Alerta de artículos de revista
I nfo T rad 19 de noviembre de 2012
(2011). [e-Book] Research into barriers to translation and best practices : A study for the global translation initiative Conducted by Dalkey Archive Press. March 2011, Dalkey Archive Press. Texto completo: http://www.dalkeyarchive.com/html/WYSIWYGfiles/file/Global%20Translation%20Initiative%20Study.pdf
For the purposes of this report, “contemporary works in translation” include: literary fiction, poetry, drama, literary criticism, and creative on fiction. The Anglophone world includes: the United Kingdom, Ireland, the United States, Canada, Australia and New Zealand. This report examines translations of contemporary works from any languages in the world into English. In the university survey, “funders” include those who provide government and university funding, as well as foundations and individual philanthropists. In the publishers and translators’ survey, “funders” include all bodies that provide funds for literature (whether domestic or foreign, agencies, foundations or individual philanthropists).
Bergenholtz, Henning “Concepts for monofunctional accounting dictionaries.” Terminology vol. 18, n. 2 (2012). pp. 243-264. http://www.swetswise.com/link/access_db?issn=0929-9971&vol=18&iss=2&year=2012&page=243&ft=1
Most scholars and in this regard there is no big difference between specialised lexicographers or terminographers do not subscribe to the thesis elaborated in this paper, namely that a dictionary is a tool, and that a good tool is a tool conceived for a specific function that satisfies the needs of a particular user group in a specific user situation. In the light of this thesis, it is not important to discuss whether it is better for a dictionary to have, for example, an alphabetic or a systematic macrostructure. The real question is: How can one tailor a tool to the specific information needs of a given user group in such a way that these users can gain quick access to the data they need? Like with any other tool, the best solution is a monofunctional tool. In the case of lexicography, that would be a monofunctional dictionary. Such a dictionary differs from most general and specialised language dictionaries, which are normally constructed as polyfunctional tools which attempt to help solve a range of cognitive and communicative problems. Taking one database as the point of departure, I will discuss the concept of this database and of 23 different Danish, English and Spanish accounting dictionaries.
Cabré Castellví, M. Teresa, Rosa Estopà Bagot, et al. “Neology in specialized communication.” Terminology vol. 18, n. 1 (2012). pp. 1-9. http://www.swetswise.com/link/access_db?issn=0929-9971&vol=18&iss=1&year=2012&page=1&ft=1
The need to update languages is a real and necessary fact. A language that is not continuously updated is left, over time, with a marginal presence in formal and prestigious communication, and consequently, plays little or no part in international communication. Although languages always change, these changes may be undetectable, since they occur gradually, or be clearly visible: lexical changes have the greater visibility in languages when the emergence of a new unit to describe a concept or a new reality becomes apparent.
Castro, Miriam Buendía “Verb dynamics.” Terminology vol. 18, n. 2 (2012). pp. 149-167. http://www.swetswise.com/link/access_db?issn=0929-9971&vol=18&iss=2&year=2012&page=149&ft=1
This paper describes conceptual dynamicity as reflected in the verbs in specialized texts. All the examples used to illustrate this phenomenon are taken from a corpus of meteorological texts, and are typical of processes and actions within the TROPICAL CYCLONE frame. In this study, we analyze verb meaning as well as argument structure. Our results show that the basic meaning of each verb profiles the meaning of the term tropical cyclone in different ways, and provides a way to access the multidimensionality of terms and the concepts they designate. We also classify the verbs most frequently activated by TROPICAL CYCLONE in lexical domains since verbs with similar meaning also have similar argument structure. This method of studying terms in conjunction with the verbs that most frequently activate them is crucial for the representation of conceptual information, and is connected with the network of semantic relations that is activated by a specialized concept.
