.” Interpreting vol. 6, n. 1 (2004).  pp.: http://www.benjamins.com/jbp/series/INTP/6-1/art/0003a.pdf

This study describes an experiment that aimed to determine if performance differences exist in simultaneous interpreting by individuáis with similar general cognitive abilities, but different skills specific to the task of simultaneous interpreting. Professional interpreters’ performance in simultaneous interpreting from English into Mandarín was compared to that of two groups of student interpreters, beginners and advanced. The results showed that the professional interpreters who were not different from students in their general working memory capacity outperformed student interpreters. This difference was attributed, at least in part, to the development of specific skills in managing competing demands on limited cognitive resources. One important domain-specific skill observed in this study is the ability to select more important ideas from the speech input under conditions where strin-gent task demands jeopardize completeness and accuracy of the output. Professional interpreters’ generally superior performance is discussed within the descriptive framework of working memory theory.

Macnamara, Brooke N., Adam B. Moore, et al. “Domain-general cognitive abilities and simultaneous interpreting skill.” Interpreting vol. 13, n. 1 (2011).  pp. 121-142. http://www.ingentaconnect.com/content/jbp/intp/2011/00000013/00000001/art00008

This exploratory study examined domain-general cognitive abilities that may serve as aptitudes for interpreting skill by comparing highly skilled sign language interpreters (those considered competent in most interpreting situations) and less skilled sign language interpreters (those considered less than competent in most interpreting situations) on various measures. Specifically, the current study examined the feasibility of predicting interpreter skill level based only on a variety of cognitive abilities and personality traits. We collected data on several cognitive measures, including processing speed, psychomotor speed, cognitive control and task switching ability, fluid intelligence, working memory capacity, and mental flexibility, as well as several personality measures, including risk-taking orientation and emotion-cognition integration style, and intrinsic motivation to engage in complex cognitive tasks. Significant differences emerged between the two groups on both cognitive and personality measures suggesting that a combination of stable domain-general cognitive abilities and personality traits may be responsible for differentiating highly skilled from less skilled interpreters and may therefore be predictive of individuals’ future interpreting effectiveness and skill level.

Maslennikov, Igor “Some Advice on Preparing for Simultaneous Interpretation of Current Political Themes.” The Translation Journal vol. 8, n. 2 (2004).  pp.: http://accurapid.com/journal/28interpret.htm

Each translator prepares his or her own glossary according to their knowledge of language, experience of previous translations, and a specific topic of the interpretation job.

Meuleman, Chris, Van Besien, et al. “Coping with extreme speech conditions in simultaneous interpreting.” Interpreting vol. 11, n. 1 (2009).  pp. 20-34. http://www.ingentaconnect.com/content/jbp/intp/2009/00000011/00000001/art00002

This study addresses the strategies used by simultaneous interpreters when confronted with syntactically complex sentences and with a high speed of delivery. The material consists of recordings of fifteen professional interpreters rendering two passages (one with a complex sentence structure, the other with a high speed of delivery) from French into Dutch. Most, but not all, interpreters managed to produce an acceptable translation. In the case of the complex passage, most interpreters opted for a segmentation strategy, while a few applied a tailing strategy. In the case of the high delivery speed, most opted for a tailing strategy, but a few applied segmentation.

Molina Vallecillo, Josefina “La Interpretación simultánea en las cadenas de TV estatales españolas: aspectos técnicos, situacionales y emocionales.” Puentes: hacia nuevas investigaciones en la mediación intercultural vol., n. 1 (2002).  pp.: http://www.ugr.es/~greti/revista_puente_pdf.htm

Esta investigación tiene como objeto analizar las características y aspectos técnicos, situacionales y emocionales de la interpretación simultánea en diversas cadenas de televisión españolas. De los datos obtenidos se desprende que muchos de los aspectos analizados no son tenidos en cuenta por los responsables técnicos, causando, entre otros, los siguientes «obstáculos»: cabinas en salas o platos diferentes de aquellos donde se realiza la interpretación, afectando negativamente el input visual; falta de cabinas insonorizadas y comunicadas visualmente entre sí; auriculares en ocasiones sin control de volumen, con sonido estéreo, incómodos e inadecuados; consolas que carecen de botón «mute» o «para toser», etc. El trabajo concluye con la recomendación de publicación de una normativa, a nivel nacional, pormenorizada y completa sobre las condiciones técnicas requeridas para llevar a cabo la interpretación simultánea en televisión, con el fin de garantizar las óptimas condiciones de trabajo de nuestros intérpretes. Igualmente, es necesario un cambio de mentalidad que considere a los intérpretes piezas fundamentales del complicado entramado que es en sí la televisión.

