Alerta de articulos de revista
I nfo T rad 30 de noviembre de 2012
Angelone, Erik and Gregory M. Shreve “Göpferich, Susanne, Jakobsen, Arnt Lykke and Mees, Inger M., eds. (2008): Looking at Eyes: Eye-Tracking Studies of Reading and Translation Processing. Copenhagen Studies in Language 36. Copenhagen: Samfundslitteratur Press, 208 p.” Meta: Journal des traducteurs = translators’ journal vol. 56, n. 4 (2011). pp. 1023-1025. http://www.erudit.org/revue/meta/2011/v56/n4/1011266ar.html?vue=resume&mode=restriction
Revision book: Göpferich, Susanne, Jakobsen, Arnt Lykke and Mees, Inger M., eds. (2008): Looking at Eyes: Eye-Tracking Studies of Reading and Translation Processing. Copenhagen Studies in Language 36. Copenhagen: Samfundslitteratur Press, 208 p.
Angelone, Erik and Gregory M. Shreve “Göpferich, Susanne, Jakobsen, Arnt Lykke and Mees, Inger M., eds. (2009): Behind the Mind. Methods, Models and Results in Translation Process Research. Copenhagen Studies in Language 37. Copenhagen: Samfundslitteratur Press, 257 p.” Meta: Journal des traducteurs = translators’ journal vol. 56, n. 4 (2011). pp. 1026-1028. http://www.erudit.org/revue/meta/2011/v56/n4/1011267ar.html?vue=resume&mode=restriction
Revisión del libro: Göpferich, Susanne, Jakobsen, Arnt Lykke and Mees, Inger M., eds. (2009): Behind the Mind. Methods, Models and Results in Translation Process Research. Copenhagen Studies in Language 37. Copenhagen: Samfundslitteratur Press, 257 p
Annoni, Jean-Marie, Hannelore Lee-Jahnke, et al. “Neurocognitive Aspects of Translation.” Meta vol. 57, n. 1 (2012). pp. 96-107. http://id.erudit.org/iderudit/1012743ar
Translation is at the centre of many cognitive domains such as pedagogy, linguistic, pragmatic, neurosciences, and social cognition. This multi-domain aspect is reflected in the current models of translation. Recently, cognitive neurosciences have unraveled some brain mechanisms in the bilingualism domain, and it is quite logical to transfer such knowledge to the field of translation as well as the learning of translation. One interesting question is which non-linguistic cognitive and communicative processes are particularly involved in translation. Particularly, in translation, the author’s intentions have to be interpreted although they may not be explicitly stated in the text. These intentions have to be considered while rendering the text for the target public, a process for which it is also important to anticipate the target public’s prior knowledge of the subject and the extent to which the author’s aims and intentions have to be adapted in order to be correctly communicated in the other language. In neuroscience, being able to imagine another person’s mental state is known as having a Theory of Mind (ToM). This skill seems dissociated from the group of executive functions – though it is very dependent on the latter – and seems to rely on a large but individualized brain network. While translation is a widely investigated phenomenon at the micro-level, there is scarcely any research about the process of interpretation going on at the macro-level of text interpretation and rendering. Preliminary neuroscience experiments on the translations paradigm suggest that neurosciences can bring interesting data not only to linguistic but also to cognitive and social mechanisms of translation strategies.
Behiels, Lieve “De la traduction comme interprétation et construction. La Flamme d’amour vive de Jacques Ancet et la Llama de amor viva de Jean de la Croix.” Meta vol. 57, n. 1 (2012). pp. 177-197. http://id.erudit.org/iderudit/1012748ar
Ce travail d’analyse traductologique prend comme objet le poème Llama de amor viva de Jean de la Croix et sa traduction Flamme d’amour vive par Jacques Ancet et utilise pour ce faire l’outillage mis au point par Kees Coster dans son livre From World to World. An Armamentarium for the Study of Poetic Discourse in Translation (2000). L’objectif du travail consiste en premier lieu à réaliser une analyse détaillée qui place au centre la traduction et qui permet de présenter de façon structurée les choix du traducteur. D’abord, nous fournirons quelques informations pertinentes à propos des textes source et cible et du traducteur extratextuel. Ensuite, conformément au parcours proposé par Coster, nous établirons, au niveau macrostructurel, un squelette sémantico-pragmatique du monde du texte de la traduction, qui servira également à dresser une ébauche du monde du texte source. Puis nous présenterons une analyse comparative des éléments microstructuraux (la syntaxe, le lexique, la prosodie, la rhétorique, l’intertextualité) afin d’observer les écarts substantiels qui s’y sont produits. Finalement, nous relierons les écarts substantiels entre texte source et texte cible au squelette sémantico-pragmatique afin d’estimer la différence au niveau macrostructurel entre le monde du texte de l’original et de la traduction. Dans notre conclusion, nous ferons une évaluation globale de l’outillage proposé par Kees Coster.
Boéri, Julie “Translation/Interpreting Politics and Praxis The Impact of Political Principles on Babels’ Interpreting Practice.” The translator vol. 18, n. 2 (2012). pp. 269-290. https://www.stjerome.co.uk/tsa/abstract/14608/
Focusing on Babels, an international network of volunteer translators and interpreters, this article provides an in-depth examination of the politics of organizing interpreting in the context of the Social Forum and the Alter-Globalization Movement, and discusses the extent to which interpreting is constitutive of the complex political process sparked by such initiatives. Babels’ specifically activist, critical and self-reflective project of volunteer interpreting is examined as emerging and evolving out of a series of internal and external pressures. These pressures involve implementing the principles of horizontality, deliberation, participation and prefiguration that Babels calls for in the organizational process of the Social Forum, and delivering interpreting efficiently on the day of the event, while not undermining the professional market of conference interpreting. The article recommends approaching translation and interpreting from both a top-down and a bottom-up perspective – from principles to practice and from practice to principles – in order to better account for the ways in which translation and interpreting shape and are shaped by the geo-political and socio-economic contexts in which they are embedded
Carl, Michael and Martin Kay “Gazing and Typing Activities during Translation: A Comparative Study of Translation Units of Professional and Student Translators.” Meta: Journal des traducteurs = translators’ journal vol. 56, n. 4 (2011). pp. 952-975. http://www.erudit.org/revue/meta/2011/v56/n4/1011262ar.html?vue=resume&mode=restriction
The paper investigates the notion of Translation Units (TUs) from a cognitive angle. A TU is defined as the translator’s focus of attention at a time. Since attention can be directed towards source text (ST) understanding and/or target text (TT) production, we analyze the activity data of the translators’ eye movements and keystrokes. We describe methods to detect patterns of keystrokes (production units) and patterns of gaze fixations on the source text (fixation units) and compare translation performance of student and professional translators. Based on 24 translations from English into Danish of a 160 word text we find major differences between students and professionals: Experienced professional translators are better able to divide their attention in parallel on ST reading (comprehension) and TT production, while students operate more in an alternating mode where they either read the ST or write the TT. In contrast to what is frequently expected, our data reveals that TUs are rather coarse units as compared to the notion of ‘translation atom,’ which coincide only partially with linguistic units.
