Monthly Archives: enero 2013

Monográfico: Contexto de la Traducción

 

 

Monográfico
Contexto de la Traducción
I nfo T rad 30 de enero  de 2013


Abreu García, José Manuel, Daniel Bourge, et al. “Le lexique contextuel comme approche terminologique. etude de cas : Lexique électronique et Base de données hypertextuelle.” Jornadas Internacionales de Terminología vol. 4, n. (1997).  pp.: http://www.unilat.org/dtil/IVjornadas/abreu_garcia.htm

La terminologie et la traduction technique sont confrontées à un monde en évolution et par conséquent à des domaines hautement spécialisés. Des logiciels, sans limites de stockage de données, sont envisageables et restent à créer. Le spécialiste en langue ne pourra désormais travailler tout seul, un rapprochement avec l’outil informatique lui sera nécessaire : solution client serveur (consultation à distance).

Baker, Mona “Contextualization in translator- and interpreter-mediated events.” Journal of Pragmatics vol. 38, n. 3 (2006).  pp. 321-337. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/B6VCW-4HNSG62-3/2/94c08c00f675164a77d8f404035acdb3

The notion of context has been extensively invoked but rarely critiqued and elaborated in the study of translation and interpreting. This paper first explores recent thinking on the notions of context and contextualization in pragmatics and linguistic anthropology and examines the extent to which these notions have explicitly or implicitly informed current thinking on translation and interpreting. It then argues that closer attention to processes of contextualization in both the production and reception of translated texts and interpreted utterances can tell us much more about the goals and ideological positioning of participants than any static listing of contextual variables, however detailed and comprehensive. The discussion is supported by various examples of the way in which translators and interpreters frame their interaction with others.

Baker, Mona “Contextualization in translator- and interpreter-mediated events: Translation and Context.” Journal of Pragmatics vol. 38, n. 3 (2006).  pp. 321-337. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/B6VCW-4HNSG62-3/2/94c08c00f675164a77d8f404035acdb3

The notion of context has been extensively invoked but rarely critiqued and elaborated in the study of translation and interpreting. This paper first explores recent thinking on the notions of context and contextualization in pragmatics and linguistic anthropology and examines the extent to which these notions have explicitly or implicitly informed current thinking on translation and interpreting. It then argues that closer attention to processes of contextualization in both the production and reception of translated texts and interpreted utterances can tell us much more about the goals and ideological positioning of participants than any static listing of contextual variables, however detailed and comprehensive. The discussion is supported by various examples of the way in which translators and interpreters frame their interaction with others.

Bigoundou, Rodrigue ” Los títulos en el contexto universitario hispano-gabonés antes del proceso de Bolonia: análisis terminológico y traducción.” Gredos : Repositorio Documental de la Universidad de Salamanca vol., n. (2008).  pp.: http://hdl.handle.net/10366/22655

Esta tesis representa la primera aproximación realizada sobre estudios comparados, donde se intenta una traducción de títulos entre los contextos universitarios hispano-gaboneses. Para alcanzar nuestros objetivos, ha sido necesaria una metodología que ha sabido integrar los mismos criterios de comparabilidad de títulos en los dos ámbitos de estudio. Desde la perspectiva de la Educación Comparada, el tertium comparationis ha demostrado tener limitaciones y, por tanto, se recurrió a más criterios para acompañar el análisis terminológico. Una vez superado este requisito, se ha realizado un trabajo profundo de análisis de los conceptos relacionados con los títulos y diplomas en los dos países objeto de estudio. Este paso ha permitido establecer equivalencias entre los títulos y diplomas preparados en Gabón y España. De acuerdo con la traducción de los correspondientes títulos, se ha elaborado un glosario conservando las entradas en la lengua de origen, esto para distinguir la procedencia de cada título glosado. El repertorio final de títulos hispano-gaboneses podrá ser utilizado en procesos de equiparación de estudios y, muy especialmente, en comisiones de convalidación y homologación de títulos extranjeros.

Bigoundou, Rodrigue and Joaquín García Palacios (2008). Los títulos en el contexto universitario hispano-gabonés antes del proceso de Bolonia: análisis terminológico y traducción. http://gredos.usal.es/jspui/bitstream/10366/22655/1/DTI_Titulos%20contexto%20universitario%20hispano-gabones.pdf

Esta tesis representa la primera aproximación realizada sobre estudios comparados, donde se intenta una traducción de títulos entre los contextos universitarios hispano-gaboneses. Para alcanzar nuestros objetivos, ha sido necesaria una metodología que ha sabido integrar los mismos criterios de comparabilidad de títulos en los dos ámbitos de estudio. Desde la perspectiva de la Educación Comparada, el tertium comparationis ha demostrado tener limitaciones y, por tanto, se recurrió a más criterios para acompañar el análisis terminológico. Una vez superado este requisito, se ha realizado un trabajo profundo de análisis de los conceptos relacionados con los títulos y diplomas en los dos países objeto de estudio. Este paso ha permitido establecer equivalencias entre los títulos y diplomas preparados en Gabón y España. De acuerdo con la traducción de los correspondientes títulos, se ha elaborado un glosario conservando las entradas en la lengua de origen, esto para distinguir la procedencia de cada título glosado. El repertorio final de títulos hispano-gaboneses podrá ser utilizado en procesos de equiparación de estudios y, muy especialmente, en comisiones de convalidación y homologación de títulos extranjeros.

Braun, Marina “Translation and nterpretation as restoration of context.” Proteus vol. 12, n. 2 (2003).  pp.: http://www.najit.org/proteus/PDFVersions/Proteus_Spr03%20web.pdf

Communication is likely to get disrupted when words are taken out of context. Context is a concept that belongs as much to the sphere of linguistic and psycholinguistic research as it does to everyday communication. A layperson may not know the types of context that linguists single out for analysis, but people intuitively know that context is essential for successful communication.

Bugnot, Marie-Ange “La traducción de la gastronomía: textos y contextos (español-francés).” Trans. Revista de Traductología vol., n. 10 (2006).  pp.: http://www.trans.uma.es/trans_10.html

La traducción (español-francés) de la gastronomía en el ámbito de los textos relacionados con el turismo presenta dificultades específicas, puesto que tratamos con tradiciones locales basadas en un amplio espectro de componentes, por lo que su adecuación a un receptor determinado depende de factores variables. El estudio de la naturaleza de estos ítems gastronómicos en tres contextos distintos (folletos turísticos, menús y recetas) permite determinar los procedimientos traslativos a los que da lugar y analizar su aceptabilidad.

Campos Figueiredo, Vivina Almeida Carreira De “La traducción en Portugal en la segunda mitad del siglo XIX: contexto socio-cultural y literario, y el concepto de la traducción en ese momento.” Translating in Portugal in the second half of 19th century: the socio-cultural and literary context and the existent concept of translation at that time vol., n. 14 (2010).  pp. 117-123.

Este artículo tiene como objetivo describir de forma concisa el contexto sociocultural y literario en el que aparecen las traducciones portuguesas en la segunda mitad del siglo XIX. Esta caracterización se ilustra preferentemente con comentarios de importantes intelectuales y escritores de la época. Además, ofrecemos una visión general del concepto de traducción y de la actividad traductora que imperaba en estos momentos de los que existen perspectivas opuestas bien documentadas.

Castro Ramírez, Nayelli “Traducir la filosofía más allá de la filosofía: firmas, acontecimientos, contextos.” Mutatis Mutandis: Revista Latinoamericana de Traducción vol. 1, n. 2 (2008).  pp. 180-195. http://dialnet.unirioja.es/servlet/articulo?codigo=2987536&orden=214629&info=link

En estas líneas, muestro algunas de las particularidades de la traducción de “Signature événement contexte” al español. El análisis propuesto se aleja de los enfoques hermenéuticos (la interpretación y construcción del sentido de un texto) y se acerca a la propuesta de una poética de la traducción. En una primera parte, a manera de introducción, sitúo el estudio de los textos filosóficos en el horizonte de la traductología. En la segunda, analizo la traducción al español de la conferencia. En las conclusiones, señalo las dificultades de clasificación de los textos filosóficos, en particular, los de Jacques Derrida y muestro la necesidad de traducir filosofía más allá del sentido conceptual de sus textos. Traducir filosofía es diferirla, construirla, hacer filosofía.

Chen, Wei “Contexte, compréhension, traduction.” Meta vol. 44, n. 1 (1999).  pp.: http://www.erudit.org/revue/meta/1999/v44/n1/002225ar.pdf

Understanding is the first phase of the translation process. But what does the act of understanding entail? To understand is to extract meaning, contextual meaning (signification) not virtual meaning. Meaning provides the basis for fidelity in translation. Extracting meaning involves analyzing context and situation. To achieve this, the translator cannot confine himself to language per se, but must concern himself with language in use.

Cobeta Melchor, María Del Mar “Problemas de traducción de las alteraciones semántico-formales en las paremias contextualizadas.” Paremia vol., n. 9 (2000).  pp.: http://www.paremia.org/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=24&Itemid=40&lang=es

Problemas de traducción de las alteraciones semántico-formales en las paremias contextualizadas

Dorado Cadilla, Jairo “Unha achega sobre a lingua croata e a súa relación co serbio no contexto do acceso á Unión Europea “ Quaderns: Revista de traducció vol., n. 18 (2011).  pp. 107-116. http://ddd.uab.cat/pub/quaderns/11385790n18/11385790n18p107.pdf

A aceptación da lingua croata como unha lingua de seu, separada do serbocroata foi unha cuestión de división na comunidade lingüística. O estatus da República de Croacia como candidata á Unión Europea volveu a revivir este debate non só en Croacia, senón tamén en Serbia. Unha visión crítica da historia dos estándares conxuntos do serbio e do croata así como unha reflexión sobre o papel que a tradución e o uso da lingua ten en Croacia, debería facilitar unha achega máis obxectiva e ceibe das ideoloxías que situaban o uso e a oficialidade desta variedade na herdanza do ultranacionalismo presente antes, durante e tras o conflito bélico de 1991 a 1995. Tamén permitiría observar que o parecer de certos sectores da opinión pública con respecto ao valor identitario do uso da lingua semella, no caso croata, ao existen en linguas minorizadas nun contexto de conflito lingüístico, algo que pode resultar novidoso ao abeiro da «diversidade lingüística» que, aparentemente, defenden as institucións europeas coas linguas oficiais dos países membros.
Accepting Croatian as a separate language on its own has been a dividing issue for linguists. The status of the Republic of Croatia as candidate country to join the European Union has brought this topic to the headlines not only in Croatia, but in Serbia too. A critical overview of the Serbian and Croatian languages common standards’ history as well as a reflection on the role translation plays as well as the language usage present in Croatia should enable a more objective and ideology- free approach which labelled the usage and the official status of this variety as an outcome of the ultra nationalism ideologies present before, during and after the 1991-1995 conflict. It shall also enable to observer the attitude of some sectors of the Croatian public opinion regarding the identity values the language provides, strikingly similar, in our opinion, to those faced by minority languages in contexts of linguistic conflict; this might be a new situation within the apparent «linguistic diversity» approach defended by the European institutions with all the member states’ official languages.