Morelli, Mara “Estudio de la ambigüedad en la interpretación simultánea español-italiano.” Puentes: hacia nuevas investigaciones en la mediación intercultural vol., n. 5 (2005).  pp.: http://www.ugr.es/~greti/puentes/puentes5/09%20Mara%20Morellil.pdf

La interpretación simultánea es una actividad compleja que requiere por un lado una coordinación y dosificación de los esfuerzos cognitivos implicados en cada una de sus fases y por otro la activación de automatismos y la aplicación de estrategias de resolución de problemas. Todo ello se complica si se añaden factores y variables que dificultan aún más la tarea del intérprete, como la ambigüedad, el tema del estudio. La hipótesis básica del trabajo es que la ambigüedad sintáctica puede crearles problemas tanto al estudiante en formación como al profesional durante una tarea de interpretación simultánea, pero, seguramente serán diferentes las estrategias y la manera de solucionar dichos problemas o, incluso, el grado de percepción del mismo. Tras facilitar un breve marco teórico de las referencias tanto de la ambigüedad como de la interpretación que se tomaron en consideración, se resume brevemente el desarrollo del trabajo empírico y sus primeros resultados.

Morelli, Mara “Estudio de la ambigüedad en la interpretación simultánea español-italiano.” Puentes: hacia nuevas investigaciones en la mediación intercultural vol., n. 6 (2006).  pp.: http://www.ugr.es/~greti/puentes/puentes5/09%20Mara%20Morellil.pdf

La interpretación simultánea es una actividad compleja que requiere por un lado una coordinación y dosificación de los esfuerzos cognitivos implicados en cada una de sus fases y por otro la activación de automatismos y la aplicación de estrategias de resolución de problemas. Todo ello se complica si se añaden factores y variables que dificultan aún más la tarea del intérprete, como la ambigüedad, el tema del estudio. La hipótesis básica del trabajo es que la ambigüedad sintáctica puede crearles problemas tanto al estudiante en formación como al profesional durante una tarea de interpretación simultánea, pero, seguramente serán diferentes las estrategias y la manera de solucionar dichos problemas o, incluso, el grado de percepción del mismo. Tras facilitar un breve marco teórico de las referencias tanto de la ambigüedad como de la interpretación que se tomaron en consideración, se resume brevemente el desarrollo del trabajo empírico y sus primeros resultados.

Moser-Mercer, Barbara “Simultaneous Interpreting: Cognitive Potential and Limitations.” Complex Cognitive Processes: Simultaneous Interpreting As A Research Paradigm vol., n. (2000).  pp.: http://mambo.ucsc.edu/ascona/moser1.pdf

Simultaneous Interpreting: Cognitive Potential and Limitations

Nafa, M. ‘ Lourdes “La transmisión de la entonación en interpretación simultánea inglés británico-español peninsular.” Puentes: hacia nuevas investigaciones en la mediación intercultural vol., n. 3 (2003).  pp.: http://www.ugr.es/~greti/revista_puente_pdf.htm

Navarro Tomás (1974: 154), temprano exponente de los estudios sobre la entonación española, expresa que «el tono es en muchos casos, más que las palabras mismas, lo que satisface y persuade o molesta y ofende». Este valor ilocutivo y per-locutivo de la entonación es evidente en las situaciones comunicativas mediadas por la interpretación simultánea, donde los aspectos formales ­entre los cuales se encuentra la entonación­ pueden llegar a ser tanto o más importantes que los aspectos de contenido (Hervey, 1998; Shlesinger, 1994; Williams, 1995; Kurz y Póchhacker, 1995). Partiendo de la premisa de que la entonación es un parámetro de calidad relevante en la interpretación simultánea, se presenta a continuación un estudio experimental trifásico (en el que se contemplan expectativas, desempeño y valoración) diseñado para averiguar si los intérpretes profesionales ­ya sea consciente o inconscientemente­ procuran mejorar la entonación de un discurso original de contenido sencillo, si este es presentado con una entonación injustificadamente monótona. Los resultados obtenidos son aplicables al par lingüístico inglés británico-español peninsular, empleando la técnica de interpretación simultánea hacia la lengua materna del intérprete. La validez ecológica de los resultados dependerá de futuros estudios que confirmen o rechacen las tendencias detectadas en este estudio.