Drouin, Patrick “Hirsh, David. 2010. Academic Vocabulary in Context.” Terminology vol. 18, n. 2 (2012). pp. 291-294. http://www.swetswise.com/link/access_db?issn=0929-9971&vol=18&iss=2&year=2012&page=291&ft=1
Hirsh, David. 2010. Academic Vocabulary in Context. (Linguistic Insights 118. Studies in Language and Communication.) Bern: Peter Lang. ISBN 978-3-0343-0426-9 Reviewed by Patrick Drouin. In this book, the author does not propose a new list of academic words but rather builds on the one compiled by Coxhead (2000). Hirsh’s objective, although not stated in the introduction of the book, is to establish functional categories for the academic vocabulary in order to explain the role of academic words alongside general purpose and technical terms in academic texts.
Dury, Pascaline “Briu, Jean-Jacques (éd.). 2011. Terminologie (I) : analyser des termes et des concepts.” Terminology vol. 18, n. 2 (2012). pp. 271-274. http://alturl.com/vpp2h
Aujourd’hui, la Terminologie est le plus souvent définie comme une organisation des lexiques de domaines spécialisés. Cette discipline en expansion, de plus en plus servie par la technologie informatique, est sollicitée par de nombreux secteurs techniques et commerciaux. Doiton se limiter à des nomenclatures spécialisées ou analyser en profondeur le sens, la signification de termes linguistiques et de concepts ? Le concept, c’est du sens : un ensemble particulier de représentations mentales. Si des termes ne sont pas directement traduisibles d’une langue à l’autre, c’est souvent parce que leurs sens ne sont pas directement transposables d’une histoire, d’une culture, d’une société à une autre et qu’en conséquence leur sens, leurs référents et leur praxis diffèrent. Les termes, les concepts n’existent que dans des sociétés particulières, des cultures particulières et dans des langues particulières. Partant, de nombreux termes ne sont pas simples mais (très) complexes. Les neuf contributions de cet ouvrage – issu d’un colloque qui s’est tenu à l’Université Paris Ouest Nanterre La Défense en 2009 – présentent diverses manières dont linguistes, lexicographes et juristes exposent leur compréhension des questions terminologiques. Une telle approche interdisciplinaire et plurilingue – fr., russe, all. – ne requiert nullement des concepts, des théories et des méthodes uniformes. Elle apporte, au contraire, un ensemble d’éclairages plus originaux, plus souples pour la compréhension d’un savoir en devenir comme l’est la Terminologie.
Floros, Georgios and Simos Grammenidis “Secondary term formation in Greek: Theoretical and methodological considerations.” Terminology vol. 18, n. 1 (2012). pp. 86-105. http://www.swetswise.com/link/access_db?issn=0929-9971&vol=18&iss=1&year=2012&page=86&ft=1
This paper aims at discussing some theoretical aspects of the creation of term neologisms through translation, using as examples Greek terms from the field of Translation Studies itself. The premise of the paper is that while a basically semiotic approach tends to be the prevailing one in theoretical discussions, in practice, the creation of neologisms seems to be mainly achieved through correspondences at signifier level only, often leading to Greek neologisms which are not totally in line with the notion (signified) lying behind the designation of a term. Within this wider theoretical framework provided by the semiotic approach, this paper will propose that a combination of terminological unit (level of signifier), notion (level of signified) and definition (transitional level) is an operational theoretical framework for the successful creation of Greek neologisms, using as example three cases taken from the Greek adaptation of the Translation terminology by Delisle et al. (1999).
Gallardo San Salvador, Natividad “De pateras o de cómo la embarcación utilizada por la inmigración irregular se convierte en fuente de creación neológica: Aspectos sociolingüísticos de la neología especializada de las migraciones en la prensa.” Terminology vol. 18, n. 1 (2012). pp. 128-149. http://www.swetswise.com/link/access_db?issn=0929-9971&vol=18&iss=1&year=2012&page=128&ft=1
With this paper we propose to bring the linguistic and cultural reality of the migration phenomenon to the specialized neology within a descriptive, communicative and cognitive context. The vocabulary of migration falls within the framework referred to as the Communicative Theory of Terminology, this is not only because of the terminological units used but also for reasons of function and the fact that this vocabulary can easily be used in informative discourse. We have been able to observe the dynamic nature of this vocabulary and the constant creation of new terms: the birth of new terms, many of which had to survive a period of instability before becoming accepted as correct; the disappearance of a number of terms, words that shortly after gaining acceptance, some not even reaching maturity, fell into disuse of their own accord; and the opposite, terms that regained popularity thanks to their use in high impact news stories in the media: patera.