Feria García, Manuel C. “El tratado hispano-marroquí de amistad y comercio de 1767 en el punto de mira del traductor (I). Contextualización histórica: encuentro y desencuentros.” Sendebar. Boletín de la Facultad de Traductores e Interpretes de Granada vol., n. 16 (2005).  pp.:

El presente constituye el primero de tres artículos en los que se analiza el Tratado de Amistad y Comercio entre España y Marruecos de 1767 desde la traduc-tología y ¡a historia de la tradueción. En esta primera parte contextuábamos el Tratado: los acontecimientos que lo rodearon, su significado histórico y las discrepancias de interpretación que han ido surgiendo a lo iargo de los siglos. En cuanto a las discrepancias de interpretación, incidimos en: primero, la hipotética aceptación de la soberanía española de las plazas norleafrieanas por Marruecos y el cerco de Melilla de 1774-1775 y, segundo, el proceso de descolonización del Sahara Occidental. En la segunda y tercera partes de este artículo, que esperamos publicar en los próximos números de Sendebar, analizaremos hasta qué punto la traductología y la historia de la traducción pueden arrojar alguna luz respecto a todo ello.

Garbarini, Carmen Gloria “Reflexiones en torno a la traducción en un contexto interétnico.” Mutatis Mutandis: Revista Latinoamericana de Traducción vol. 3, n. 1 (2010).  pp. 116-124. http://aprendeenlinea.udea.edu.co/revistas/index.php/mutatismutandis/article/view/5236/5695

Las reflexiones de los traductólogos, enriquecidas con la voz de disciplinas como la antropología y la filosofía, han vuelto a plantear la traducción como resultado de una práctica transcultural. En este artículo, se habla de la naturaleza de la traducción y del papel que desempeña el traductor en contextos interétnicos, pluriculturales y plurilingüísticos. Se plantea una posible participación académica, política y social de la traducción para vehiculizar relaciones interculturales menos problemáticas y friccionadas que las que actualmente se vivencian, especialmente en la región de la Araucanía, donde conviven el mapudungun y el castellano. Mediante el planteamiento de un caso, se muestra una serie de inconvenientes, problemas y cuestionamientos que surgen al intentar llevar un mundo a otro. Se concluye con algunas reflexiones acerca de las implicaciones de la traducción en las relaciones interculturales en la región.

Garbarini, Carmen Gloria “Reflexiones en torno a la traducción en un contexto interétnico.” Mutatis Mutandis: Revista Latinoamericana de Traducción vol. 3, n. 1 (2010).  pp. 116-124. http://aprendeenlinea.udea.edu.co/revistas/index.php/mutatismutandis/article/view/5236/5695

Las reflexiones de los traductólogos, enriquecidas con la voz de disciplinas como la antropología y la filosofía, han vuelto a plantear la traducción como resultado de una práctica transcultural. En este artículo, se habla de la naturaleza de la traducción y del papel que desempeña el traductor en contextos interétnicos, pluriculturales y plurilingüísticos. Se plantea una posible participación académica, política y social de la traducción para vehiculizar relaciones interculturales menos problemáticas y friccionadas que las que actualmente se vivencian, especialmente en la región de la Araucanía, donde conviven el mapudungun y el castellano. Mediante el planteamiento de un caso, se muestra una serie de inconvenientes, problemas y cuestionamientos que surgen al intentar llevar un mundo a otro. Se concluye con algunas reflexiones acerca de las implicaciones de la traducción en las relaciones interculturales en la región.

Garbarini, Carmen Gloria “Reflexiones en torno a la traducción en un contexto interétnico.” Mutatis Mutandis: Revista Latinoamericana de Traducción vol. 3, n. 1 (2010).  pp. 116-124. http://dialnet.unirioja.es/servlet/extart?codigo=3247533

Las reflexiones de los traductólogos, enriquecidas con la voz de disciplinas como la antropología y la filosofía, han vuelto a plantear la traducción como resultado de una práctica transcultural. En este artículo, se habla de la naturaleza de la traducción y del papel que desempeña el traductor en contextos interétnicos, pluriculturales y plurilingüísticos. Se plantea una posible participación académica, política y social de la traducción para vehiculizar relaciones interculturales menos problemáticas y friccionadas que las que actualmente se vivencian, especialmente en la región de la Araucanía, donde conviven el mapudungun y el castellano. Mediante el planteamiento de un caso, se muestra una serie de inconvenientes, problemas y cuestionamientos que surgen al intentar llevar un mundo a otro. Se concluye con algunas reflexiones acerca de las implicaciones de la traducción en las relaciones interculturales en la región.

González García, Erika “Interpretación social: una necesidad que emerge día a día. Aproximación al contexto guipuzcoano Erika González García.” Sendebar. Boletín de la Facultad de Traductores e Interpretes de Granada vol., n. 15 (2004).  pp.:

Los países Mediterráneos de Europa, entre ellos España, Grecia e Italia, han pasado de ser países de gran tradición emigrante a países receptores. Debido a su situación geográfica son el puente hacia la Europa occidental para muchos colectivos procedentes del magreb, del ¦frica subsahariana y de Europa del este. No obstante, en el caso de España, existe todavía una diferencia abismal en cuanto al flujo de inmigrantes entre las provincias septentrionales y meridionales del país. Por esta razón, analizaremos el estado de la cuestión de una provincia del norte, Guipúzcoa, en cuanto a la Interpretación Social, para dejar constancia de la labor que queda todavía por hacer a pesar de que el número de personas que requieren tal servicio no sea tan numeroso como en otras provincias del sur.

González Pueyo, María Isabel “Translation of in, on, at and over into Spanish in a technical context.” Meta vol. 40, n. 1 (1995).  pp.: http://www.erudit.org/revue/meta/1995/v40/n1/003878ar.pdf

Se estudian cuatro preposiciones locativas del inglés y sus correspondientes traducciones al español. Se estudia su frecuencia en contextos especializados. Por último, se analizan sintácticamente las traducciones posibles y su utilización en contexto según su frecuencia.

Gross, Gaston “Sur la notion de contexte.” Meta vol. 55, n. 1 (2010).  pp. 187-197. http://www.erudit.org/revue/meta/2010/v55/n1/index.html

Le présent article constitue une réflexion sur la notion de , qui est l’une des plus importantes de l’analyse linguistique, dans la mesure où presque tous les prédicats sont polysémiques et que seule la distribution permet de déterminer la lecture adéquate. Mais le contexte ne peut pas être réduit à l’environnement immédiat de gauche et de droite de l’élément à analyser : seule la détermination des relations argumentales permet de définir un opérateur avec précision. Or, un texte n’est pas constitué d’une suite de phrases simples dans leur ordre canonique. Aussi est-il nécessaire d’éliminer les contextes immédiats qui ne participent à cette reconnaissance. Il peut s’agir d’incises, de structures figées, etc. Il faut donc être en mesure de trouver les relations prédicat-arguments qui caractérisent les phrases simples. Cette recherche repose sur l’utilisation de dictionnaires électroniques qui comprennent ces informations. Ces dictionnaires sont fondés sur les classes d’objets. Celles-ci permettent, entre autres, de montrer que dans la reconnaissance des emplois les compléments sont plus discriminants que les sujets. La détection de la relation prédicat-arguments est encore facilitée si on a recensé, pour chaque emploi, toutes les restructurations qu’un schéma d’arguments est en mesure de subir. La notion de contexte ne constitue donc pas une délimitation mécanique que l’on peut effectuer en sélectionnant un nombre déterminé de mots à gauche et à droite mais relève d’une analyse qui met en jeu la totalité des informations syntaxiques.

Grove Ditlevsen, Marianne “The Diversity of the Annual Report in an International Context.” Fachsprache: Internationale Zeitschrift für Fachsprachenforschung -didaktik und Terminologie vol. 32, n. 3-4 (2010).  pp. 163.

House, Juliane “Text and context in translation.” Journal of Pragmatics vol. 38, n. 3 (2006).  pp. 338-358. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/B6VCW-4HPD3R5-1/2/b5445f1476a38df67f33f21f17551a4d

While research on texts as units larger than sentences has a rich tradition in translation studies, the notion of context, its relation to text, and the role it plays in translation has received much less attention. In this paper, I make an attempt at rethinking the relationship between context and text for translation. I first review several conceptions of context and the relationship between text and context in a number of different disciplines. Secondly, I present a theory of translation which is to be understood as a theory of re-contextualization that explicates the relationship between context and text in its design and categorial scheme. Finally, I sketch a recent development in translation and multilingual text production, which may limit the scope of re-contextualization in translation.

House, Juliane “Text and context in translation: Translation and Context.” Journal of Pragmatics vol. 38, n. 3 (2006).  pp.: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/B6VCW-4HPD3R5-1/2/b5445f1476a38df67f33f21f17551a4d

While research on texts as units larger than sentences has a rich tradition in translation studies, the notion of context, its relation to text, and the role it plays in translation has received much less attention. In this paper, I make an attempt at rethinking the relationship between context and text for translation. I first review several conceptions of context and the relationship between text and context in a number of different disciplines. Secondly, I present a theory of translation which is to be understood as a theory of re-contextualization that explicates the relationship between context and text in its design and categorial scheme. Finally, I sketch a recent development in translation and multilingual text production, which may limit the scope of re-contextualization in translation.

Hovy, Eduard, Margaret King, et al. “Principles of Context-Based Machine Translation Evaluation.” Machine translation vol. 17, n. 1 (2002).  pp.: http://ipsapp009.kluweronline.com/IPS/content/ext/x/J/4598/I/17/A/3/abstract.htm #

This article defines a Framework for Machine Translation Evaluation ( FEMTI) which relates the quality model used to evaluate a machine translation system to the purpose and context of the system. Our proposal attempts to put together, into a coherent picture, previous attempts to structure a domain characterised by overall complexity and local difficulties. In this article, we first summarise these attempts, then present an overview of the ISO/IEC guidelines for software evaluation (ISO/IEC 9126 and ISO/IEC 14598). As an application of these guidelines to machine translation software, we introduce FEMTI, a framework that is made of two interrelated classifications or taxonomies. The first classification enables evaluators to define an intended context of use, while the links to the second classification generate a relevant quality model (quality characteristics and metrics) for the respective context. The second classification provides definitions of various metrics used by the community. Further on, as part of ongoing, long-term research, we explain how metrics are analyzed, first from the general point of view of “meta-evaluation”, then focusing on examples. Finally, we show how consensus towards the present framework is sought for, and how feedback from the community is taken into account in the FEMTI life-cycle.