Christensen-Dalsgaard, Birte “Ten recommendations for libraries to get started with research data management : Final report of the LIBER working group on E-Science / Research Data Management.” LIBER vol., n. (2012). pp.: http://www.libereurope.eu/sites/default/files/The%20research%20data%20group%202012%20v7%20final.pdf
LIBER installed the ‘E-Science working group’ in 2010 to investigate the role libraries can and should play in the field of E-Science. The group decided to focus on research data as it was felt to be the most urgent element of e-science that is of relevance to the community of (research) libraries. The group has held three workshops, the first dur-ing the LIBER-conference 2011 in Barcelona, the second during the IDCC 2011 conference in Bristol and the third and last one during the LIBER-conference 2012 in Tartu. The results of the first two workshops were used as a basis for compiling recommendations to the LIBER-community. The “10 recommendations for libraries to support re-search data management” (see side bar) were finalized and prioritized during the final workshop at the LIBER-conference in Tartu.
Clas, André “Palumbo, Guiseppe (2009) : Key Terms in Translation Studies. London/New York : Continuum International Publishing Group, 212 p.” Meta: Journal des traducteurs = translators’ journal vol. 56, n. 4 (2011). pp. 1022-1023. http://www.erudit.org/revue/meta/2011/v56/n4/1011265ar.html?vue=resume&mode=restriction
Revisión del libro: Palumbo, Guiseppe (2009) : Key Terms in Translation Studies. London/New York : Continuum International Publishing Group, 212 p.
Dam, Helle V. and Karen Korning Zethsen “The Status of Professional Business Translators on the Danish Market: A Comparative Study of Company, Agency and Freelance Translators.” Meta: Journal des traducteurs = translators’ journal vol. 56, n. 4 (2011). pp. 976-997. http://www.erudit.org/revue/meta/2011/v56/n4/1011263ar.html?vue=resume&mode=restriction
This article reports on an investigation which forms part of a comprehensive empirical project aimed at investigating the status of professional translators and interpreters in a variety of contexts. The purpose of the research reported on here was to investigate the differences in terms of occupational status between the three groups of professional business translators which we were able to identify in relatively large numbers on the Danish translation market: company, agency and freelance translators. The method involves data from questionnaires completed by a total of 244 translators belonging to one of the three groups. The translators’ perceptions of their occupational status were examined and compared through their responses to questions evolving around four parameters of occupational prestige: (1) salary/income, (2) education/expertise, (3) visibility, and (4) power/influence. Our hypothesis was that company translators would come out at the top of the translator hierarchy, closely followed by agency translators, whereas freelancers would position themselves at the bottom. Although our findings largely confirm the hypothesis and lead to the identification of a number of differences between the three groups of translators in terms of occupational status, the analyses did in fact allow us to identify more similarities than differences. The analyses and results are discussed in detail, and avenues for further research are suggested.<br><br>Plan de l’article<br><br>1. Introduction<br>2. The Concepts of Professionalization and Status<br>2.1. What is a Profession?<br>2.2. Translation in Denmark – a Semi-Profession?<br>2.3. The Concept of Status<br>2.4. Translator Status – a Continuum<br>3. Introduction to our Investigation <br>4. Data and Methods<br>5. Analyses and Results<br>5.1. Translator Status and Prestige in General<br>5.2. Salary/Income<br>5.3. Education/Expertise<br>5.4. Visibility<br>5.5. Power/Influence<br>6. Conclusion<br><br>
D’hayer, Danielle “Public Service Interpreting and Translation: Moving Towards a (Virtual) Community of Practice.” Meta vol. 57, n. 1 (2012). pp. 235-247. http://id.erudit.org/iderudit/1012751ar
Following many battles, Public Service Interpreting and Translation (PSIT) is gradually evolving towards professionalisation. Wherever it is practiced, common issues have been identified: defining the profession, providing interpreting services for rare or minority languages, educating stakeholders, moving from training to education, and last but not least interpreting and translation quality. The lack of funding for PSIT courses within the current financial context is forcing stakeholders to work differently. The community of practice model can help PSIT stakeholders share resources and knowledge beyond the traditional boundaries set by courses, schools or countries. New technologies such as virtual conference tools and shared repositories are the essential “missing link” towards the progress of PSIT education. PSIT stakeholders need to join forces and pool efforts towards a constructive and innovative dialogue that would enhance the profession. Some forms of PSIT, such as legal interpreting and translation, have already broken barriers and gained professional recognition. However, PSIT should include all forms of PSIT contexts, including the medical or local government. Finally, once fully defined, PSIT and conference interpreting for spoken and sign languages could finally come together under the Interpreting profession umbrella. This is the achievable ultimate aim when working as communities of practice, small or large, language specific or generic, face to face or virtual.
Dwyer, Tessa. “Fansub Dreaming on ViKi “Don’t Just Watch But Help When You Are Free”.” The translator vol. 18, n. 2 (2012). pp. 217-243 https://www.stjerome.co.uk/books/b/160/
Fan subtitling, or ‘fansubbing’, is a heterogeneous and rapidly growing field of amateur translation exhibiting a number of traits that have so far been overlooked by scholars of audiovisual translation. Current research on fansubbing is broadened by examining this phenomenon beyond the strictures of anime subculture alone, drawing on the counter example of Internet start-up company ViKi and exploring the gaps in mainstream subtitling that fansubbing both exposes and fills. The team of volunteer translators working for ViKi re-animates notions of global diversity by capitalizing on the affordances of new technologies and collective intelligence to break down the national and linguistic hierarchies that dominate contemporary media and professional audiovisual translation. Despite a largely conservative ‘look and feel’ and signs of increasing commercialization, ViKi’s fansubbing model makes an important contribution to the internationalization of audiovisual translation practices, bringing programs from small-language communities to diverse audiences across the globe. The paper further considers the extent to which the legalization of ViKi’s fansubbing activity empowers fans to bring about real change in the media marketplace.
Forstner, Martin “Quo vadis, CIUTI?” Meta vol. 57, n. 1 (2012). pp. 8-22. http://id.erudit.org/iderudit/1012737ar
This article shows that within 50 years CIUTI has developed into a reputable organization now with 40 member institutes both within and outside of Europe. In the beginning CIUTI was devoted to promoting the cooperation between its members (mobility of students and trainers; exchange of knowledge), but was also anxious to anchor translation studies at universities as a scientific discipline in its own right. The author shows that CIUTI membership is of symbolic value and provides important social capital thus being of advantage to its members in their national and international ranking. In 1994, CIUTI became an international association (association internationale) under Belgian law and then began to play a role in education matters to influence European language and translation politics in collaboration with other international organizations. This was made easier by the fact that CIUTI was registered as a NGO in Geneva in 2003. However, according to the author of this article, the internal development of CIUTI has not kept pace with the external requirements of becoming a global player. That will require changes in its decision making structure and in the disposal of its financial resources by giving the Board (Conseil) more power to implement an appropriately efficient and professional public affairs strategy. CIUTI has a difficult decision to make, either to stay on the beaten track and avoid any risks or to forge a new future for itself and accept its role as a major global player.