Nogueira, Danilo “His Excellency and His Interpreter.” The Translation Journal vol. 8, n. 2 (2004).  pp.: http://accurapid.com/journal/28president.htm

The President of Brazil visited Africa in early November 2003 and made certain statements during his stay in that continent. The contents of the statements themselves need not concern us: he did not talk about translation and this is not the Poughkeepsie Review of International Politics.

Padden, Carol A. “The Practice of Simultaneous Interpreting In Two Modalities.” Complex Cognitive Processes: Simultaneous Interpreting As A Research Paradigm vol., n. (2000).  pp.: http://mambo.ucsc.edu/ascona/padden.pdf

Sign language interpreting is probably one of the more visible examples of language interpreting in public life in the U.S.. Both major party candidates for the U.S. presidency last year almost always appeared on a public stage accompanied by a sign language interpreter, and many other public events will routinely feature an interpreter to one side of the stage or the speaker. A popular prime-time television drama, West Wing, features a pollster who works for the president’s staff who is accompanied by a male sign language interpreter. Spoken language interpreting on the other hand tends to be less visible, relegated to booths above the scene, as in the United Nations or in trade conferences. If spoken language interpreters appear in public, they are often behind, not next to the speaker, and their presence is meant to be more cloaked. But both kinds of interpreting endeavor to translate between languages and to accomplish this goal while the participants are trying to achieve face-to-face contact, and their similarities are almost as interesting as their differences.

Padilla Benítez, Presentación and Mª Teresa Bajo “Hacia un modelo de memoria y atención en interpretación simultánea.” Quaderns vol. 2, n. (1998).  pp.: http://ddd.uab.es/search.py?&cc=quaderns&f=issue&p=11385790n2&rg=100&sf=fpage&so=a&as=0&sc=0&ln=ca

Con el presente artículo pretendemos sentar unas bases rigurosas para el diseño de un modelo cognitivo del proceso interpretativo, particularmente en el caso de la técnica de simultánea. Todo ello desde la perspectiva de la Psicología Cognitiva, concretamente en lo que se refiere a los procesos de memoria y atención. Se trata, pues, de un trabajo interdisciplinar aprovecando los resultados de los trabajos empíricos llevados a cabo a lo largo de los últimos años por psicólogos cognitivos. El potencial modelo debería ser doblemente aplicable. Por un lado al terreno de la formación de intérpretes con el fin de potenciar sus recursos de memoria y atención y de aprender a hacer un uso adecuado de eloos. Por otro también al trabajo de los profesionales de la interpretación, ya que les serviría para perfeccionar estrategias y habilidades que mejoren la calidad del producto en las múltiples variables comunicativas que condicionan la buena ejecución del mismo.

Pavlicek, Maria and Franz Pöchhacker “Humour in Simultaneous Conference Interpreting.” The Translator vol. 8, n. 2 (2002).  pp.: http://www.stjerome.co.uk/periodicals/journal.php?j=72&v=132&i=134

On the assumption that humour may form part of what simultaneous interpreters are called upon to translate in international conference settings, the paper makes a conceptual as well as empirical contribution to the subject. Given the dearth of literature on humour in interpreting, the authors first review various forms and functions of humour in conference settings, with illustrations from authentic corpora. Against this background, a pilot survey among conference interpreters carried out by the first author is reported. Responses from a sample of fifty interpreters working from German and/or English confirm that simultaneous interpreters sometimes face the challenge of rendering humour. The findings suggest that humour in conferences mostly takes the form of anecdotes, irony and jokes, mainly for purposes like introducing a subject or speaker, easing tension, or breaking up a difficult subject, and that English speakers are more inclined towards humorous language use than speakers of German.