Huijsen, Willem-Olaf “Translation Completeness for Context-Free Grammars.” WEB-SLS: The European Student Journal of Language and Speech vol. 4, n. (1997).  pp.: http://www.essex.ac.uk/web-sls/papers/97-04/97-04.html

Systems for translation of controlled language require the source text to be expressed within severe syntactic and lexical limits. One of the objectives of such systems is that an author who conforms to the restrictions is rewarded with a reliable and fully automatic translation of the text into one or more target languages. Thus a proof of the completeness of such systems is of great importance. A machine-translation system is complete if and only if all expressions that are correct according to the source language grammar have at least one translation in the target language. The present research is inspired by the method of compositional machine translation developed in the Rosetta project [Rosetta 1994]. It focuses on the provability of completeness for relatively simple grammar formalisms, which are more appropriate for machine translation of controlled languages.

Inmaculada Mendoza, N. P. “Proposal for the Analysis of the Source Text in the Comprehension Phase of the Translation Process: Contextualization and Analysis of Extra-Linguistic and Intra-Linguistic Aspects.” redit: Revista electrónica de didáctica de la traducción y la interpretación vol., n. 2 (2009).  pp.: http://www.redit.uma.es/Archiv/v1_2009/mono_Mendoza_redit2.pdf

This paper underlines the importance of textual analysis in the comprehension phase of the translation process. It proposes a teaching activity model for first year Translation students, consisting mainly of three different stages focused on detecting and classifying translation problems in a specific text: contextualization of the source text and analysis of extra-linguistic and intra-linguistic aspects related to the translation process. For this purpose, we present a table-based methodology to be applied to the teaching of Basic Concepts for Interpreter and Translator Training.

Ji-Hae, Kang “Recontextualization of News Discourse: A Case Study of Translation of News Discourse on North Korea.” The Translator vol. 13, n. 2 (2007).  pp.: http://www.stjerome.co.uk/periodicals/journal.php?j=72&v=151&i=153

This paper explores the translation of news discourse in terms of the way in which recontextualization of discourse across the boundaries of language, culture and institutions results in the transformation, as well as transfer, of information. Based on a comparative analysis of news stories on North Korea published in Newsweek and Newsweek Hankuk Pan (Korean edition), the study examines how North Korea is (re)constructed in translation. The primary focus is on the translating context and the producers of translated news stories as they engage in an institutional routine to re-situate the source text (discourse on North Korea by Newsweek journalists), which is anchored in a specific discourse context (the context of a Newsweek story being written and published for original Newsweek readers), into the translating situation (the context of producing a translated story at Newsweek Hankuk Pan) for a new context of use (the context of reception by South Korean readers of Newsweek Hankuk Pan). As the producers of translated news at Newsweek Hankuk Pan link the two situations, elements of the prior discourse as manifested in the source text are lifted from the original setting, re-perspectivized, differently foregrounded, silenced, elaborated on or blended with other voices. The findings suggest that contrary to the lay perception of translated news as a complete and accurate representation of the intention and meaning of the source text writer, news translation as recontextualization practice is a complex site of institutional goals and procedures, coupled with tension and conflict among different representations, ideologies and voices.

Kwong, Oi Yee, Benjamin K. Tsou, et al. “Alignment and extraction of bilingual legal terminology from context profiles.” Terminology vol. 10, n. 1 (2004).  pp. 81-100.

In this study, we propose a method for aligning terms and extracting translations from a small, domain-specific corpus consisting of parallel English and Chinese court judgments from Hong Kong. With a sentence-aligned corpus, translation equivalents are suggested by analysing the frequency profiles of parallel concordances. The method overcomes the limitations of conventional statistical methods which require large corpora to be effective, and those of lexical approaches which depend on existing bilingual dictionaries. Pilot testing on a parallel corpus of about 113K Chinese words and 120K English words gives an encouraging 79% precision and 38% recall on average. The method has its own limitations such as failure to detect multiple candidates and secondary translations, but it provides a good basis for acquiring an initial translation lexicon for legal terminology from indigenous bilingual legal texts.

Li, Li “Ideological Manipulation in Translation in a Chinese Context: Su Manshu’s Translation of Les Misérables.” The Translation Journal vol. 9, n. 2 (2005).  pp.: http://accurapid.com/journal/32ideology.htm

Su Manshu (1884-1918), whose original name was Xuanying and his Buddhist name Manshu, was born in Yokohama, Japan, of a Cantonese merchant and a Japanese woman. At the age of six, he was sent back to Xiangshan, Guangdong Province, China, the birthplace of his father. He was a poet, writer, painter, translator, dictionary and Sanskrit grammar book compiler, anthologist and Buddhist monk.

Lombardi, John “Translation and nterpretation as restoration of context.” Proteus vol. 12, n. 2 (2003).  pp.: http://www.najit.org/proteus/PDFVersions/Proteus_Spr03%20web.pdf

The year is 2004. A French interpreter is at the witness stand interpreting for an eyewitness in an armed robbery which took place in a convenience store in northern Vermont almost a year earlier. There are several French speakers in the courtroom hanging on the interpreter’s every word. The interpreter has an air of sang froid about him in spite of his limited experience at the witness stand. He seems to have an extraordinary memory and accurately renders the testimony in the consecutive mode, even when interpreting the witness’s response to that open-ended question: “What, if anything, happened on the date in question?” He omits none of the false starts, changes in intonation, or fillers characteristic of the witness’s long answer.

Lönneker, Birte “Meanings and Contexts on the World Wide Web. A Survey of Translators’ Sources.” WEB-SLS: The European Student Journal of Language and Speech vol. 1, n. (2002).  pp.: http://www.essex.ac.uk/web-sls/papers/01-02/web-sls.htm

The World Wide Web is used more and more as a source of linguistic data for various purposes. This paper focuses on the use of the web by translators as a special group of web users. The postings of a mailing-list for German technical translators (1) show that translators use the web very frequently in order to get terminological information or to consider examples of other persons’ language use in case of doubt. However, it is not always easy for translators to get the best out of the web. Translators are confronted with a wide range of different services that try to make available linguistic data via the web. Online dictionaries and glossaries are the most obvious examples of such services, but online corpora with integrated search functions can be of great help as well. Finally, internet search engines make accessible linguistic information along with content information in many languages. This paper will discuss the use of the World Wide Web as a source of linguistic data and metadata from the users’ viewpoint. The considerations about how helpful different online services can be for different purposes should also be taken into account by the designers of the services in question. The survey might thus help them to improve existing services or to create new ones developed for a specific users group.

Lozano Moreno, Susana “El método aplicado al texto y al contexto.” Hyeronymus complutensis vol. 11, n. (2004).  pp.:

El método aplicado al texto y al contexto. Susana Lozano Moreno. pags. 63-70

Mendoza García, Inmaculada and Nuria Ponce Márquez “Proposal for the analysis of the source text in the comprehension phase of the translation process: contextualization, and analysis of extra-linguistic and intra-linguistic aspects.” redit: Revista electrónica de didáctica de la traducción y la interpretación vol., n. 2 (2009).  pp. 128-150. http://dialnet.unirioja.es/servlet/extart?codigo=3104820

This paper underlines the importance of textual analysis in the comprehension phase of the translation process. It proposes a teaching activity model for first year Translation students, consisting mainly of three different stages focused on detecting and classifying translation problems in a specific text: contextualization of the source text and analysis of extra-linguistic and intra-linguistic aspects related to the translation process. For this purpose, we present a table-based methodology to be applied to the teaching of Basic Concepts for Interpreter and Translator Training.

Merkle, Denise “Modes of Censorship and Translation. National Contexts and Diverse Media.” Target: International Journal on Translation Studies vol. 21, n. 2 (2009).  pp. 381-387. http://dx.doi.org/10.1075/target.21.2.11mer

Francesca Billiani, ed. Modes of Censorship and Translation. National Contexts and Diverse Media. Manchester: St. Jerome Publishing, 2007. 328 pp. ISBN 978-1900650-94-6. £22,50. Reviewed by Denise Merkle (Moncton)

Millán Varela, Carmen “Exploring Advertising in a Global Context: Food for Thought.” The Translator vol. 10, n. 2 (2004).  pp.: http://www.stjerome.co.uk/periodicals/journal.php?j=72&v=140&i=144

The aim of this article is to explore the policies and strategies used by a multinational company (Unilever plc) to advertise one of its star products (Cornetto ice cream) in various cultural settings, namely Europe, Asia and South America. Given that eating habits vary from country to country, the advertising and success of a food product such as ice cream will be subject to both cultural and socio-economic constraints, hence the need to take into account the cultural specificity of each context when designing a marketing strategy. Kress and van Leeuwen’s model of visual design (1996/2001) is applied to the analysis of a corpus provided by Unilever, which comprises all available Cornetto ads since the product’s very first appearance on the market. The main objective is to explore how the same brand and product have been adapted to suit the domestic needs of each context, or rather, how a balance has been achieved between specific local needs and the company’s global aspirations. This paper focuses on the role played by culture and ideology in the elaboration of these adverts, taking into account not only discourse features, but also visual elements and semiotic functions.

Olohan, Maeve “Volunteer Translation and Altruism in the Context of a Nineteenth-Century Scientific Journal.” The translator vol. 18, n. 2 (2012).  pp. 193-215. https://www.stjerome.co.uk/tsa/abstract/14605/

This paper constitutes a first attempt to theorize volunteer translation using behavioural economic models of altruism. It applies the notions of pure and impure altruism to the study of a nineteenth-century journal of scientific translations, Scientific Memoirs. Volunteer translating and editing activities were instrumental in ensuring the commercial survival of that periodical over a 15-year period. A range of motivations may be posited for the volunteer work carried out, from the purely altruistic wish to expand scientific knowledge to motivations which could be linked to a sense of satisfaction (warm glow) or enhancement of personal, professional or social standing. Differences can be observed in the utility likely to have been derived from their volunteer activities by men of science and women translators, and an insight is offered into how volunteer contributions were encouraged and managed by the journal’s editor, Richard Taylor. By drawing on research on altruism and volunteering undertaken by disciplines other than translation studies, the paper offers a fruitful starting point for further research on volunteer translation and interpreting in both present-day and historical settings.