Garbovskiy, Nikolay and Olga Kostikova “Science of Translation Today: Change of Scientific Paradigm.” Meta vol. 57, n. 1 (2012). pp. 48-66. http://id.erudit.org/iderudit/1012740ar
The present article is devoted to analyzing the present state of the Russian science of translation and its historical perspective. The rationale behind this article is the fact that in Russian academic community there is a persisting viewpoint that research in translation studies is an auxiliary and applied area of linguistics and that science of translation does not exist at all because it is diluted in pluridisciplinary continuum and, which is essential, does not have scientific paradigms. We will attempt to understand whether this opinion is true, and in order to do it we will examine history of scientific knowledge about translation activity and analyze the present state of the discipline that is known at present as “science of translation” in Russia. Thus, the article addresses two intertwined tasks: to prove that Russian theory of translation has scientific paradigms and to characterize research in translation studies in Russia in historical perspective and demonstrate its close interrelation with science of translation in the world.
Girard, Marie-Hélène “Beeby, Allison, Rodríguez Inés, Patricia et Sánchez-Gijón, Pilar (2009) : Corpus Use and Translating. Corpus Use for Learning to Translate and Learning Corpus Use to Translate. Amsterdam/Philadelphia : John Benjamins, 149 p.” Meta: Journal des traducteurs = translators’ journal vol. 56, n. 4 (2011). pp. 1032-1034. http://www.erudit.org/revue/meta/2011/v56/n4/1011270ar.html?vue=resume&mode=restriction
Revisión del libro: Beeby, Allison, Rodríguez Inés, Patricia et Sánchez-Gijón, Pilar (2009) : Corpus Use and Translating. Corpus Use for Learning to Translate and Learning Corpus Use to Translate. Amsterdam/Philadelphia : John Benjamins, 149 p
Gorjanc, Vojko “Encoding Heteronormativity in the Target Culture: Slovenian Translations of The Merchant of Venice.” Meta vol. 57, n. 1 (2012). pp. 145-158. http://id.erudit.org/iderudit/1012746ar
This article discusses how linguistic and translation norms, as evident in dictionaries, enforce the ideology of heteronormativity in Slovenia. The aim of this paper is to show how translation norms concerning homoeroticism were shaped in the translation of classical literature in Slovenia in the twentieth century. Translation norms are shaped in a certain period of time and in a certain environment among translators and others involved in translation according to social and cultural circumstances, expectations, and adaptations of topics to these expectations, in which the translation contrasts the initial norms with the norms of the target culture. At the same time, the linguistic norms of the standard language are created as a result of speakers’ continuous adaptation to a social and cultural environment, as a result of adapting to the current social ideal. It is assumed that translations contributed to creating a model of heteronormativity, which continues to characterize the Slovenian community today because of the limited number of new translations of classical works of literature. The paper concludes with a brief analysis of evidence of homosexuality in Slovenian translations of Shakespeare’s The Merchant of Venice.
Gormezano, Nathalie and Sandrine Peraldi “Terminologies et nouvelles technologies.” Meta vol. 57, n. 1 (2012). pp. 248-263. http://id.erudit.org/iderudit/1012752ar
À l’ère de la mondialisation, les modes d’accès à l’information sont en pleine mutation, que ce soit dans l’apprentissage ou dans l’exploitation des connaissances. La gestion de l’information est d’autant plus complexe qu’elle se conjugue avec la gestion d’un temps qui semble « accéléré », en raison, d’une part, des relations multiples entre les systèmes et les individus et, d’autre part, de la demande de plus en plus pressante de rapidité dans la gestion des affaires, ceci afin de limiter les coûts. Dans cet univers mondialisé, mouvant, multiculturel et multilingue, la recherche en traductologie apparaît comme un lieu où peuvent être élaborées des propositions de solutions au service des acteurs de ce monde en mouvement. De fait, la gestion des connaissances dans des univers culturels différents est une activité de recherche de longue date dans le domaine de la traductologie ; la terminologie moderne donne lieu, depuis plusieurs années, à des développements intéressants autour des bases de données ; la linguistique, notamment grâce à la sémantique, a initié depuis quelques années également des travaux sur les bases de connaissances et les cartes sémantiques intégrées. De leur côté, les sciences des nouvelles technologies et en particulier la recherche sur les systèmes d’information ont développé des systèmes de bases de connaissances multimédias orientées métiers. C’est au regard de ces travaux et de leurs possibles interactions que le centre de recherche de l’ISIT, le CRATIL (Centre de recherche appliquée sur la traduction, l’interprétation et le langage) a mis en place des projets de recherche pluridisciplinaires où les nouvelles technologies et les terminologies liées à des métiers spécifiques sont devenues les outils de l’innovation au service de la société de la connaissance multilingue et multiculturelle.
Gumul, Ewa “Translational Shifts of Syntactic and Lexical Markers of Ideology: Reporting the Iraqi Conflict in Polish Reprint Press.” Meta: Journal des traducteurs = translators’ journal vol. 56, n. 4 (2011). pp. 758-774. http://www.erudit.org/revue/meta/2011/v56/n4/1011251ar.html?vue=resume&mode=restriction
The present paper focuses on the notion of mediating source-text ideology in press translation, investigating lexico-grammatical resources. This study is partly set within the framework of Critical Discourse Analysis. The analysis focuses on such features as disambiguation or creation of grammatical metaphors (i.e., nominalisation and denominalisation), changes in transitivity patterns, modifications of the levels of modality, as well as shifts in lexical choice, semantic prosody and cohesion patterns. The source of the texts analysed in this paper is a Polish reprint magazine, Forum, publishing translated articles from a variety of English-language quality press titles. The articles selected for the analysis deal with the Iraqi conflict in 2003 and its aftermath. The aim of the study is to ascertain whether the lexical choice and the syntactic structures employed in the target texts engender changes in the ideological content of the source texts and the projected point of view. Given the nature of reprint press, a hypothesis has been formulated that the source-text ideology might remain unchanged in the process of translation or the translator’s intervention is expected to be minimal. The results reveal, however, that a substantial proportion of the translated texts fall within the category of partial mediation, projecting an altered point of view to a target-text audience.
Harding, Sue-Ann “Making a Difference? Independent Online Media Translations of the 2004 Beslan Hostage Disaster.” The translator vol. 18, n. 2 (2012). pp. 311-338. https://www.stjerome.co.uk/tsa/abstract/14611/
With increasingly fewer independent media outlets operating in the Russia Federation over the past decade, the Internet is one of the rare remaining sites where alternatives to mainstream news and opinion can be voiced. In spite of repeated government interference and, in some cases, prosecution, fringe media websites connected to non-governmental organizations, grassroots civic movements and separatist factions have developed into persistent, if marginalized, media alternatives. This paper examines the online reportage and translations generated in response to the 2004 hostage-taking in Beslan published by ‘non-professionals’ on two websites, using a case study approach and drawing on socio-narrative theory. It discusses the elements and characteristics of these fringe narratives that distinguish them as significant alternatives to the mainstream, contrasting the Beslan narratives constructed by the two independent sites with those elaborated by a large, mainstream Russian news agency. It then considers the translations of this material into English to determine the extent to which the specific features that characterize the alternative narratives are also present in translation. The study finds that the restricted use of translation on these websites led to the reinforcement of simplistic, reductionist narratives and weakened or eliminated the more complex and multivalent alternative ones that had been present in the Russian originals. It concludes by considering how ‘non-professional’ translators might avoid a similar outcome.