Pearl, Stephen “Scripta manent, verba volant: Written translation and simultaneous. interpretation-siblings or distant cousins : an exploration of some less apparent. differences.” Trans. Revista de Traductología vol., n. 9 (2005).  pp. 215-230. http://www.trans.uma.es/trans_09.html

Scripta manent, verba volant: Written translation and simultaneous. interpretation-siblings or distant cousins : an exploration of some less apparent. differences. Stephen Pearl. pags. 215-230

Pyoun, H. “Why Teach Simulataneous Interpretation With English Text – Case Study Between French and Korean.” Meta vol. 51, n. 2 (2006).  pp.: http://www.erudit.org/revue/meta/

In conference settings that have Korean and French as official languages, more and more speakers prepare documents in English, while still speaking in either Korean or French. For Korean interpreters working at such conferences, the result is that they must perform simultaneous interpretation between Korean and French while referring to texts that are written in English. Two information streams – one oral and one visual – interact in three languages: – Korean, French and English – to constitute quite extreme conditions of simultaneity and thus increases the interpreter’s mental processing load. Furthermore, when an interpreter refers to an English text while listening to Korean discourse, s/he may be tempted to lean on the written text because of the syntactic similarities between English and French. This increases the risk of language interference between French -the interpreter’s B language – and English, which is often not even the interpreter’s C language. Though this is a problem that frequently arises in professional settings, simultaneous interpretation with English text is not dealt with in interpreter training programs. This paper utilizes an experiment with students in an interpreter training course to examine the needs associated with teaching this type of interpretation.

Ringler, Suzanne “Sous le regard d’Hermes.” Hermeneus: Revista de la Facultad de Traducción e Interpretación de Soria vol., n. 1 (1999).  pp.: http://recyt.fecyt.es/index.php/HS/issue/view/584/showToc

La autora, intérprete de conferencia, expone su visión de su profesión tal como se manifiesta en el revelador mito de Hermes, in´terprete entre los dioses y el pueblo, y en la hermenéutica a lo largo de su historia en Europa. Examina esa visión en la experiencia de los primeros in´terprestes de América y concluye que esa visión lleva en sí un concepto de interpretación como la capacidad de vivir en varias culturas dentro de la gran cultura unitaria del planeta actual, la República Universal, preconizada por Víctor Hugo. Demuestra la vigencia de este concepto de la profesión tal como se ha constituido en el siglo XX, con la conferencia internacional y la interpretación simultánea.

Sawyer, David “Monitoring processes in conference interpreting: towards a model for interpreter-trainees.” Meta vol. 39, n. 3 (1994).  pp.: http://www.erudit.org/revue/meta/1994/v39/n3/004035ar.pdf

En la interpretación de conferencias existen unos determinados procesos de control cuya función es garantizar el equilibrio entre las distintas tareas que exige esta actividad. Conocer el funcionamiento consciente e inconsciente de estos mecanismos permite que el estudiante de interpretación comprenda los factores que determinan la calidad de su prestación y se concentre en mejorar sus puntos débiles.

Seeber, Kilian G. “Cognitive load in simultaneous interpreting: Existing theories new models.” Interpreting vol. 13, n. 2 (2011).  pp. 176-204. http://www.ingentaconnect.com/content/jbp/intp/2011/00000013/00000002/art00002

http://dx.doi.org/10.1075/intp.13.2.02see

This paper sets out to describe and graphically illustrate the amount of cognitive load generated during the simultaneous interpretation of structurally different languages based on theories developed and evidence gathered in cognitive psychology and psycholinguistics. To that end, a German verb-final and verb-initial construction are analyzed and contrasted in terms of the load they cause to an inherently capacity-limited system when interpreted simultaneously into a verb-initial language like English. A series of analytical cognitive load models are introduced providing a detailed illustration of conjectured cognitive resource allocation during simultaneous interpreting of verb-final structures.

Seeber, Kilian G. and Christian Zelger “Betrayal – Vice or Virtue? An Ethical Perspective on Accuracy in Simultaneous Interpreting.” Meta vol. 52, n. 2 (2007).  pp.: http://www.erudit.org/revue/meta/2007/v52/n2/016071ar.pdf

1. Introduction – 2. Conference interpreting and ethics – 3. From accuracy to a truthful rendition – 4. When heads of states become traffic cops – 5. Teleological vs. deontological theories of ethics – 5.1 Teleological ethics – 5.2 Deontological ethics – 6. The VSI model of truthful rendition in simultaneous interpreting

Setton, Robin “Context in simultaneous interpretation.” Journal of Pragmatics vol. 38, n. 3 (2006).  pp. 374-389. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/B6VCW-4HNSB3H-4/2/fb014ba54fae5e963cc01f71d0153656