Peña Martín, Salvador and Miguel Vega Martín “La reconstrucción de los contextos del legado epigráfico andalusí: ‘el Amigo de Dios’ en el discurso numismático almorávide.” Trans. Revista de Traductología vol., n. 10 (2006).  pp.: http://www.trans.uma.es/trans_10.html

El sintagma árabe ‘Wali Allahn’ (el Amigo de Dios) es uno de los epigrafes que aparecen grabados en las monedas de plata acuñadas por los almorávides del Andalus y el Magreb durante las primeras décadas del siglo VI d.C./XII h. Predicado normalmente del emir’Ali ibn Yusuf, el mencionado sintagma no plantea problemas en cuanto a su léxico o sintaxis. Sin embargo, la determinación de su valor pragmático en el marco del discurso almorávide de legitimación exige una labor de reconstrucción de los entornos implicados, sobre todo por la ambigüedad de dichas palabras en dicho discurso. (A)

Percebois, Jacqueline “Fonctions et vie des sigles et acronymes en contextes de langues anglaise et française de spécialité.” Meta vol. 46, n. 4 (2001).  pp.: http://www.erudit.org/revue/meta/2001/v46/n4/003821ar.pdf

Cet article s’attache a étudier les fonctions et la vie des sigles et des acronymes dans les langues anglaise et française de spécialité en général, et en particulier dans le contexte de I’économie internationale. II met en évidence une fonction commune, la Fonction Dénominative Lapidaire, qui prendra, selon les cas, un aspect Véhiculaire, Grégaire ou Euphémique. L’ observation de la vie des sigles et acronymes met en évidence des variations synchroniques et diachroniques dans leur emploi et celui de leur développement. En conclusion, I’article souligne que, par leurs fonctions, ces néologismes sont un outil linguistique essentiel dan s les langues française et anglaise de spécialité.

Percebois, Jacqueline “Fonctions et vie des sigles et des acronymes en contextes de langues anglaise et française de spécialité.” Meta vol. 46, n. 4 (2001).  pp.: http://www.erudit.org/revue/meta/2001/v46/n4/003821ar.pdf

Fonctions et vie des sigles et des acronymes en contextes de langues anglaise et française de spécialité.

Pozo Triviño, Mª Isabel Del “The Devil’s Advocate, análisis traductológico de una película basada en el contexto legal.” Congreso Internacional de la Asociación Ibérica de Estudios de Traducción e Interpretación vol. 1, n. (2003).  pp.: http://www.ugr.es/~dpto_ti/act/congresoICAIETI/res/archivos/DelPozo.doc

Nuestra comunicación analiza las dificultades a las que se enfrenta el traductor de guiones de películas que se desarrollan dentro del ámbito legal. Además de todos los problemas a los que se enfrenta cualquier traductor audiovisual, (sincronías, lenguaje técnico o pseudo-técnico, coherencia texto-imagen, etc. ) el traductor de películas basadas en argumentos legales debe resolver las dificultades traductológicas que surgen de las enormes diferencias existentes entre el sistema legal de la cultura origen y el de la cultura meta. Nuestro estudio trabajará con los contextos de cultura anglosajón y español y sus sistemas jurídicos, los cuales difieren en muchos aspectos: desde la base del ordenamiento jurídico, las fuentes del derecho, organización de los tribunales, etc. hasta la indumentaria que portan jueces y abogados y que, obviamente, no es ‘traducible’ en esta modalidad de trasvase interlingüístico. El mediador debe conocer todos estos factores y tenerlos muy presentes a la hora de elaborar su traducción para no dar lugar a incongruencias en la versión doblada o subtitulada.

Pozzi Prado, María “El español en el contexto de la normalización terminológica internacional.” El español, lengua de traducción vol. 3, n. (2006).  pp.: http://www.esletra.org/Maria_Pozzi.pdf

Hacer cosas de la vida diaria hoy tan comunes como usar una tarjeta de crédito, una plancha o una secadora de pelo en cualquier lugar del mundo sin importar cuál sea su país de origen, abrir un archivo que recibimos por correo electrónico o hablar por teléfono con una persona a miles de kilómetros de distancia requiere una cantidad de normalización que es difícil imaginar. En realidad, es la ausencia de normas lo que nos hace estar conscientes de que algo no está bien, por ejemplo un bien o servicio adquirido que no es de la calidad que esperábamos, un producto que no es compatible con otro equipo que ya teníamos, o que es peligroso, etc. La normalización juega un papel muy importante en los crecientes niveles de calidad, seguridad, confiabilidad y eficiencia de los bienes y servicios que se ofrecen en la actualidad. Las normas son indispensables no sólo para los ingenieros y los fabricantes de productos sino para la sociedad en su conjunto1. Cuando la maquinaria, los aparatos y los sistemas trabajan bien y de manera segura es porque cumplen una serie de normas. Las normas facilitan el comercio internacional; proporcionan a los gobiernos las bases técnicas para legislar sobre la salud, la seguridad y el ambiente; facilitan la transferencia de tecnología a los países en vías de desarrollo; y finalmente, protegen a los consumidores. En el mundo globalizado en que vivimos, donde las barreras comerciales han desaparecido o tienden a desaparecer, las normas se han convertido de facto en barreras comerciales no arancelarias, en particular las series ISO 9000 e ISO 14000 que tratan sobre la gestión de la calidad y la gestión ambiental respectivamente. Para las pequeñas y medianas empresas (PyMEs) cumplir estas normas representa la posibilidad de acceder a los mercados nacionales e internacionales con mayores y mejores perspectivas de supervivencia.

Ramiro Valderrama, Manuel “Apuntes semióticos en torno a la traducción de textos transcontextualizados.” Hermeneus: Revista de la Facultad de Traducción e Interpretación de Soria vol., n. 3 (2001).  pp.: http://recyt.fecyt.es/index.php/HS/issue/view/586/showToc

He accedido gustoso a la invitación del director de Hermeneus para que desarrollara, a modo de introducción, un tema relacionado con alguna de las secciones de la revista de nuestra facultad, que avanza con paso firme por el camino emprendido hace tres años. La querencia, que no tengo reparo en sustituir por devoción, me ha llevado a Libro de Manuel, una obra de Cortázar de cuyas perspectivas traductológicas me he ocupado intermitentemente durante esta última década. No voy a contar de cuándo data mi afición a Cortázar, pero he de aclarar que es posterior a mis once años de estancia en Argentina.

Reichling, Alain “Le contexte du Projet Terminologie.” European Commission. Tanslation Service vol., n. (1998).  pp.: http://europa.eu.int/comm/translation/reading/articles/pdf/1998_01_tt_reichling1.pdf

la Commission européenne, il y a longtemps que l’activité terminologique existe et, pour l’essentiel, elle est organisée à l’intérieur du Service de traduction. En effet, les traducteurs ont toujours été confrontés à une variété de problèmes, beaucoup de nature terminologique, notamment en raison de la diversité des textes techniques dont la Commission prend l’initiative, et qui doivent être traduits dans toutes les langues officielles et de travail. La composante linguistique est devenue plus complexe à chaque élargissement de l’Union.

Rivas Carmona, María Del Mar and Aurelia Carranza Márquez “El concepto de “contexto” en las traducciones inglés-español: una aproximación sociolingüística a las competencias y decisiones del traductor.” Hikma: estudios de traducción = translation studies vol., n. 9 (2010).  pp. 143-160.

Rodrfguez Pazos, José Gabriel “Contextual mismatches in the translation into spanish of Ernest Hemingway’s the sun also rises.” Hermeneus: Revista de la Facultad de Traducción e Interpretación de Soria vol., n. 4 (2002).  pp.: http://recyt.fecyt.es/index.php/HS/issue/view/591/showToc

The last translation into Spanish of Ernest Hemingway’s The Sun Also Rises is analysed here from the perspective of Sperber and Wilson’s theory of relevance. Taking their concept of context as a starting point, four dif- ferent contexts are considered: the context envisaged by Hemingway, the one brought to bear by the translator as reader of the original, the one envisaged by the translator as writer of the Spanish version, and, tinally, the context brought to bear by the reader of the translated texto Mismatches between the different contexts result into cases of very apparent lack of correspondence between the original and the translation. The article tries to show that Sperber and Wilson’s concept of context can account for the causes of the main deticiencies of a literary translation and, consequentIy, provide Borne useful guidelines for professional translators.

Roe, David B., Pedro J. Moreno, et al. “A spoken language translator for restricted-domain context-free languages.” Speech Communication vol. 11, n. 2-3 (1992).  pp. 311-319. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/B6V1C-48V20W4-6X/2/48b2e37488bb181757d591e7ea5d579e

An effort is underway at AT&T Bell Laboratories and Telefónica Investigación y Desarrollo to build a restricted domain spoken language translation system, which we call VEST (Voice English/Spanish Translator). The eventual goal is a voice output translator which is speaker-independent, and has a vocabulary of several thousand words covering a specific application. This paper describes the first step of our research, a system which recognizes two speakers in each of Spanish and English and is limited to some four hundred words. The key new idea is that the speech recognition and the language analysis are tightly coupled by using the same language model, an augmented phrase-structure grammar, for both.

Schneider, Vivian I., Alice F. Healy, et al. “What Is Learned under Difficult Conditions Is Hard to Forget: Contextual Interference Effects in Foreign Vocabulary Acquisition, Retention, and Transfer.” Journal of Memory and Language vol. 46, n. 2 (2002).  pp.: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/B6WK4-457MDKS-8/2/7437899ab1037ef3cfdb4692bdd14d46

In two experiments, participants were given, in an initial session, three trials of training on French-English vocabulary pairs and then were tested on these pairs. In a second session 1 week later, they were retested and then retrained on the same pairs. Both translation directions were employed (English-French and French-English). In Experiment 1, the vocabulary pairs were either blocked by category or mixed, and in Experiment 2, participants were pretrained on half of the French words before vocabulary learning. There was enhanced savings during relearning when initial learning involved the more difficult English-French translation direction or no pretraining on French words. Further, when learning involved the more difficult English-French translation direction or mixed pairs, forgetting across the 1-week delay was reduced.

Serrano Femández, Luis “La traducción de los títulos de películas inglés-español en un contexto determinado y determinante: espana 1975-1980.” Sendebar. Boletín de la Facultad de Traductores e Interpretes de Granada vol., n. 12 (2001).  pp.:

Este trabajo se propone estudiar los títulos de las películas traducidas del inglés al castellano y exhibidas en España de 1976 a 1979. Metodológicamente, partimos de que el marco espacio-temporal en el que se desenvuelven los hechos de traducción es relevante a la hora de estudiar los mismos.

Setton, Robin “Context in simultaneous interpretation.” Journal of Pragmatics vol. 38, n. 3 (2006).  pp. 374-389. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/B6VCW-4HNSB3H-4/2/fb014ba54fae5e963cc01f71d0153656

Translation has recently been analysed in the terms of modern cognitive-pragmatic theory (relevance theory) as an interlingual interpretive use of language (Gutt, 1991/2000). But Gutt’s account primarily addresses the principles and processes of text or written translation, where the displacement in time and place between the original communicator, the translator and her readers requires the translator to reconstruct the original informative intention, project the original and target addressees’ cognitive environment, and craft a stimulus according to the degree of interpretive resemblance sought. By contrast, oral translation, in particular simultaneous interpreting (SI), is performed in live situations in which the interpreter shares most of the manifest cognitive environment with the participants and is thus better able to project and control the contexts in which her addressees will process her utterances. Since the condition of simultaneity severely constrains the simultaneous interpreter’s choice of stimulus, she relies heavily on this access to immediate context and her audience’s inferential abilities. Text translators need time to project context and choose their stimuli, while in SI, access to live contexts compensates for temporal constraints. The paper concludes with a discussion on prospects for exploring patterns and possible biases in interlingual text and oral communication on this basis.