Hokkanen, Sari “Simultaneous Church Interpreting as Service. The Translator: Non-Professionals.” The translator vol. 18, n. 2 (2012). pp. 217-243 https://www.stjerome.co.uk/tsa/abstract/14609/
Although volunteer interpreting in church settings is common throughout the world, there is scant research on this topic in translation and interpreting studies. This article provides a starting point for discussion of this issue through an examination of non-professional, volunteer simultaneous interpreting in a Pentecostal church in Tampere, Finland. The approach to church interpreting at the Pentecostal church is mapped onto Pöchhacker’s (2004) scheme of the dimensions and domains of interpreting theory in order to compare its features to those identified by Pöchhacker. The paper also discusses the volunteer simultaneous interpreting organized at this church in relation to two distinct notions: service and volunteer work. A detailed examination of these two concepts is undertaken in relation to interpreting activity in this specific context. The paper concludes that interpreting is understood within Pentecostalism as service not only to its members but also to God, and that this has important consequences for the type of interpreter training and practice required by church interpreters and valued by the Tampere Pentecostal Church.
Holzer, Peter “Kulturwissenschaftliche Theorien – Basis einer translationsrelevanten Kultur(transfer)kompetenz.” Meta vol. 57, n. 1 (2012). pp. 35-47. http://id.erudit.org/iderudit/1012739ar
In the framework of intercultural and transcultural communication, increasing attention is being paid to culture theories and cultural transfer. It is not restricted to any one specific cultural sector but rather comprises the communication of ideas, cultural artifacts, practices and institutions from one specific social system to another. Processes of cultural transfer are dynamic processes: they relate to phenomena of both the tangible material and spiritual cultural worlds. In fields like the translation of books or the communication of information from other cultures and cultural areas, as in the case of daily news reporting or specific kind of texts, these processes are directly observable and identifiable in both quantitative respects and in qualitative respects. Borrowings are presented as originals and interpretation performed to enable items and ideas to fulfill their functions in the new context. Culture theories, anthropological cultural models and culture-oriented translation theories are helpful in defining “culture” more closely, in grasping the various levels of the concept and understanding the transfer processes involved.
Jiménez Crespo, Miguel Angel and Maribel Tercedor “Applying Corpus Data to Define Needs in Web Localization Training.” Meta: Journal des traducteurs = translators’ journal vol. 56, n. 4 (2011). pp. 998-1021. http://www.erudit.org/revue/meta/2011/v56/n4/1011264ar.html?vue=resume&mode=restriction
Localization is increasingly making its way into translation training programs at university level. However, there is still a scarce amount of empirical research addressing issues such as defining localization in relation to translation, what localization competence entails or how to best incorporate intercultural differences between digital genres, text types and conventions, among other aspects. In this paper, we propose a foundation for the study of localization competence based upon previous research on translation competence. This project was developed following an empirical corpus-based contrastive study of student translations (learner corpus), combined with data from a comparable corpus made up of an original Spanish corpus and a Spanish localized corpus. The objective of the study is to identify differences in production between digital texts localized by students and professionals on the one hand, and original texts on the other. This contrastive study allows us to gain insight into how localization competence interrelates with the superordinate concept of translation competence, thus shedding light on which aspects need to be addressed during localization training in university translation programs.
Kiraly, Don “Growing a Project-Based Translation Pedagogy: A Fractal Perspective.” Meta vol. 57, n. 1 (2012). pp. 82-95. http://id.erudit.org/iderudit/1012742ar
This article traces a fractal path through educational psychology and philosophy in an attempt to elucidate an arborescent perspective of complementary inter-disciplinary sources of inspiration for a project-based translation pedagogy. Starting with a social-constructivist, project-based approach proposed at the turn of the millennium, an attempt is made to paint a broader picture of the synergistic influences underlying an emerging “holistic-experiential” approach to translator education. Post modernism, enactive cognitive science, complexity theory, transformational educational theory and social-constructivist epistemology are some of the complementary roots that can be seen as potential sources of inspiration to nourish a learning-centered approach to developing translator expertise in institutional settings.
Kockaert, Hendrik J. and Winibert Segers “L’assurance qualité des traductions : items sélectionnés et évaluation assistée par ordinateur.” Meta vol. 57, n. 1 (2012). pp. 159-176. http://id.erudit.org/iderudit/1012747ar
Inspiré par les critères relatifs à l’assurance qualité du réseau EMT (Master européen en traduction) ainsi que par l’importance accrue accordée à la qualité des traductions auprès des prestataires de services de traduction, le présent article vise tout d’abord à relier ces deux dimensions aux succès enregistrés par les formats d’apprentissage hybride récemment intégrés dans les programmes d’études universitaires. Il propose ensuite l’adoption d’une méthode d’évaluation des traductions à l’aide d’items sélectionnés, de manière à favoriser l’équité, l’objectivité et l’impartialité chez les évaluateurs concernés, notamment quand il s’agit d’évaluer les examens d’admission dans les institutions internationales. Parallèlement, la méthode évaluative généralement adoptée, dite analytique, est révisée en vue de l’insérer dans un outil d’assurance qualité permettant d’offrir une rétroaction identique et exhaustive à l’ensemble des candidats et des étudiants. Cette méthode analytique révisée constituera un instrument de rétroaction qui complétera les formats d’apprentissage hybride et la méthode évaluative à l’aide d’items sélectionnés.