Gómez-Moreno, José Manuel Ureña “Alexiev, Boyan. 2011. Knowledge-Oriented Terminography.” Terminology vol. 18, n. 2 (2012). pp. 274-282. http://www.swetswise.com/link/access_db?issn=0929-9971&vol=18&iss=2&year=2012&page=274&ft=1
Alexiev, Boyan. 2011. Knowledge-Oriented Terminography. Sofia: Avangard Prima. ISBN 978-954-323-897-2 Reviewed by José Manuel Ureña Gómez-Moreno. Boyan Alexiev’s (2011) Knowledge-Oriented Terminography is a concise though enriching volume, which provides a set of useful guidelines for successful terminological knowledge extraction and organization. These guidelines are for building multilingual learner glossaries for translation and LSP teaching purposes. Alexiev concludes his book with a proposal for an extended model of an English-Bulgarian learner’s glossary entry. The book consists of an introduction and three large sections. In the introduction, Alexiev supports the claim made by leading information scientists and terminologists that Terminology is currently undergoing a shift from the area of computer science to the field of knowledge organization (KO) (cf. Dahlberg 2009). As Alexiev argues (p. 9), the latest developments in terminology processing for terminographic purposes, namely, term extraction and semantic (conceptual) relation extraction, aim at extracting not only linguistic data but also domain-specific knowledge. Terminology and KO should thus go hand in hand in terminographic projects. Accordingly, Alexiev speaks of terminological knowledge items instead of terminological data
Humbley, John and Joaquín García Palacios “Neology and terminological dependency.” Terminology vol. 18, n. 1 (2012). pp. 59-86. http://www.swetswise.com/link/access_db?issn=0929-9971&vol=18&iss=1&year=2012&page=59&ft=1
The situation of the terminologies of cutting-edge sciences and technologies in such important languages as French and Spanish is rapidly hanging. It can be demonstrated that they rely more and more directly on English-language terms and conceptual structures. This new situation calls for a review of the factors involved and how they affect neology as secondary term formation. This article seeks to characterize terminological dependency and to identify those parameters by which it can be measured. To do this, the authors first interviewed some Spanish-speaking researchers about their own practice, and then took three highly specialized micro-domains brought to light in the terminology work of graduate students of translation. After evaluating the validity of this latter approach, the authors analyse the three terminologies from linguistic and pragmatic points of view, concluding that, in the three fields, new terms are
Kerremans, Koen “Fuertes-Olivera, Pedro A. and Henning Bergenholtz. eds. 2011. E-Lexicography: The Internet, Digital Initiatives and Lexicography.” Terminology vol. 18, n. 2 (2012). pp. 282-291. http://www.swetswise.com/link/access_db?issn=0929-9971&vol=18&iss=2&year=2012&page=282&ft=1
Fuertes-Olivera, Pedro A. and Henning Bergenholtz. eds. 2011. E-Lexicography: The Internet, Digital Initiatives and Lexicography. London/New York: Continuum International Publishing Group. ISBN: 978 14 411 2806 5 Reviewed by Koen Kerremans. The internet is becoming an increasingly popular medium for publishing and consulting e-dictionaries (either free or not free of charge). The reason for its popularity is obviously due to the accessibility of this medium. Without much effort, users can e.g. easily find definitions of certain words by feeding a (simple) query like define word X to a search engine. It’s clear that for users who want to quickly acquire a basic understanding of a word, an internet search engine is the best option.