Setton, Robin “Context in simultaneous interpretation: Translation and Context.” Journal of Pragmatics vol. 38, n. 3 (2006).  pp. 374-389. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/B6VCW-4HNSB3H-4/2/fb014ba54fae5e963cc01f71d0153656

Translation has recently been analysed in the terms of modern cognitive–pragmatic theory (relevance theory) as an interlingual interpretive use of language (Gutt, 1991/2000). But Gutt’s account primarily addresses the principles and processes of text or written translation, where the displacement in time and place between the original communicator, the translator and her readers requires the translator to reconstruct the original informative intention, project the original and target addressees’ cognitive environment, and craft a stimulus according to the degree of interpretive resemblance sought. By contrast, oral translation, in particular simultaneous interpreting (SI), is performed in live situations in which the interpreter shares most of the manifest cognitive environment with the participants and is thus better able to project and control the contexts in which her addressees will process her utterances. Since the condition of simultaneity severely constrains the simultaneous interpreter’s choice of stimulus, she relies heavily on this access to immediate context and her audience’s inferential abilities. Text translators need time to project context and choose their stimuli, while in SI, access to live contexts compensates for temporal constraints. The paper concludes with a discussion on prospects for exploring patterns and possible biases in interlingual text and oral communication on this basis.

Sevilla Muñoz, Manuel “Procedimientos de traducción (inglés-español) de locuciones en contexto.” Paremia vol., n. 18 (2009).  pp. 197-207. http://www.paremia.org/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=76&Itemid=87&lang=es

Shestakov, Tatyana “Lars T. Lih. Lenin Rediscovered: What Is to Be Done? In Context. Leiden/Boston, Brill, 2006, 867 p.” TTR : traduction, terminologie, rédaction vol. 18, n. 2 (2005).  pp. 258-262. http://id.erudit.org/iderudit/015775ar

Revisión del libro: Lars T. Lih. Lenin Rediscovered: What Is to Be Done? In Context. Leiden/Boston, Brill, 2006, 867 p

Shouyi, Fan “Transiation of English fiction and drama in modern China: social context, literary trends, and impact.” Meta vol. 44, n. 1 (1999).  pp.: http://www.erudit.org/revue/meta/1999/v44/n1/002717ar.pdf

This article, which is organized along a chronological-thematic framework, will briefly review the early days of translating American and British fiction and drama into Chinese, the social context in which these translations were done, the literary ideas which have affected the work of Chinese writers, and the social impact that translated works of literature and literary theory have had in various periods of literature. The bottom line is that the literary works introduced to China to date represent only the tip of the iceberg. We need more quality translations for Chinese readers and more qualified and experienced translators to complete the job

Sirakova, Yoana “Transformation of Literary Imagery in Translation : Sallust’s Personage of Catiline in Bulgarian Translation Context.” The Translation Journal vol. 11, n. 3 (2007).  pp.: http://www.accurapid.com/journal/41catilina.htm

History is probably the field where one can find most parallels between modern and ancient concepts of life and world. Why history? Because history is a continuous sequence of events, where context provides images of different individuals that we can imitate or, on the contrary, try to not imitate. For the value of history is measured by the possibility for deducting morals to be applied in every context. Thus, in the constant change of contexts, some images remain the same and others change their shapes in order to serve various purposes. As far as translation theory is concerned, the reception of history is determined to a great extent by the strategies chosen by different translators, as well as their objectives. Two Bulgarian translations of Sallust’s Coniuratio Catilinae, edited in Bulgaria in 1940 and in 1982, provide examples of two different ways of reception of a particular part of ancient history and ancient literary models. As a matter of fact, these two texts are the only complete translations of Coniuratio Catilinae in Bulgarian.

Sobashima, Yasuhiro, Osamu Furuse, et al. “A corpus-based local context analysis for spoken dialogues.” Speech Communication vol. 15, n. 3-4 (1994).  pp. 205-212. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/B6V1C-4903R58-2K/2/633a7b1c096feb771842fbad23be1d7f

Grammatical and semantic constraints are effective for interpreting or understanding linguistic expressions. However, they appear to be inadequate for selecting among several candidates, all of which may be relatively correct or inadequate grammatically or semantically. Clearly, we humans interpret a linguistic expression contextually even if there are many potential interpretations. This paper introduces an example-based local context analysis method using tagged corpora to deal with contextual selection of linguistic expressions, taking into account the cohesive nature of spoken dialogues. This method performs calculations for similarity scores between linguistic expressions and for likelihood scores to select the most suitable expression. Both illocutionary force-based and morpho-syntactic classifications are considered, along with the frequencies of existing sets of neighboring linguistic expressions stored in an example database. An experimental processing unit which performs such local context analysis has been implemented in a bidirectional (English and Japanese) translation prototype system, and has shown its applicability to the selection of context-dependent translation candidates. This local context analysis mechanism can be used with conventional translation systems without contextual processing to raise translation accuracy.

Soon, Lim Beng “Wang, Hui. Translating Chinese Classics in a Colonial Context. James Legge and His Two Versions of the Zhongyong.” Babel: Revue internationale de la traduction/International Journal of Translation vol. 56, n. 4 (2010).  pp. 395-396. http://www.ingentaconnect.com/content/jbp/bab/2010/00000056/00000004/art00009

Hui Wang: Translating Chinese Classics in a Colonial Context. James Legge nd His Two Versions of the Zhongyong. World of East Asia – Welten Ostasiens, vol. 13. 2009. 224 pp. ISBN 978-3-03911-631-7. Bern: Peter Lang AG, International Academic Publishers, Hochfeldstrasse 32, Postfach 746, CH-3000 Bern 9, Switzerland. Price: €41.50. Reviewed by Lim Beng Soon. 535A Clementi Road, UniSIM, Singapore 599490.

Sun, Yifeng “(Multi)-Cultural context: Interpretation and translation adrift.” Babel: Revue internationale de la traduction/International Journal of Translation vol. 53, n. 3 (2007).  pp. 241-259. http://ejournals.ebsco.com/direct.asp?ArticleID=4FD8BDBD6FB260FBCA74

This paper argues that since in general, it is inadvisable for translation to disregard the possible unintelligibility of the text, a web of significance or signification must be reproduced irrespective of seemingly insurmountable translation difficulties. Interpretation is related to the issues of cultural translation and (un)translatability in cultural terms, necessitating a clutch of interpretative modes prior to the effective formulation of appropriate translation strategies. Temporal and cultural gaps tend to create difficulties in interpretation, and cultural pluralism may lead to multiple, hence different, interpretations. Principally because of translation, we have progressed into the age of multiculturalism, and it is not just that the necessity of acculturation seems to be diminishing, but there is a real desire to spurn it.Foreignization is a political issue. Accordingly, the tensions of ideological incommensurability need to be dissipated in order to facilitate cross-cultural understanding and communication. A degree of ideological pluralism permits cultural diversity distinctively marked by tolerance of difference and attempts to reduce an underlying distrust of the foreign. Multiculturalism, however, by no means denotes the demise of ideology. In spite of its ostensible theoretical naivety, intentionalism has some serious implications for the translator, who may ignore at his/her own peril, for instance, the complex ideological consciousness that informs not only the source text but also the resulting target text. If we say that both the author and the reader are responsible for context or its construction, then the translator must play the double role of reader and author in the sense of (re)constructing context. While we interpret with many aims, the act of interpretation is culturally and ideologically conditioned, and the ensuing complicated remapping is such that translation is always somewhat adrift.

Tang, Jun “Ezra Pound’s The River Merchant’s Wife: Representations of a Decontextualized “Chineseness”.” Meta vol. 56, n. 3 (2011).  pp. 526-537. http://id.erudit.org/iderudit/1008331ar

Le présent article fait état d’une comparaison approfondie de plusieurs interprétations de The River Merchant’s Wife : A Letter réalisées par des chercheurs occidentaux, avec celle qui fait autorité dans le domaine des études chinoises classiques et qui fait référence au texte source chinois, Changgan Xing. L’analyse des écarts entre les deux textes, effectuée sous un angle interculturel mène à la conclusion que The River Merchant’s Wife présente une idée de la Chine décontextualisée, en raison de l’usage de romanisations teintées d’influence japonaise, de manipulations de détails culturels, et de modifications du message original. Par conséquent, la réécriture et la manipulation par Ezra Pound ont introduit des erreurs à l’égard de la compréhension du texte chinois original et ont renforcé les préjugés stéréotypés sur le genre et le mariage de la Chine ancienne. $EN$This article provides a detailed comparison of various interpretations of The River Merchant’s Wife: A Letter presented by Western scholars and the widely-recognized interpretation in the field of classical Chinese studies concerning its Chinese source text Changgan Xing. Analyzing the discrepancies between the two texts from a cross-cultural perspective, this article argues that The River Merchant’s Wife has produced a decontextualized “Chineseness” by using Japanized romanizations, manipulating cultural details, and changing the original messages. Consequently, Ezra Pound’s rewriting and manipulation have induced misunderstandings regarding the Chinese source text and have reinforced stereotypical preconceptions of gender image and married life in ancient China.

Vargas Gómez, Francisco Javier “Imitación/versión/hibridación: la función de la traducción en tres contextos histórico-culturales.” Tonos Digital vol., n. 17 (2009).  pp. 1-35. http://www.tonosdigital.es/ojs/index.php/tonos/article/view/296/205

El estudio explora las posibilidades de que las características funcionales del fenómeno de la traducción se reproduzcan de manera comparable en diferentes contextos histórico-culturales. Aceptando que las especificidades contextuales determinan la función de la traducción en un contexto dado, se postula que si en diferentes momentos y lugares se presentan circunstancias similares, la traducción adoptará características funcionales también similares. Así, mediante la comparación de las particularidades de la traducción en los contextos latino clásico, modernista latinoamericano y poscolonial, el estudio pretende establecer puntos de convergencia entre las funciones de la traducción en tales contextos para luego desvelar las causas contextuales que originaron dichas convergencias. Luego de demarcar una función para la traducción indistintamente aplicable a los tres contextos estudiados, se concluye que tal hecho es posible porque las especificidades de los tres contextos generaron la necesidad de un tipo de traducción que funcionara de manera similar en momentos muy distantes. (A)

Verdegal, Joan “Los neologismos literarios y sus efectos en traducción: Propuesta analítico-evaluadora de la distorsión (contexto francés-español/francés-catalán).” Sendebar. Boletín de la Facultad de Traductores e Interpretes de Granada vol., n. 13 (2002).  pp.:

Yankova, Diana “The text and context of EU Directives: implications for translators.” Ibérica: Revista de la Asociación Europea de Lenguas para Fines Específicos (AELFE) vol., n. 16 (2008).  pp. 129-146. http://www.aelfe.org/documents/08_16_Yankova.pdf

Contrastive studies of statutory legislation are very scarce world-wide. Research in legal language has mainly concentrated on adjectival law leading to linguistic insights regarding powerful versus powerless speech, fragmented versus narrative testimony, the effect on jurors of simultaneous and overlapping speech, the use of leading, suggestive or improper questions in the courtroom, etc.Language of the substantive law has so far received considerably less attention from linguists, although there is a general tendency in academic endeavours towards interdisciplinary studies. Linguistic analyses of substantive law have elucidated issues such as how to make existing or future statutes clearer, without loss of content (i.e. document design) or how law students can be taught to process legislation. The present article analyses the specific functional, linguistic and communicative characteristics of the legal genre from an applied linguist s perspective in the context of European legal texts, as representing a unique set of features and conditions. It looks at the linguistic situation in Europe and the language policy in the EU with special emphasis on the translation regime of EU institutions. The participants in the communication and the special role of the translator in the law making process in the EU are discussed.