Kruger, Haidee “Exploring a New Narratological Paradigm for the Analysis of Narrative Communication in Translated Children’s Literature.” Meta: Journal des traducteurs = translators’ journal vol. 56, n. 4 (2011). pp. 812-832. http://www.erudit.org/revue/meta/2011/v56/n4/1011254ar.html?vue=resume&mode=restriction
Current contributions attempting to draw together translation studies and narratology are based almost exclusively on structuralist narratology, proceeding from the assumption that changes on the micro-level of the text will result in changes to the various narrative dimensions of the text, and will lead to a different configuration of the narrative communication situation in translated texts as compared to original works. However, it is argued in this paper that this approach, firstly, results in a conceptualisation of the narrative communication situation for the translated text that is particularly unwieldy and becomes even more so when considered in the context of translated children¿s literature. Secondly, this approach does not take adequate cognisance of the role (or potential role) of the reader and the context, leaving both these aspects largely outside the process of analysis. Methodologically, it also means that narratological shifts in translation are mostly identified by means of comparative analysis, which, while useful, leaves the natural reading situation (where readers do not usually have access to the source text) out of consideration. Instead, this paper presents a preliminary and exploratory investigation of an alternative narratological framework that includes the reader as a constitutive component. The framework, based on the ideas of Bortolussi and Dixon (2003), proposes a two-part, interlocked conception of narratological elements: textual features and reader constructions. It is argued that such a framework provides a simultaneously simpler and more sophisticated means of understanding narrative communication in translated children¿s literature. Firstly, translations and their source texts may be analysed comparatively in terms of their textual features, which may reveal the presence of the translator. However, the second dimension of the proposed framework posits that despite the fact that translation shifts effect changes in narrative features, child and adult readers¿ responses to translated children’s texts do not necessarily and by default incorporate an awareness of the presence of an additional “voice” in the text, that of the translator. At this point the framework departs from standard narratological approaches to narrative communication in translated texts in proposing the necessity of investigating reader constructions rather than textual features alone.<br><br>Plan de l’article<br><br>1. Introduction: the directions of narratology<br>2. Existing research in narratology and translation studies<br>2.1. A structuralist conceptualisation of narrative communication in translated (children’s) literature<br>2.2. Challenges to structuralist conceptions of narrative communication in translated (children’s) literature<br>3. Narratology and translation studies: towards a new paradigm<br>3.1. Narratological approaches sensitive to the role of the reader<br>3.2. The analysis of narrative communication in translated children’s books: a new framework<br>4. In conclusion<br><br>
Lafeber, Anne “Translation Skills and Knowledge – Preliminary Findings of a Survey of Translators and Revisers Working at Inter-governmental Organizations.” Meta vol. 57, n. 1 (2012). pp. 108-131. http://id.erudit.org/iderudit/1012744ar
Translators deploy a range of skills and draw on different types of knowledge in the exercise of their profession, but are some skills and knowledge types more important than others? What is the ideal combination nowadays? This study aims to investigate the relative importance of the different skills and knowledge that translators need in the specific context of translation at inter-governmental organizations. A survey was conducted of over 300 in-house translators and revisers working at over 20 inter-governmental organizations and with 24 different languages among them. The survey consisted of two questionnaires: one on the importance of different skills and knowledge, the other on the extent to which skills and knowledge are found lacking among new recruits. The results confirm that translators need more than language skills: in addition to general knowledge and in some instances specialized knowledge, they need analytical, research, technological, interpersonal and time-management skills. Correlating the findings of the two questionnaires produces a weighted list of skills and knowledge that can be used as a yardstick for adjusting training programmes and recruitment testing procedures in line with empirically identified priorities. The methodology should also be applicable to the identification of skill sets in other professions and contexts in which new recruits are closely observed, such as in-house interpreting.
Lee, Tong-King “The Epistemological Dilemma of Translating Otherness.” Meta: Journal des traducteurs = translators’ journal vol. 56, n. 4 (2011). pp. 878-895. http://www.erudit.org/revue/meta/2011/v56/n4/1011258ar.html?vue=resume&mode=restriction
This article interrogates the interpretive difficulties arising from the encounter with the Other in translation, specifically in the case where the subjectivity of the target text reader is implicated in the discursive constitution of identity in the source text. In contemplating how Anglophone Chinese Singaporean readers could interpret identities in Chinese literary works that invoke a strong sense of Chinese consciousness, I adopt Berman’s binary ethical framework in analysing the negotiation of Self and Other in translation. I posit that a positive ethics will be achieved if Anglophone Chinese readers position themselves as Other in their own language. On the contrary, a negative ethics ensues if the same group of readers embrace their identity as English-speaking Chinese as Self in the process of reading the Sinophone Other in the texts. The two conflicting positions create an epistemological dilemma on the part of the target text reader, thus raising the question of how identities can or should be negotiated in translation in the Singapore context, given that the cultural disposition of Anglophone Chinese readers is brought to bear on their reception of the cultural Other in translation.
Matamala, Anna “Dealing with Paratextual Elements in Dubbing: A Pioneering Perspective from Catalonia.” Meta: Journal des traducteurs = translators’ journal vol. 56, n. 4 (2011). pp. 915-927. http://www.erudit.org/revue/meta/2011/v56/n4/1011260ar.html?vue=resume&mode=restriction
This article focuses on paratextuality in the realm of dubbing drawing on the author’s professional experience as an audiovisual translator in Catalonia. After a brief discussion of the theoretical approach to paratextuality and the notion of audiovisual text, the article lists the main paratextual components in dubbing and describes how they are dealt with by audiovisual translators. The article focuses on fiction films, cartoons and television series, be they for cinema, television, Internet or DVD, and considers paratexts at two levels: in the audiovisual text itself and in the written synchronised translation
Mcdonough Dolmaya, Julie “Analyzing the Crowdsourcing Model and Its Impact on Public Perceptions of Translation. .” The translator vol. 18, n. 2 (2012). pp. 167-191. https://www.stjerome.co.uk/tsa/abstract/14604/
This paper draws on the results of an online survey of Wikipedia volunteer translators to explore, from a sociological perspective, how participants in crowdsourced translation initiatives perceive translation. This perception is examined from a number of perspectives, including the participants’ profiles, motivations and idiosyncrasies vis-à-vis those of individuals involved in other collaborative social phenomena. Firstly, respondents are grouped on the basis of their training background, their current professional status and their former occupation to compare how translation is perceived by volunteers who do and those who do not work in the translation industry. To further understand the range of respondents’ perceptions of translation, the crowdsourced translation initiatives they participate in are divided into three types: product-driven (localization/translation of free/open-source software projects), cause-driven (not-for-profit initiatives with an activist focus), and outsourcing-driven (initiatives launched by for-profit companies). A comparison between the results of this survey and two others focusing on the motivations and profiles of free/open-source software developers seeks to identify distinctive features of participatory translation practices. The final part of this article discusses how participants in a crowdsourced translation initiative view translation and how the latter is depicted by the organizations behind such collaborative projects.
Meldrum, Yukari F. “Torikai, Kumiko (2009): Voices of the Invisible Presence. Amsterdam/Philadelphia: John Benjamins, 197 p.” Meta: Journal des traducteurs = translators’ journal vol. 56, n. 4 (2011). pp. 1031-1032. http://www.erudit.org/revue/meta/2011/v56/n4/1011269ar.html?vue=resume&mode=restriction
Revisión del libro: Torikai, Kumiko (2009): Voices of the Invisible Presence. Amsterdam/Philadelphia: John Benjamins, 197 p
Merlo Vega, José Antonio, José Antonio Gómez Hernández, et al. (2011). [e-Book] Estudio FESABID sobre los profesionales de la información: prospectiva de una profesión en constante evolución. Madrid, FESABID. Texto completo: http://eprints.rclis.org/bitstream/10760/18057/1/FESABID_Prospectiva.pdf
Informe realizado en 2011 por FESABID, federación española de asociaciones de profesionales de la información. La investigación se distribuye en tres partes: a) un estudio cuantitativo con datos y estadísticas de los sectores de los archivos, las bibliotecas y los museos; b) un estudio cualitativo, basado en una encuesta cumplimentada por un amplia base de profesionales españoles; y c) un estudio Delphi en el que expertos manifestaban sus visiones sobre el presente y el futuro de la profesión. El informe ofrece un estado de la cuestión del colectivo profesional y una prospectiva sobre tendencias y necesidades del sector de los archivos, las bibliotecas y la gestión de la información.