Nazar, Rogelio, Jorge Vivaldi, et al. “Automatic taxonomy extraction for specialized domains using distributional semantics.” Terminology vol. 18, n. 2 (2012). pp. 188-226. http://www.swetswise.com/link/access_db?issn=0929-9971&vol=18&iss=2&year=2012&page=188&ft=1
This article explores a statistical, language-independent methodology for the construction of taxonomies of specialized domains from noisy corpora. In contrast to proposals th ely upon the distributional semantics of terms as captured by their lexical co-occurrence in large scale corpora. In a first stage, we analyze the syntagmatic relations of terms that serve as seeds of the taxonomy to be constructed and we obtain, thus, the first batch of hypernym candidate terms for our seed terms. In a second stage, we analyze the paradigmatic relations of the terms by inspecting which terms show a prominent frequency of co-occurrence with the terms that, as we found in the previous stage, are syntagmatically related to our seed terms which allows us to refine the first batch of hypernym candidate terms and obtain new ones. In a third and final stage, we build a taxonomy from the obtained hypernym candidate lists, exploiting the asymmetric statistic association between terms that is characteristic of the hypernymy relation.
Nielsen, Sandro “Berry, Roger. 2010. Terminology in English Language Teaching. Nature and Use.” Terminology vol. 18, n. 2 (2012). pp. 265-271. http://www.swetswise.com/link/access_db?issn=0929-9971&vol=18&iss=2&year=2012&page=265&ft=1
Berry, Roger. 2010. Terminology in English Language Teaching. Nature and Use. Linguistic Insights. Studies in Language and Communication 93. Bern: Peter Lang. ISBN: 978-3-0343-0013-1 Reviewed by Sandro Nielsen. The title of this book is misleading. So much so that the author felt it necessary to state in the introduction that “Strictly speaking the title of this book should be ‘Grammatical Terminology in English Language Teaching’; I will be concentrating on grammatical terminology since this, it seems to me, is the most extensive and perhaps controversial area.” (p. 14) In other words, it is not a book about terminology work for terminologists and specialized lexicographers, but rather a book written for people, such as grammarians, linguists and language teachers, who find terms and terminology work exotic. The aim of the book is to show how teachers of English grammar can use terminology to structure concepts and terms in their domain so that they can present grammatical material and knowledge in a pedagogically sound way.
Pecman, Mojca “Tentativeness in term formation: A study of neology as a rhetorical device in scientific papers.” Terminology vol. 18, n. 1 (2012). pp. 27-59. http://www.swetswise.com/link/access_db?issn=0929-9971&vol=18&iss=1&year=2012&page=27&ft=1
The study on term formation presented in this paper is related to the problem of determining the function of neologisms in scientific communication and to the issue of processing the concomitant variation, typical of such new denominations. Our analysis of scientific texts shows that neologisms can have quite a different role in scientific communication than they are generally credited with in terminological studies. The well-known referential role, consisting of the creation of a new designation for naming a new concept is overshadowed in scientific texts by a more rhetorical role. Here the scientist resorts consciously to variation, hence creating a “neology effect”, specifically for the reason of emphasising various novel aspects of his thought. This function of neology as a rhetorical device is generally glossed over in terminology studies, in much the same way as the analysis of variation used to be, due to the expected stability that neologism should eventually gain in line with well-established terms. Consequently, in this article, we try to place the phenomenon of neology within the framework of discourse analysis.
Roldán Vendrell, Mercedes and Jesús Fernández Domínguez “Emergent neologisms and lexical gaps in specialised languages.” Terminology vol. 18, n. 1 (2012). pp. 9-27. http://www.swetswise.com/link/access_db?issn=0929-9971&vol=18&iss=1&year=2012&page=9&ft=1
One of the characteristics traditionally attributed to neologisms is that they label new realities, which is particularly relevant in terminological studies because these are concerned with areas of intense denominative activity. This article proposes that, besides this well-known feature, the neologisms of specialised fields may also take a different role, more related to filling lexical gaps than to naming innovative concepts. This investigation examines the specialised vocabulary of modern olive oil agriculture and analyses a selection of neologisms before bringing forward a theoretical proposal concerning their linguistic use. Subsequently, this argument is illustrated by applying our model to the definitions of the terminological neologisms under study.