Yankova, Diana “Texto y contexto de las Directivas de la Unión Europea: implicaciones para los traductores.” The text and context of EU directives: implications for translators vol., n. 16 (2008).  pp. 129-146. http://www.aelfe.org/documents/08_16_Yankova.pdf

Los estudios contrastivos sobre legislación parlamentaria a nivel transnacional son muy escasos. Hasta ahora, el interés investigador se ha centrado en cuestiones de derecho adjetivo, como el estudio del discurso de poder, las deposiciones testimoniales fragmentadas y las narrativas, la influencia sobre el jurado del discurso simultáneo o solapado fonéticamente, el uso de preguntas incorrectas o sesgadas en los tribunales, y así sucesivamente. El lenguaje del derecho sustantivo, por el contrario, ha recibido mucha menos atención por parte de los lingüistas, aunque comience a aparecer una corriente académica favorable a los estudios interdisciplinares. Los análisis lingüísticos del derecho sustantivo se han encaminado hacia la clarificación y simplificación del lenguaje parlamentario, sin que éste pierda contenido, o alternativamente a la didáctica de la interpretación legislativa a los juristas. Este artículo pretende analizar las características funcionales, lingüísticas y comunicativas únicas y peculiares a los géneros legales desde el punto de vista de la Lingüística Aplicada al contexto de la legislación europea, al mismo tiempo que se centra en la situación europea en lo relativo a política lingüística, con un énfasis especial en el sistema traductológico de las instituciones europeas. Asimismo, se debate sobre los participantes del proceso de elaboración de las leyes en la Unión, y el papel del traductor en dicho proceso. (A)

Yifeng, Sun “(Multi)-Cultural context: Interpretation and translation adrift.” Babel: Revue internationale de la traduction/International Journal of Translation vol. 53, n. 3 (2007).  pp. 241-259. http://ejournals.ebsco.com/direct.asp?ArticleID=4FD8BDBD6FB260FBCA74

This paper argues that since in general, it is inadvisable for translation to disregard the possible unintelligibility of the text, a web of significance or signification must be reproduced irrespective of seemingly insurmountable translation difficulties. Interpretation is related to the issues of cultural translation and (un)translatability in cultural terms, necessitating a clutch of interpretative modes prior to the effective formulation of appropriate translation strategies. Temporal and cultural gaps tend to create difficulties in interpretation, and cultural pluralism may lead to multiple, hence different, interpretations. Principally because of translation, we have progressed into the age of multiculturalism, and it is not just that the necessity of acculturation seems to be diminishing, but there is a real desire to spurn it.Foreignization is a political issue. Accordingly, the tensions of ideological incommensurability need to be dissipated in order to facilitate cross-cultural understanding and communication. A degree of ideological pluralism permits cultural diversity distinctively marked by tolerance of difference and attempts to reduce an underlying distrust of the foreign. Multiculturalism, however, by no means denotes the demise of ideology. In spite of its ostensible theoretical naivety, intentionalism has some serious implications for the translator, who may ignore at his/her own peril, for instance, the complex ideological consciousness that informs not only the source text but also the resulting target text. If we say that both the author and the reader are responsible for context or its construction, then the translator must play the double role of reader and author in the sense of (re)constructing context. While we interpret with many aims, the act of interpretation is culturally and ideologically conditioned, and the ensuing complicated remapping is such that translation is always somewhat adrift.

Zhang, Meifang “Social context and translation of public notices.” Babel: Revue internationale de la traduction/International Journal of Translation vol. 55, n. 2 (2009).  pp. 142-152. http://ejournals.ebsco.com/direct.asp?ArticleID=4676A5E30D29C209200C

To study the translation of public notice is in effect seeking insights which take us beyond translation itself towards the whole relationship between language activity and the social context in which the translation is intended to function. Social context is an important aspect in the study of language and translation because the three are inextricably linked. This paper attempts to investigate the text types, text functions and the translations of public notices functioning in the social context of Macao SAR of China. It tries to deduce about the contexts in which the ST and TT were produced, the purpose for which they were produced and the target reader for whom they were produced. The study is carried out in the light of Reiss’s theory of text typology (1977/1989) and the Hallidayan systemic functional linguistics. It is hoped that this study will identity differences in public notice translation and explore the reasons behind the differences, and also be a test case for examining the role of functional theories of language in explaining some phenomena of translation. Texts for the analysis are extracted from the database for a research project undertaken by the present writer, and the analysis is conducted in terms of three text types and functions: informative, expressive and operative. The results of this study reveal that although one of the language functions might be dominant in a single text in a public notice, overlapping or combining functions are very often bestowed upon most texts. They also show that although invariance in the transfer of content could be achieved in the translation of informative texts, and an analogous form in the translation could be found in the transfer of an expressive text, there are more differences than similarities in the translation of texts with operative functions. Possible reasons behind the differences between the source and target texts are discussed. It is argued that the differences are most possibly caused by differences in cultural values, different religious backgrounds and different expectations between readers of the source and target texts.

Zitawi, Jehan “Contextualizing Disney Comics within the Arab Culture.” Meta vol. 53, n. 1 (2008).  pp. 139-153. http://id.erudit.org/iderudit/017979ar

Cet article examine les stratégies employées par les traducteurs arabes pour contextualiser des bandes dessinées de Disney dans la culture arabe. L’accent est mis sur les traducteurs égyptiens et des pays du Golfe.

El español en las relaciones internacionales

 

Rupérez, Javier and David F. Vítores. [e-Book] El español en las relaciones internacionales. Madrid, Fundación Telefónica, 2012.

Descargar

Siendo el español nuestro producto más internacional, el examen de su papel precisamente en las relaciones internacionales deviene fundamental, por cuanto en ese ámbito se plantean tanto oportunidades como problemas cruciales. En esta obra se realiza un recorrido sugerente y novedoso sobre los hispanoparlantes en el mundo, sus sistemas de comunicación con el entorno exterior, la presencia del español en foros y organismos multilaterales, el futuro de nuestra lengua en el universo globalizado y los recovecos que para su utilización y expansión hoy son más significativos, tales como la timidez con que su uso ha sido predicado para los mismos diplomáticos españoles, su estatus real en las grandes organizaciones internacionales y su permanente relación de amor/odio con el inglés. En sus páginas se adelantan algunas hipótesis que, indudablemente, tienen el mérito del rigor. También el de la galanura: a tal lengua, tal honor.

Descargate la Wikipedia en 10 GB

 

 

La Fundación Wikimedia apunta que se trata de un archivo OpenZIM, un formato específicicamente diseñado para para estos contenidos que se puede leer a través del programa Kiwixdisponible para Windows, Mac y Linux.

Wikipedia ha puesto a disposición de sus usuarios un archivo de 10 GB [Descargar aquí] que contiene toda las entradas publicadas hasta la fecha, y que recoge toda la información que aparece en la enciclopedia on-line. Se trata de un archivo OpenZIM que se puede descargar a través de Torrent, que permite tener acceso inmediato a todo el conocimiento de Wikipedia y que solo ocupa 9,7 GB. En este archivo podemos encontrar todas las entradas de la Wikipedia publicados hasta el momento, en inglés o español.

Mendeley -Traductores e Intérpretes

Reference Manager 2.0
Mendeley -Traductores e Intérpretes
I nfoTrad 23 de novimebre de 2012


[]

MENDELEY es un gestor de referencias sociales 2.0, una auténtica red social de investigadores que te permite mantener tu bibliografía personal, y compartirla con otros investigadores y estudiantes. Con Mendeley se puede también citar desde Word en los documentos de trabajo e investigación utilizando diferentes estilos de cita como MLA, Chcago, Harvard, Vancouver, etc.

Para unirte al grupo de Bibliografía Mendeley Traductores e interpretes debes registrarte en Mendeley (Puedes hacerlo con tu cuenta de Facebook). Puedes descargar gratuitamente la versión local, y tener la bibliografía en la nube (cloud)

Después te agregas al grupo Traductores e interpretes  que ya tiene  5,713 papers con descripción, resúmen y enlace al texto completo. Acabamso de añadir 2441 nuevos, y los actualizamos periódicamente.

Existen dos guias muy detalladas en SlideShare para los que necesiten ayuda en español con Mendeley:

  1. Guía de uso de Mendeley[] elaborada por Carmen Rodríguez Otero
  2. Mendeley. Tutorial de aprendizaje []elaborado por Julio Alonso Arévalo

Traductores e interpretes

Traductores e interpretes

In this group: 4,135 papers ·10 members

added documents to this group
Nuevas herramientas digitales y participación de los usuarios: el papel de las bibliotecas en la dinamización de los contenidos
Mock-Epic as a byproduct of the norm of elevated languagr
Propuesta motodológica para la revisión de traducciones: principios generales y parámetros
Semi-automatic Evaluation of the Grammatical Coverage of Machine Translation Systems
Unemployed Female Translators in Saudi Arabia: Causes and Solutions
And 2441 more

Grupo Mendeley sobre Traductores e Interpretes

 

 

Traductores e interpretes

Mendeley es un gestor de referencias sociales -una start-up- del Reino Unido que está teniendo un importante impacto en el mundo científico, proporcionando datos abiertos, en un esfuerzo para ayudar a unos dos millones de investigadores a nivel mundial a encontrar documentos e información. El servicio se basa en el modelo “freemium”. Además Mendeley – una plataforma de colaboración para investigaciones basada en la nube, que utilizan los investigadores en ciencias y humanidades de alrededor de 180 países para controlar el progreso de los trabajos de investigación.