Meylaerts, Reine “Translational Justice in a Multilingual World: An Overview of Translational Regimes.” Meta: Journal des traducteurs = translators’ journal vol. 56, n. 4 (2011). pp. 743-757. http://www.erudit.org/revue/meta/2011/v56/n4/1011250ar.html?vue=resume&mode=restriction
Since democratic societies are based on the ideal of participatory citizenship and since participatory citizenship presupposes, among other things, the citizens’ right to communicate with the authorities, one of the biggest challenges for contemporary multilingual societies is the elaboration of a fair translation policy: there is no language policy without a translation policy. However, among the numerous studies on language rights, on language policies or on immigrant incorporation, the key role of translation is usually not taken into consideration. Which linguistic and translational territoriality regimes are used by authorities to communicate with their multilingual populations? How do these different regimes relate to their linguistic and translational rights and their chances for participatory citizenship and integration? This essay discusses four prototypical regimes which may be used by authorities to communicate with their citizens. It will also try to hint at their possible impact on minorities’ linguistic and translational rights and integration.
Muñoz, Ricardo “Not a ‘Monkey Business’. The Translator: Non-Professionals Translating and Interpreting. Participatory and Engaged Perspectives.” The translator vol. 18, n. 2 (2012). pp. 363-371 https://www.stjerome.co.uk/tsa/abstract/14612/
Review of The Cult of the Amateur. How Blogs, MySpace, YouTube and the Rest of Today’s User Generated Media are Killing Our Culture and Economy. Andrew Keen. London & Boston: Nicholas Brealey, 2007; revised edition, 2008.
Neather, Robert. “‘Non-Expert’ Translators in a Professional Community. Identity, Anxiety and Perceptions of Translator Expertise in the Chinese Museum Community. .” The translator vol. 18, n. 2 (2012). pp. 217-243 https://www.stjerome.co.uk/tsa/abstract/14607/
This paper focuses on issues of translator expertise, professionalism and identity in and around a community of practice (Wenger 1998) not normally associated with translation: the ‘museum community’. In Guangzhou, Hong Kong and Macau, where exhibitionary practice is predominantly bi/trilingual, the museum community is a nexus of translational activity that brings together a whole variety of stakeholders with differing forms of professional competence (Bhatia 2004). Adopting an ethnographic approach and drawing on interviews with curators and translation-related staff across museums in the region, the paper focuses on interactions between the museum and translation communities in these three cities, as a means of interrogating our assumptions about expertise and professionalism. The discussion is organized around two key issues: community practices, focusing on the stakeholders in the translation process; and community identities, focusing on perceptions of expertise in the museum community, ‘boundary practices’, and genre ownership. The findings suggest that no one community has the full set of competences needed for fully effective museum translation, and that much museum translation involves an anxious negotiation of differing expertise deficits.
Olohan, Maeve “Volunteer Translation and Altruism in the Context of a Nineteenth-Century Scientific Journal.” The translator vol. 18, n. 2 (2012). pp. 193-215. https://www.stjerome.co.uk/tsa/abstract/14605/
This paper constitutes a first attempt to theorize volunteer translation using behavioural economic models of altruism. It applies the notions of pure and impure altruism to the study of a nineteenth-century journal of scientific translations, Scientific Memoirs. Volunteer translating and editing activities were instrumental in ensuring the commercial survival of that periodical over a 15-year period. A range of motivations may be posited for the volunteer work carried out, from the purely altruistic wish to expand scientific knowledge to motivations which could be linked to a sense of satisfaction (warm glow) or enhancement of personal, professional or social standing. Differences can be observed in the utility likely to have been derived from their volunteer activities by men of science and women translators, and an insight is offered into how volunteer contributions were encouraged and managed by the journal’s editor, Richard Taylor. By drawing on research on altruism and volunteering undertaken by disciplines other than translation studies, the paper offers a fruitful starting point for further research on volunteer translation and interpreting in both present-day and historical settings.
Pérez Cristóbal, Enrique “L’exil comme métaphore de la traduction : la pure langue de Walter Benjamin et la langue vive de Carles Riba.” Meta: Journal des traducteurs = translators’ journal vol. 56, n. 4 (2011). pp. 852-860. http://www.erudit.org/revue/meta/2011/v56/n4/1011256ar.html?vue=resume&mode=restriction
The exile was several times read like a possible metaphor of translation, or at least like an experience structurally analogous to translation. Walter Benjamin (1892-1940) and Carles Riba (1893-1959), from the reading of Hölderlin, though they never suspected each other’s thoughts, worked both on a poetic of translation at once common and antagonistic. Benjamin speculated on the possibility of a “pure language” in exile and fractured inside the empirical languages, while Riba worked the noucentista Catalan – as poet and translator – almost like this hypothetical language supposed by Benjamin. The purpose of this article is to measure the common distance between the Benjamin’s pure language (reine Sprache) and Riba’s live language (llengua viva), always from the experience of exile as an anthropological and structural model of translation.
Pérez-González, Luis and ebnem Susam-Saraeva “Non-professionals Translating and Interpreting. Participatory and Engaged Perspectives.” The translator vol. 18, n. 2 (2012). pp. 149-165. https://www.stjerome.co.uk/tsa/abstract/14603/
Translation studies finds itself today at a stage where its traditional focus on translator and interpreter training and on the advancement of the status of translators and interpreters as professionals is no longer sufficient to address the complexity of real-life situations of translating and interpreting. As increasing numbers of non-professionals translate and interpret in a wider range of contexts and in more diversified forms, their work emerges not only as an alternative to established professional practice, but also as a distinctive phenomenon, which the discipline has yet to recognize as a noteworthy area of study. This article looks into the relatively uncharted territory of non-professional translation and interpreting, drawing mainly on Arjun Appadurai’s conceptualization of global transactions, and offers a number of insights into what these new developments might mean for the discipline at large.
Pöllabauer, Sonja “Gatekeeping Practices in Interpreted Social Service Encounters.” Meta vol. 57, n. 1 (2012). pp. 213-234. http://id.erudit.org/iderudit/1012750ar
This paper presents results gathered from a project implemented by an interdisciplinary project team between 2007 and 2009, which focused on interpreting in social service and welfare institutions (Community Interpreting und Kommunikationsqualität im Sozial- und Gesundheitswesen [Community Interpreting and Communication Quality in Social Service and Healthcare Institutions]). One of the aspects investigated by the project was the interpreting practice at two Austrian municipal social service and welfare institutions via in-depth interviews and recordings of authentic interpreter-mediated encounters. After a brief overview of the history of gatekeeping theory and the application of the gatekeeping concept in Translation and Interpreting Studies, some of the project results are analysed using one specific model of gatekeeping theory proposed by Shoemaker and Vos in 2009. Taking a leaf from this work, the analysis is based on five different levels, namely the individual level, communication routines, the organisation level, the social institutional level, and the social system level. The analysis investigates “gates” present in the communication routines at the two institutions and which may prevent non-German speaking clients from full access and understanding, as well as the role of interpreters as “gatekeepers.”