Translation has recently been analysed in the terms of modern cognitive-pragmatic theory (relevance theory) as an interlingual interpretive use of language (Gutt, 1991/2000). But Gutt’s account primarily addresses the principles and processes of text or written translation, where the displacement in time and place between the original communicator, the translator and her readers requires the translator to reconstruct the original informative intention, project the original and target addressees’ cognitive environment, and craft a stimulus according to the degree of interpretive resemblance sought. By contrast, oral translation, in particular simultaneous interpreting (SI), is performed in live situations in which the interpreter shares most of the manifest cognitive environment with the participants and is thus better able to project and control the contexts in which her addressees will process her utterances. Since the condition of simultaneity severely constrains the simultaneous interpreter’s choice of stimulus, she relies heavily on this access to immediate context and her audience’s inferential abilities. Text translators need time to project context and choose their stimuli, while in SI, access to live contexts compensates for temporal constraints. The paper concludes with a discussion on prospects for exploring patterns and possible biases in interlingual text and oral communication on this basis.

Setton, Robin “Context in simultaneous interpretation: Translation and Context.” Journal of Pragmatics vol. 38, n. 3 (2006).  pp. 374-389. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/B6VCW-4HNSB3H-4/2/fb014ba54fae5e963cc01f71d0153656

Translation has recently been analysed in the terms of modern cognitive–pragmatic theory (relevance theory) as an interlingual interpretive use of language (Gutt, 1991/2000). But Gutt’s account primarily addresses the principles and processes of text or written translation, where the displacement in time and place between the original communicator, the translator and her readers requires the translator to reconstruct the original informative intention, project the original and target addressees’ cognitive environment, and craft a stimulus according to the degree of interpretive resemblance sought. By contrast, oral translation, in particular simultaneous interpreting (SI), is performed in live situations in which the interpreter shares most of the manifest cognitive environment with the participants and is thus better able to project and control the contexts in which her addressees will process her utterances. Since the condition of simultaneity severely constrains the simultaneous interpreter’s choice of stimulus, she relies heavily on this access to immediate context and her audience’s inferential abilities. Text translators need time to project context and choose their stimuli, while in SI, access to live contexts compensates for temporal constraints. The paper concludes with a discussion on prospects for exploring patterns and possible biases in interlingual text and oral communication on this basis.

Shlesinger, Miriam “Shifts in Cohesion in Simultaneous Interpreting.” The Translator vol. 1, n. 2 (1996).  pp.: http://www.stjerome.co.uk/periodicals/viewfile.php?id=162&type=pdf

Any text hangs together by virtue of a network of relations which establish links between its various parts; these links, or cohesive ties, enable the reader or hearer to process the text in a coherent way. For the simultaneous interpreter, the process of recognizing cohesive ties is encumbered by various constraints which are intrinsic to simultaneous interpreting, including speed of delivery (which the interpreter cannot control), linearity (the fact that the text becomes available only gradually), and the interpreter’s own limitations in terms of accessing background information assumed by the speaker to be available to his/her audience, including the interpreter. This study examines shifts of cohesion which occur in simultaneous interpreting, using data drawn from an eleven-minute piece of spontaneous discourse as rendered by thirteen student interpreters. Preliminary findings suggest that shifts do occur in all types of cohesive devices, particularly in those perceived as not essential to the informational content of the text and in devices whose recognition requires knowledge which is not available to the interpreter.

Tommola, Jorma “Brain imaging and the process of simultaneous interpreting.” Complex Cognitive Processes: Simultaneous Interpreting As A Research Paradigm vol., n. (2000).  pp.: http://mambo.ucsc.edu/ascona/jorma.doc

In this presentation, I will first briefly review some methods of brain imaging and assess their suitability for studying the simultaneous perception and production of continuous speech. The second part of my presentation will be a description of an on-going study of SI at the Centre for Translation and Interpreting, University of Turku, carried out in collaboration with the University’s Department of Psychology, Cognitive Research Unit, and PET Centre. We attempt to look at simultaneous interpreting (SI) performance by ‘experts’ and ‘novices’ in terms of (1) behavioural data (assessing performance through applications of propositional analysis); (2) cognitive load (psychophysiological measurement of processing load and its variations during the task); and (3) the neural substrate behind the performance, viewed in terms of brain activation measured with PET (positron emission tomography).

Torres Díaz, María Gracia “El trabajo en equipo y el aprendizaje cooperativo en la formación de intérprete en la modalidad de simultánea.” Trans. Revista de Traductología vol., n. 7 (2003).  pp.: http://www.trans.uma.es/trans_07.html

Este artículo intenta reflejar la importancia del aprendizaje cooperativo del alumno durante su formación en la modalidad de simultánea y recoge y presenta los resultados obtenidos de un proyecto didáctico experimental de aprendizaje cooperativo llevado a cabo en un curso académico de la asignatura Técnicas de Interpretación Simultánea, sección inglés, de la Universidad de Málaga.