La compañía se refiere a sí misma como una “Wikipedia para información académica”, donde los usuarios de la comunidad global de 1,9 millones de investigadores han creado una base de datos compartida de 65 millones de documentos. Mendeley dice que esto cubre alrededor de un 97,2% a un 99,5% de los artículos de investigación publicados. Cifra que lo convierte en un recurso de información de gran alcance e importancia. Y lo más importante es que la información que alimenta este ecosistema ha sido creada por la propia comunidad científica. Bases de datos comerciales como Thomson Reuters y Elseviers contienen 49 millones y 47 millones de documentos respectivamente, rpero el acceso a sus bases de datos sólo está disponible para aquellas universidades que disponen de una suscripción a las mismas a cambio de un importante montante económico

La base de datos Mendeley es de acceso libre bajo una licencia de Creative Commons, y es la única que permite a los desarrolladores construir sus propias herramientas con los datos de la investigación disponibles en cualquier lugar de la web, en dispositivos móviles o en el escritorio. Mendeley, una plataforma de agregación de datos científicos, a veces descrita como una mezcla entre Twitter y Facebook para científicos, comenzó su vida como una simple herramienta para ayudar en las tareas de citación de los investigadores, pero se ha transformado en una plataforma abierta, lo que permite a los desarrolladores construir aplicaciones usando metadatos científico enriquecidos.

Existen dos guias muy detalladas en SlideShare para los que necesiten ayuda en español con Mendeley:

  1. Guía de uso de Mendeley elaborada por Carmen Rodríguez Otero
  2. Mendeley. Tutorial de aprendizaje [] elaborado por Julio Alonso Arévalo

Puedes agregarte a los grupos de Grupos Mendeley y Facebook

Corpus y Traducción

 

Corpus

Monográfico
Corpus y Traducción
I nfo T rad 18 de enero  de 2013


Corpus Textual, Léxico y Lingüístico

Aijmer, Karin and Anne-Marie Simon-Vandenbergen “A model and a methodology for the study of pragmatic markers: the semantic field of expectation: Pragmatics of Discourse.” Journal of Pragmatics vol. 36, n. 10 (2004).  pp.: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/B6VCW-4CYNY29-1/2/2e59a4c72a0dd8601eec547f222e312f

In this article, a model and a methodology are proposed for the study of pragmatic markers. The proposal not only contributes to the theoretical discussion but also has advantages from a descriptive point of view. As to the model, it draws on a number of notions which so far have not been brought together in a way which gives a satisfactory explanation for the existence and functioning of pragmatic markers. These notions, reflexivity and indexicality, are integrated here with a view of modality and evidentiality which, based on White (2003), goes beyond truth-functional accounts in its heteroglossic and rhetorical perspectives. From a methodological point of view, the article proposes the use of translations as a heuristic device for setting up lexical fields. Following Dyvik (in press), translation corpora are used to refine the descriptions of semantic and pragmatic relations between items in the same field. To illustrate the methodology, we have opted for the semantic field of `expectation’ in English, and we look at equivalents of the pragmatic markers in Swedish and in Dutch.

Ajunwa, Enoch “Generating a Corpus-Based Metalanguage:The Igbo Language Example.” The Translation Journal vol. 12, n. 1 (2008).  pp.: http://www.accurapid.com/journal/43metalanguage.htm

The Igbo language (my mother tongue) could be described today as an ‘endangered species.’ For this reason, many calls have gone out to all language stakeholders and specialists such as linguists, creative writers, translators, etc. to save the Igbo language from extinction. To this effect, this article intends to contribute towards the generation of an Igbo metalanguage in the area of the computer science through the corpus-based hybrid method.

Ana, Frankenberg-Garcia “Learners Use of Corpus Examples.” International Journal of Lexicography vol. 25, n. 3 (2012).  pp. 273-273. http://ejournals.ebsco.com/direct.asp?ArticleID=4E5BA0DD5FFCFB2C66E0

One of the distinguishing characteristics of corpus-based dictionaries is that most entries contain example sentences or phrases that have been copied or adapted from corpora. Although examples are generally regarded as positive and have high face validity among learners, the body of evidence about their actual benefits is limited and inconclusive. My aim in the present study is to revisit the idea of testing the usefulness of corpus examples. However, unlike previous research, in the present study different words are used to test language comprehension and the ability to correct typical language production errors, and a distinction is also drawn with regard to examples intended to facilitate decoding and examples meant to benefit encoding. In addition to this, because a single example might not be enough to help people understand what a word means or how it is used, in this study I also test the value of presenting learners with multiple corpus examples.

Baker, Mona “Réexplorer la langue de la traduction: une approche par corpus.” Meta vol. 43, n. 4 (1998).  pp.:http://www.erudit.org/revue/meta/1998/v43/n4/001951ar.pdf

This paper discusses the need to develop a coherent corpus-based methodology for identifying the distinctive features of the language of translation. The aim of this endeavour is not merely to unveil the nature of the ‘third code’ per se, but most importantly, to understand the specific constraints, pressures, and motivations that influence the act of translating and underlie its unique language.

Barrière, Caroline “Building a concept hierarchy from corpus analysis.” Terminology vol. 10, n. 2 (2004).  pp. 241-264. http://www.benjamins.com/jbp/series/TERM/10-2/0004a.pdf

Corpus analysis is today at the heart of building Terminological Knowledge Bases (TKBs). Important terms are usually first extracted from a corpus and then related to one another via semantic relations. This research brings the discovery of semantic relations to the forefront to allow the discovery of less stable lexical units or unlabeled concepts, which are important to include in a TKB to facilitate knowledge organization.We suggest a concept hierarchy made of concept nodes defined via a representational structure emphasizing both labeling and conceptual representation

Bendazzoli, Claudio and Annalisa Sandrelli “Estudios de interpretación basados en corpus: primeros trabajos y perspectivas futuras.” Corpus-based Interpreting Studies: Early Work and Future Prospects vol., n. 7 (2009).  pp.: http://webs2002.uab.es/tradumatica/revista/num7/articles/08/08art.htm

Este artículo hace una revisión de los proyectos de investigación realizados en el pasado y en el presente dentro del campo de los Estudios de Interpretación basados en Corpus (EIC). Se analizan brevemente los obstáculos generales que aparecen en la creación de corpus electrónicos destinados al estudio de la interpretación. Además, se hace hincapié en las principales razones por las que el desarrollo de los Estudios de Interpretación basados en Corpus se encuentra aún en un estado menos avanzado que el de los Estudios de Traducción basados en Corpus (ETC). Todo lo que podemos aprender de las experiencias pasadas y presentes en el desarrollo de corpus de interpretación puede sugerir maneras de salvar el desnivel entre EIC y ETC. (A.)

Benito, Daniel “Tendencias futuras en memorias de traducción.” Future Trends in Translation Memory vol., n. 7 (2009).  pp.: http://webs2002.uab.es/tradumatica/revista/num7/articles/07/07art.htm

Este artículo repasa algunos de los avances más recientes en el campo de la tecnología de memorias de traducción, y analiza cómo se podría aplicar un enfoque desde la lingüística de corpus para ampliarlos y hacerlos más atractivos. El artículo también explora cómo la naturaleza de la industria de la traducción puede afectar a que las nuevas tecnologías sean, o no, adoptadas de forma generalizada. (A.)

Blanco Carrión, Olga “Framenet como una herramienta de corpus para el aprendizaje de segundas lenguas y para la comprensión léxica de la lengua materna.” Framenet as a Corpus Tool for the Learning of Second Languages and for the Lexical Awareness of One?S First LanguagePorta Linguarum. Revista Internacional de Didáctica de las Lenguas Extranjeras vol., n. 6 (2006).  pp. 67-76.http://www.ugr.es/~portalin/articulos/PL_numero6/blanco.pdf

En este artículo se pretende mostrar como la base de datos FrameNet creada por el grupo de investigación dirigido por el profesor Charles Fillmore y basada en los principios de la Semántica de Marcos puede ser una herramienta útil para el aprendizaje del lexicon de una segunda lengua así como para la mejor comprensión de la lengua madre. (A)

Borja Albi, Anabel “Organització de corpus. l’estructura d’una base de dades documental aplicada a la traducció jurídica.” Revista de Llengua i Dret vol. 34, n. (2000).  pp.:http://www.gentt.uji.es/publicacions/Borja_OrganitzacCorpus.pdf

Borja, A. i Monzó,E. (2000): ‘Organització de corpus. l’estructura d’una base de dades documental aplicada a la traducció jurídica’, Revista: Revista de Llengua i Dret. Vol . 34. Diciembre, 2000. pdf

Bosseaux, C. “Who’s Afraid of Virginia’s You: a Corpus-Based Study of the French Translations of the Waves.” Meta vol. 51, n. 3 (2006).  pp.: http://www.erudit.org/revue/meta/

The present paper discusses issues related to the translation of the English personal pronoun you in the French translations of Virginia Woolf’s The Waves (1931). There are two published French translations of The Waves. The first one, Les Vogues, was translated by Marguerite Yourcenar and published in 1937. Around fifty years later, another version was published, under the same title but this time translated by Cecile Wajsbrot (1993). The two versions differ significantly when the use of tu and vous is concerned. This paper is concerned specifically with the original’s mind-style (Fowler 1977) in other words, the way the characters’ perceptions and thoughts, as well as their speech, are presented through language and how this is rendered in the translations. The quantitative analysis was realised using corpus-based studies tools which proved to be an asset in helping to identify the novels’ mind-style.

Bowker, Lynne “Using specializaed monolingual native-language corpora as a translation resource: a pilot study.” Meta vol. 43, n. 4 (1998).  pp.: http://www.erudit.org/revue/meta/1998/v43/n4/002134ar.pdf

This article reports on the results of an interesting experiment comparing two translations produced by a group of translator trainees. One translation was carried out with the use of conventional resources; the other with the aid of a specialised monolingual corpus. The results reveal that the corpus-aided translations were of higher quality in respect to subject field understanding, correct term choice, and idiomatic expression. The author observes that although she did not find any improvement with regard to grammar or register, the use of the corpus was not associated with poorer performance.

Buendía Castro, Miriam and José Manuel Ureña Gómez-Moreno “¿Cómo diseñar un corpus de calidad?: parámetros de evaluación.” Sendebar: Revista de la Facultad de Traducción e Interpretación vol., n. 21 (2010).  pp. 165-180.