Rodríguez, Nadia and Bettina Schnell “Direccionalidad y formación de traductores: un estudio longitudinal de los procesos cognitivos en la traducción inversa.” Meta vol. 57, n. 1 (2012). pp. 67-81. http://id.erudit.org/iderudit/1012741ar
The article outlines the theoretical foundations and the design of a longitudinal study within the field of translation process research. The aim of this empirical study is to get a better understanding of the translation processes deployed by undergraduate students when translating from their mother tongue (Spanish) into their second language (French or German). In order to gain more in-depth insight into how L2 translation competence develops and can best be fostered, students’ translation behavior is being monitored at different points of time during their course of studies: in the second year and third year of their undergraduate program, shortly before graduation. The study aims to identify how the subjects approach the translation task (macrostrategy), what kind of strategies they use in order to create tentative solutions to translation problems, to what extent they are able to activate translation routines and language-pair specific standard transfer operations and how these abilities develop over time. The results of this study will hopefully provide insight into the unfolding of translation skills and thus allow for the development of a process-based approach to translator training. This will become a necessity against the background of the challenges of the European Space of Higher Education, which has produced a shift in university education from a teacher-centered to a learner-centered approach, where special emphasis is placed on the development of student’s skills. Such a process-based methodology invites students to reflect on their translation behavior and fosters the development of metacognitive strategies which ultimately contribute to a competent and successful professional performance.
Ross, Jonathan “Hansen, Gyde, Chesterman, andrew, and Gerzymisch-Arbogast, Heidrun, eds (2008): Efforts and Models in Interpreting and Translation Research: A Tribute to Daniel Gile. Amsterdam/Philadelphia: John Benjamins, 302 p.” Meta: Journal des traducteurs = translators’ journal vol. 56, n. 4 (2011). pp. 1028-1031. http://www.erudit.org/revue/meta/2011/v56/n4/1011268ar.html?vue=resume&mode=restriction
Revisión del libro: Hansen, Gyde, Chesterman, andrew, and Gerzymisch-Arbogast, Heidrun, eds (2008): Efforts and Models in Interpreting and Translation Research: A Tribute to Daniel Gile. Amsterdam/Philadelphia: John Benjamins, 302 p
Schmitt, Peter A. “Bologna, EMT and CIUTI – Approaches to High Quality in Translation and Interpretation Training.” Meta vol. 57, n. 1 (2012). pp. 23-34. http://id.erudit.org/iderudit/1012738ar
The quality of products and services, as well as methods of quality control are receiving more and more attention in industry, education, training and research. Translation and interpretation-related approaches towards better quality control include the generic ISO 9000 series (first published in 1987) as well as translation-specific standards such as the German DIN 2345 (1996), the American SAE J2450 (2001, 2005), and the European DIN EN 15038 (2006). CIUTI, an organization initiated in 1960, is the earliest approach to ensure high quality standards in translation and interpretation training and research. The European Higher Education Reform (Bologna Process), completed in 2010, was also a chance to improve the quality of university translation and interpretation programmes. Another and strictly outcome-oriented approach to improve translation quality is the relatively recent EMT project of the EU Commission. This paper describes how the different approaches of the Bologna Process, EMT, and CIUTI contribute to translation quality.
Schouten, Barbara, Jonathan Ross, et al. “Informal Interpreters in Medical Settings A Comparative Socio-cultural Study of the Netherlands and Turkey.” The translator vol. 18, n. 2 (2012). pp. 311-338. https://www.stjerome.co.uk/tsa/abstract/14610/
Between 2008 and 2010, academics in five European countries collaborated on an EU-funded project, Training Intercultural and Bilingual Competences in Health and Social Care (TRICC). Among TRICC’s aims was to deepen understanding of informal interpreting through eliciting the perspectives of interpreters themselves. To identify commonalities and differences in the experiences, attitudes and practices of informal interpreters in distinct settings, the Dutch and Turkish partners interviewed 15 young migrant adults in the Netherlands and 15 Kurdish speakers in Istanbul respectively, asking them about emotional and technical aspects of interpreting, and about their expectations and roles, communicative challenges and actions. Thematic analysis of the 30 interviews corroborated the findings of previous research – namely, that informal interpreters are highly visible, use diverse communicative strategies, adopt various roles, and occasionally speak as primary interlocutors. Noticeable differences between the two sets of interpreters included their attitudes towards interpreting and their preferences for informal versus professional interpreting, both of which can be better understood in the light of the cultural backgrounds of the interpreters and the institutional and political frameworks within which they interpret. This comparative study appears to support Angelelli’s (2004a) claim that interpreted events are heavily influenced by socio-political and cultural contexts.
Simonnaes, Ingrid “Zur korpusbasierten Erforschung von Fachübersetzungen bei der Nationalen Übersetzerprüfung in Norwegen.” Meta vol. 57, n. 1 (2012). pp. 132-144. http://id.erudit.org/iderudit/1012745ar
The aim of this paper is to present selected findings in legal translations from Norwegian into German and English. This is done by means of a corpus based approach on the basis of the multilingual parallel TK-NHH translation corpus, which is still under construction. First, the necessary background information is given about the National Translator Accreditation Exam (Statsautorisert Translatøreksamen) in Norway from which the texts for the corpus are taken. The model for the TK-NHH translation corpus is then presented and its possible modes of application are discussed. A qualitative analysis of two particular translation problems in legal texts in the TK-NHH translation corpus, namely the translation of a modal expression and the (pragmatic) explicitation of proper names of culture speciﬁc legal phenomena (e.g., acts and courts) is given. The target languages for these examples are German and English. The third translation problem in legal texts dealt with in this paper are terminological challenges when the translator is confronted with new concepts in one legal culture that do not exist in another legal culture. For this analysis only German translations have been investigated. In conclusion the paper outlines two changes for the future work with the TK-NHH translation corpus.
Sumillera, Rocio G. “El papel de la traducción en The Arte of English Poesie (1589).” Meta: Journal des traducteurs = translators’ journal vol. 56, n. 4 (2011). pp. 833-851. http://www.erudit.org/revue/meta/2011/v56/n4/1011255ar.html?vue=resume&mode=restriction
Le présent article propose une analyse approfondie du rôle central joué par la traduction dans The Arte of English Poesie (1589), de George Puttenham. Un certain nombre de traductions et de pensées sur la traduction se trouvant dans cet ouvrage ont été analysées et contextualisées. Une attention particulière est portée à la traduction en anglais des nombreux vers latins inclus dans le volume, ainsi qu’aux noms de plus d’une centaine de figures rhétoriques qui y sont expliquées. Il sera ainsi possible de montrer que la traduction remplit une fonction essentielle dans le processus d’adaptation du contenu rhétorique de The Arte of English Poesie au profil des lecteurs cibles, c’est-à-dire des courtisans oisifs qui ne connaissaient pas les langues classiques mais qui étaient épris de lecture ou d’écriture de poésie.
Sun, Sanjun “Think-Aloud-Based Translation Process Research: Some Methodological Considerations.” Meta: Journal des traducteurs = translators’ journal vol. 56, n. 4 (2011). pp. 928-951. http://www.erudit.org/revue/meta/2011/v56/n4/1011261ar.html?vue=resume&mode=restriction
Mainly structured around issues revealed in a questionnaire survey among 25 eminent translation process researchers worldwide, this paper deals with methodological issues in think-aloud-based translation process research from two perspectives: theoretical and practical. It argues that there is no strong evidence suggesting that TAP significantly changes or influences the translation process, though TAP’s validity and completeness in a specific study might depend more or less on several variables. TAP and such recording methods as keystroke logging and eye tracking serve different specific research purposes, so they can be combined in a multimethod study to answer more complex research questions. Several research designs are available for a multimethod study, and researchers are encouraged to try designs other than one-shot case studies or convergence design. As for the research procedure, this paper touches upon how to transcribe and analyze the protocols. Many stereotypes in this field have been problematized. For example, this paper suggests that researchers transcribe as much as necessary rather than doing a “complete” transcription, or they can even skip the step of transcribing; in choosing test materials, researchers do not have to choose whole passages; they can use a group of sentences.