Van Besien, Fred and Chis Meuleman “Style Differences among Simultaneous Interpreters: A Pilot Study.” The Translator vol. 14, n. 1 (2008).  pp. 135-155. http://www.stjerome.co.uk/periodicals/journal.php?j=72&v=563&i=564

This paper offers empirical evidence for the existence of style differences among simultaneous interpreters. The material consists of the simultaneous interpretation into English of two parts of a semi-prepared Dutch interview, by two professional interpreters. The resulting data is analyzed with a view to identifying differences in the strategies used by the two interpreters. The analysis reveals differences between the two interpreters in the way they employ global strategies (presentation, additions, omissions) as well as the extent to which they rely upon certain local strategies, such as transcoding and backtracking. Other local strategies such as anticipation and the use of pauses (filled or not) are equally distributed between the interpreters. A tentative distinction is made between two types of interpreter according to their interpreting style: the producer of a ‘lean’ target text and the producer of an ‘abundant’ target text.

Vidal, Mirta “New Study on Fatigue Confirms Need for Working in Teams.” Proteus vol. 6, n. 1 (1997).  pp.: http://www.najit.org/proteus/back_issues/vidal2.htm

The practice of having simultaneous interpreters work in teams of two during lengthy assignments, although standard procedure in all other forums requiring interpretation, has never been universally accepted by the courts. In most state and many federal courts, it is simply not done. Attempts by interpreters to institute the policy have met with resistance from judges who consider it wasteful and administrators who cite budgetary constraints. But a study recently conducted at the University of Geneva has contributed important new information on the subject: its findings provide further scientific evidence to support the position that accuracy is directly related to the length of time that a person interprets.

Williams, Sarah “Observations on Anomalous Stress in Interpreting.” The Translator vol. 1, n. 1 (1996).  pp.: http://www.stjerome.co.uk/periodicals/viewfile.php?id=172&type=pdf

A problematic phenomenon in simultaneous interpreting, and one which is recognized by interpreters, teachers of interpreting and conference delegates alike, is that of anomalous stress, i.e. when the interpreter unexpectedly stresses the ‘wrong’ word. Since one of the functions of stress in spoken language is to show coherence relations in a text, anomalous stress can lead to comprehension problems for the listener. Examples of anomalous stress produced by a professional interpreter at a live conference were acoustically analysed in relation to stress patterns in the speaker’s input. In the examples studied, it was found that while the anomalous stress produced by the interpreter did not appear to be directly related to semantic or pragmatic features in the incoming message, it was preceded by stressed elements in the input. Two possible mechanisms are tentatively suggested as playing a role in the occurrence of anomalous stress; firstly, an automatic matching mechanism triggered by salient stress from the input, which may anticipate forthcoming input prosody or may trigger the most recently stored prosodic pattern, and secondly, the independent storage of salient prosodic patterns from the input. Initial findings of this pilot study indicate that anomalous prosody may at least in some cases be a result of automatic mechanisms beyond the interpreter’s conscious control.

Yagi, Sane M. “Computational Discourse Analysis for Interpretation.” Meta vol. 44, n. 2 (1999).  pp.: http://www.erudit.org/erudit/meta/v44n02/yagi/yagi.htm

In order to perform discourse analysis on interpretation, a computational method that facilitates the scrutiny of SL and TL discourses on a millisecond by millisecond basis was developed. Using an in-house purpose-built program, interpretation discourse analysis can now be automated and made quantitative. Both SL and TL discourses are graphically plotted on a clock-time axis, thereby facilitating a comparison of simultaneously-delivered speech in terms of the duration of each burst and pause. As well, onsets and offsets can be compared to their equivalents in the other language, as can the degree of simultaneity of speech between speaker and interpreter, and various other matters of concern to the interpretation theoretician.

 

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  • Miedo Hablar en Publico  On 9 octubre, 2012 at 4:20 pm

    Me interesó mucho la información y referencias que has publicado en este artículo. Soy un apasionado de los idiomas y de las presentaciones en público.

    De hecho, creo que el que hace una traducción simultánea también necesita mejorar mucho sus habilidades de comunicación, voz, lenguaje corporal, y al mismo tiempo aprender a controlar sus nervios…

    Saludos!

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