Sanz Vicente, Lara “Approaching secondary term formation through the analysis of multiword units: An English-Spanish contrastive study.” Terminology vol. 18, n. 1 (2012). pp. 105-128. http://www.swetswise.com/link/access_db?issn=0929-9971&vol=18&iss=1&year=2012&page=105&ft=1
Secondary term formation is a process of undeniable importance in modern specialised communication due to the dominance of English. However, empirical works and methodologies to approach this issue on specialised neology are scarce. This paper describes a contrastive study that proposes to tackle secondary term formation by addressing the most productive units in term formation in the dominant language, syntagmatic noun compounds. It describes and compares these multiword units in an English-Spanish comparable corpus containing research papers in the field of remote sensing. The compounds originating in the language of primary term formation are analysed first and then compared to the resulting units in the target language, with special attention paid to their morphosyntactic and semantic structure. Finally, the influence of English in the Spanish equivalents is assessed through the identification of the transferring procedures used to import them. The results show a strong preference for loan translations in this process.
Talebinejad, M. Reza, Hossein Vahid Dastjerdi, et al. “Barriers to technical terms in translation: Borrowings or neologisms.” Terminology vol. 18, n. 2 (2012). pp. 167-188. http://www.swetswise.com/link/access_db?issn=0929-9971&vol=18&iss=2&year=2012&page=167&ft=1
The present study investigates the frequency of use of neologisms (new terms) coined by the Academy of Persian (Farsi) Language and Literature (APLL) for foreign technical words, compared to borrowings from foreign languages in the translations of scientific and technical documents. It also seeks to find a relationship between familiarity with APLL-coined terms and their frequency of occurrence in translations of such literature. To achieve these goals, fifty-five PhD students of nine disciplines in humanities, medicine, technology, engineering and basic sciences were randomly selected. Then, nine technical texts, each including twenty technical terms followed by a twenty multiple-choice item test, along with a familiarity questionnaire based on the same twenty terms were given to the participants of each discipline with the aim to elicit the data required. Wilcoxon Signed Rank Test and Spearman’s Correlation Coefficient were applied to analyze the data. The results indicated a significant difference between the frequency of APLL-coined terms and that of borrowings (Z = 5.140, Sig = .000). In addition, a positive correlation was obtained between familiarity with APLL-coined terms and their frequency in the translation of technical texts (r = .593, p < .05). In fact, as the familiarity with APLL-coined terms increased, so did their frequency. These findings are suggestive enough for APLL and similar organizations as well as for language planners to increase the frequency of use of their coined terms either by enhancing their familiarity rate (i.e. the ease with which coined terms are recognized) by users or by naturalizing neologisms (i.e. enhancing their familiarity rate) in any way possible, thereby encouraging users to employ them further in their writings and translations.
Zelinsky-Wibbelt, Cornelia “Identifying term candidates through adjective-noun constructions in English.” Terminology vol. 18, n. 2 (2012). pp. 226-243. http://www.swetswise.com/link/access_db?issn=0929-9971&vol=18&iss=2&year=2012&page=226&ft=1
This paper evaluates the possibilities of recognizing term candidates through their formal and semantic characteristics. From a cognitive-liguistic stance, the semantic motivation of the word-formation patterns of collocations and compounds in domain-specific texts is assumed to promote their termhood. The semantic motivation to integrate into a multi-word unit is assumed to originate in the generally agreed on generic reference of the modifying constituent. This hypothesis is investigated empirically in a corpus-linguistic experiment. Term candidates instantiating different derivational patterns of adjective–noun constructions have been manually sorted by experts into approved and non-approved terms. Our subsequent linguistic categorization into the morpho-semantic constructions instantiated by the term candidates could be verified quantitatively in terms of relative frequencies. These frequencies clearly divide the term candidates into instances of term-promoting and term-impeding constructions. Obviously, the experts have approved the terms of those constructions which come up with a high relative frequency in the corpus.