Susam-Sarajeva, ebnem and Luis Pérez-González “Non-Professionals Translating and Interpreting. Participatory and Engaged Perspectives.” The translator vol. 18, n. 2 (2012). pp. Todas. https://www.stjerome.co.uk/tsa/issue/2557/
Non-professional translation/interpreting has so far been of peripheral interest to scholars, who often express concern over the quality of ‘amateur output’ and the intrusion of ‘unregulated outsiders’ into the precarious translation industry. As it diversifies and moves towards the core of economic and cultural activities, however, non-professional translation and interpreting is increasingly bound to challenge our understanding of professional identities and the current organization of labour in the translation and interpreting industries. This special issue of The Translator explores the field with a view to learning from the individuals and networks who take on such ‘non-professional’ translation and interpreting activities. It showcases the work of researchers who look into the phenomenon within a wide variety of settings: from museums to churches, crowdsourcing and media sites to Wikipedia, and scientific journals to the Social Forum. Drawing on a wide range of disciplines and models, the contributions to this volume enhance the visibility of non-professionals engaged in translating and interpreting and challenge a range of widely-held assumptions within the discipline and the profession.
Wang, Baorong “Translation Practices and the Issue of Directionality in China.” Meta: Journal des traducteurs = translators’ journal vol. 56, n. 4 (2011). pp. 896-914. http://www.erudit.org/revue/meta/2011/v56/n4/1011259ar.html?vue=resume&mode=restriction
Directionality is one of the most interesting recent developments in translation studies in the West. The scene, however, is rather different in China with a long history of inverse translation. This article aims to outline translation practices in China and Chinese thinking on directionality while providing a few pointers for further research. Part one surveys major translation projects that were carried out or are being carried out and how Chinese translation scholars thought/think about directionality. The survey covers nineteen centuries from the 2nd century A.D. through the present time, albeit most of the data are devoted to the periods from the turn of the 20th century. It is found that although inverse translation is an age-old practice in China, the issue of directionality began to be seriously considered and debated only in the early 1980s, and that there has been increased attention to the topic in recent years. Part two briefly reviews the current status of research and concludes that directionality is an under-researched area in Chinese translation studies. The article ends with some suggestions for further research on the subject in the Chinese context, drawing on the latest research conducted in the West.
Wang, Binhua “A Descriptive Study of Norms in Interpreting: Based on the Chinese-English Consecutive Interpreting Corpus of Chinese Premier Press Conferences.” Meta vol. 57, n. 1 (2012). pp. 198-212. http://id.erudit.org/iderudit/1012749ar
Interpreting performance is shaped by three major forces: a) the interpreter’s interpreting competence, b) cognitive conditions on-site and c) norms of interpreting. This research is a descriptive study of norms in the Chinese-English interpreting of Chinese Premier Press Conferences, which reveals the actual norms of consecutive interpreting especially with regard to source text and target text relations. It employs the research paradigm of descriptive translation studies and the analytic tool of shifts. Through inter-textual comparative analysis of the parallel corpus of the on-site interpretation of 11 Chinese Premier Press Conferences (1998-2008), three types of shifts are identified, including Type A shifts (Addition), Type R shifts (Reduction) and Type C’ shifts (Correction). With quantitative statistics of the regularity of the occurrences of shifts and qualitative analysis of every type of shifts in the corpus, four typical norms of ST-TT relations are identified: a) the norm of adequacy, b) the norm of explicitation in logic relations, c) the norm of specificity in information content, d) the norm of explicitness in meaning. This descriptive study of norms based on a relatively large corpus of on-site interpretation can serve as a tentative exploration of the methodology in descriptive interpreting studies. It may also shed new light on interpreting quality studies.
Warchal, Krystyna, Andrzej Tyda, et al. “Whose Face? Us and them in English – Polish Consecutive Interpreting.” Meta: Journal des traducteurs = translators’ journal vol. 56, n. 4 (2011). pp. 775-795. http://www.erudit.org/revue/meta/2011/v56/n4/1011252ar.html?vue=resume&mode=restriction
The authors are interested in a situation where concern for the face of the receiver and/or the identity and group membership of the interpreter can become factors that influence the process of interpreting. The aim of this paper is to look into the performance of advanced trainee interpreters in consecutive interpreting tasks that involve open criticism or direct praise of the target audience. More specifically, the authors are concerned with the type and extent of face-work carried out in tasks involving face-threatening acts and with the possible correlation between the interpreter’s performance in such tasks, the choices made by the interpreter and his or her relationship with the group of ultimate receivers.<br><br>Plan de l’article<br><br>1. Introduction<br>2. The Study<br>2.1. Objectives<br>2.2. Subjects<br>2.3. Source Texts <br>2.4. Procedure <br>3. Results<br>3.1. I to WE Shift<br>3.2. YOU to WE Shift<br>3.3. YOU to THEY Shift<br>4. Concluding Remarks<br><br>
Wolf, Alan J. E. “Translation, Adaptation, Inscription: Displacing God in Austen’s Sense and Sensibility.” Meta: Journal des traducteurs = translators’ journal vol. 56, n. 4 (2011). pp. 861-877. http://www.erudit.org/revue/meta/2011/v56/n4/1011257ar.html?vue=resume&mode=restriction
Focusing on a comparative analysis of film adaptations and French translations of Jane Austen’s Sense and Sensibility, this article examines the ideological reconstruction of source texts. More precisely, it proposes a way of describing the inscription and displacement of values in Sense and Sensibility based on a reading of the work in the context of Anglican neoclassical theology. This will provide the basis for the claim that the Anglican via media is displaced whilst allowing us further to explore the relationship between adaptation and translation.
Zhong, Yong “The Making of a “Correct” Translation Showcasing the Official Chinese Discourse of Translation “ Meta: Journal des traducteurs = translators’ journal vol. 56, n. 4 (2011). pp. 796-811. http://www.erudit.org/revue/meta/2011/v56/n4/1011253ar.html?vue=resume&mode=restriction
This paper studies political translation in contemporary China. It approaches the issue by tackling a case study of the translations of a maxim issued in 2006 by the Chinese supreme leader, Hu Jintao. Like many past maxims, this one has been translated many times into English and four of the renditions are sampled for the case study, including seemingly “correct” and “flawed” ones. By comparing the different renditions, the study has managed to address a number of questions, including what makes a “correct” translation, how a “correct” translation is made, what strategies are used to accomplish “correctness” and what the criteria are for the making of a “correct” translation in China. The author hopes that this paper will contribute to an enhanced knowledge with regard to the dominant Chinese discourse of translation and about how translation is organized, regulated and evaluated in China.