Campoy Cubillo, Mari Carmen “Frases verbales y verbos preposicionales en textos especializados: una técnica creativa.” Phrasal and prepositional verbs in specialised texts: a creative device vol., n. 4 (2002).  pp. 95-111. http://www.aelfe.org/documents/text4-Campoy.pdf

Los verbos compuestos y preposicionales son uno de los recursos que utiliza la lengua inglesa para expresar nuevos conceptos. En este sentido, la investigación e innovación dentro del ámbito científico-técnico puede utilizar dichos verbos para expresar nuevos pensamientos o conceptos. El presente artículo analiza el uso de verbos con partícula en textos especializados. En la sección final se estudian las distintas combinaciones compuestas y preposicionales con las partículas up, down, off, over, y out en un corpus formado por 80 artículos de investigación que pertenecen al área de la Botánica. (A.) Lenguajes especializados. Lenguajes técnicos; Lingüística sincrónica. Morfología; Lingüística sincrónica. Sintaxis

Castillo Rodríguez, Cristina “La elaboración de un corpus ad hoc paralelo multilingüe.” Revista Tradumaticavol., n. 7 (2009).  pp.: http://webs2002.uab.es/tradumatica/revista/num7/articles/03/03art.htm

Este artículo presenta una propuesta de elaboración de un corpus ad hoc paralelo multilingüe, dividida claramente en una serie de fases. Por otro lado, se muestran las ventajas e inconvenientes a la hora de compilar un corpus de estas características, incidiendo sobre todo en la fase de alineación de los bitextos, imprescindible para este tipo de corpus. (A.)

Charles, Maggie “The Construction of Stance in Reporting Clauses: A Cross-disciplinary Study of Theses.”Applied Linguistics vol. 27, n. 3 (2006).  pp.: http://ejournals.ebsco.com/direct.asp?ArticleID=42D5980B8A087BCBE3B2

Using a corpus-based approach, this paper investigates the construction of stance in finite reporting clauses with that-clause complementation. The data are drawn from two corpora of theses in contrasting disciplines: a social scienceùpoliticsùand a natural scienceùmaterials science. A network for the analysis of reporting clauses is presented which sets out the major alternatives available to academic writers and enables stance to be linked systematically to grammatical and semantic patterns of use. Quantitative and qualitative analysis of the data leads to the identification of an important, but somewhat under-researched, function of reporting clauses in academic writing: their use to report the writer’s own work. Drawing on the notions of averral and attribution, the paper shows how writers can emphasize or hide their responsibility for their own propositions and thereby construct a stance which differs according to the epistemology and ideology of the discipline concerned. These reporting clauses play a key role in the construction of major claims, with greater writer visibility seen in politics than materials. However, despite the superficial objectivity and impersonality of writing in the natural sciences, it is argued that skilled exploitation of the interplay between averral and attribution allows writers to construct a stance that is both clear and pervasive.

Christiane, Hnmmer and Stathi Katerina “Polysemy and Vagueness in Idioms: A Corpus-based Analysis of Meaning.” International Journal of Lexicography vol. 19, n. 4 (2006).  pp.: http://ejournals.ebsco.com/direct.asp?ArticleID=409DBB4F56539F89A6CA

This paper presents a corpus-based approach to the meaning of verb phrase idioms and proposes a set of parameters for the systematic description of their meaning in different contexts. It also discusses polysemy and vagueness in relation to idioms and offers criteria for the operationalisation of this distinction.

Churcher, Gavin, Eric Atwell, et al. “Developing a Corpus-based Grammar Model within a Commercial Continuous Speech Recognition Package.” WEB-SLS: The European Student Journal of Language and Speechvol. 3, n. (1997).  pp.: http://www.essex.ac.uk/web-sls/papers/97-03/97-03.html

This paper is derived from experiments with a commercial ‘off-the-shelf’ continuous speech recognition system (PE500 – see note 1), applied to the apparently restricted domain of Air Traffic Control (ATC) for light aircraft. The system is required to transcribe key sub-phrases in a transmission by the ATC to a particular aircraft, the commercial speech recognition system providing the main recognition component. After the development of a corpus of transmissions, it was realised that key information is often interspersed with unconstrained English. Initial attempts at evaluating different types of language model focused on using a wildcard mechanism for the non-key sub-phrases. The mechanism, however, proved to be valuable only in simplistic grammars due to its overgenerative nature. The speech recognition system showed us that whilst useful mechanisms are provided, such as the wildcard mechanism, they tend to make over-simplistic assumptions about English grammar and dialogue structure. A set of experiments using the three different types of ‘grammar’ showed that a fully constrained context-free grammar provides markedly better results than the other two which make use of the built-in iterative mechanism.

Corpas Pastor, Gloria and Miriam Seghiri “Specialized Corpora for Translators: A Quantitative Method to Determine Representativeness.” The Translation Journal vol. 11, n. 3 (2007).  pp.:http://www.accurapid.com/journal/41corpus.htm

Nowadays, there can be no doubt as to the importance or the necessity of using corpora in translation. Equally, given the short deadlines and speed that are now demanded in the translation industry, the virtual corpus has undeniably proved itself a most useful tool. Many authors have explored the possibilities offered by corpora for specialized language teaching and translation (cf. Bernardini and Zanettin, 2000; Corpas, 2001 and 2004, Bowker and Pearson, 2002, to name but a few). Ad-hoc, specialized corpora mined from electronic resources available on the Internet have proved to be a first-class documentary resource, as well as a valuable tool in decision-making and in revision. However, there is a surprising scarcity of studies devoted to analyzing the quality of the corpora that are being used in translation.

Curado Fuentes, Alejandro “Factores de representatividad y significación en textos de inglés para fines específicos.” Representativeness and significance factors in ESP texts vol., n. 2 (2000).  pp. 43-56.http://www.aelfe.org/documents/text2-Curado.pdf

De Vecchi, Dardo “La traduction d’un corpus atypique : les annuaires téléphoniques professionnels.” Metavol. 56, n. 2 (2011).  pp. 301-317. http://id.erudit.org/iderudit/1006178ar

Les listes sont des textes particuliers tant dans leur forme que dans leur contenu. Elles peuvent, sous certaines conditions, être traitées comme des corpus de textes constitués de phrases. Les rubriques des annuaires téléphoniques en sont des exemples riches d’informations à plusieurs titres. Leur traduction est un exercice aux exigences particulières où sont conjuguées les compétences linguistiques et la connaissance des activités économiques et professionnelles. Culturellement, elles rendent compte des manières de classifier ces activités dans un lieu précis ou une région. Le traitement de ce type de corpus n’est pas sans importance pour l’observation des phénomènes économiques. Il n’est pas négligeable de noter, en outre, qu’un examen diachronique de ce type de corpus offre une lecture des pratiques économiques et terminologiques passées et présentes d’une société. Cependant, l’examen de ce corpus ne peut s’effectuer que sur les versions papier numérisées et non sur les versions en ligne car, pour ces dernières, les catégories classificatoires ne sont pas systématiquement visibles puisque le contenu se trouve dans des bases de données électroniques qui ne sont pas accessibles directement.

Ebeling, Jarle “Contrastive linguistics, translation, and parallel corpora.” Meta vol. 43, n. 4 (1998).  pp.:http://www.erudit.org/revue/meta/1998/v43/n4/002692ar.pdf

This paper regards parallel corpora as suitable sources of data for investigating the differences and similarities between languages, and adopts the notion of translation equivalence as a methodology for contrastive analysis. It uses a bidirectional parallel corpus of Norwegian and English texts to examine the behaviour of presentative English there-constructions as well as the Norwegian equivalent det-constructions in original and translated English, and original and translated Norwegian respectively.

Edo Marzá, Nuria “The generation of active entries in a specialised, bilingual, corpus-based dictionary of the ceramics industry: what to include, why and how.” Ibérica: Revista de la Asociación Europea de Lenguas para Fines Específicos (AELFE) vol., n. 18 (2009).  pp. 43-70. http://www.aelfe.org/documents/04_18_Edo.pdf

The generation of useful dictionary entries is a complex task since it is normally complicated to decide what to include, and how to include it. Accordingly, this research presents as its main goal to show how “active entries” have been generated in the specific case of the elaboration of a specialised, bilingual, corpus-based dictionary in the field of industrial ceramics. Thus, this article illustrates how final entries have been designed and how decisions have been adopted depending on the prospective users of the dictionary –specialists and translators in the ceramic industrial field. It proceeds reflecting on how active entries complement previous terminological creations with the inclusion of additional, pertinent information and on the intricate decision-making processes involved in the generation of this kind of entries. On the first part of the article, the theoretical considerations adopted are posed whereas the second part deals with the active entries as such and the way their different fields have been filled in; that is, how different pieces of information regarding contexts of use, pragmatic implications, semantic classification and definitions, among others, have been included in the entries to meet the users’ needs.

Esther Monzó, Pilar Ordóñez “La investigación en traducción basada en corpus: aplicaciones profesionales y didácticas del proyecto GENTT.” Revista Tradumatica vol., n. 7 (2009).  pp.:http://webs2002.uab.es/tradumatica/revista/num7/articles/06/06art.htm

Este artículo repasa algunos de los avances más recientes en el campo de la tecnología de memorias de traducción, y analiza cómo se podría aplicar un enfoque desde la lingüística de corpus para ampliarlos y hacerlos más atractivos. El artículo también explora cómo la naturaleza de la industria de la traducción puede afectar a que las nuevas tecnologías sean, o no, adoptadas de forma generalizada. (A.)

Fan, May and Xu Xunfeng “An evaluation of an online bilingual corpus for the self-learning of legal English.”System vol. 30, n. 1 (2002).  pp.: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/B6VCH-44HX9WX-1/2/a9eccf25e787c2cb5f0aaf1d2b19ba49

Based on a relatively simple but innovative idea of inserting hyperlinks at the sentence level between parallel texts, a bilingual corpus of legal and documentary texts in English and Chinese has been created and made available online together with a web-based concordancer. In addition to introducing such a corpus, this paper reports a study which seeks to evaluate the usefulness of the corpus in the self-learning of legal English. The subjects involved were a group of Chinese students doing a degree in Translation in a university of Hong Kong, where English Common Law is still used after the handover in 1997 when the sovereignty of Hong Kong was restored from Britain to China. The instruments for data collection included two comprehension tasks, a questionnaire and a follow-up interview. Findings of the study indicate that students considered the bilingual corpus useful as they needed both language versions in the understanding of legal provisions though they were found to rely more on Chinese. Interesting data in relation to how users of the bilingual corpus switched between the two languages have also been obtained. This paper also investigates how the inherent characteristics of legal English contribute to the comprehension difficulty of L2 learners irrespective of the help obtained from the bilingual corpus.

Fellbaum, Christiane, Alexander Geyken, et al. “Corpus-based Studies of German Idioms and Light Verbs.”International Journal of Lexicography vol. 19, n. 4 (2006).  pp.: http://ejournals.ebsco.com/direct.asp?ArticleID=4F2896D59D3B7D533D2E

We discuss the motivation as well as the design and development of a large lexical resource focusing on German verb phrase idioms and light verbs. Entries for a given phrasal unit permit detailed linguistic analyses coupled with the appropriate corpus data.

Ferraresi, Adriano “Google y más allá: metodologías basadas en web como corpus para traductores.” Google and beyond: web-as-corpus methodologies for translators vol., n. 7 (2009).  pp.:http://webs2002.uab.es/tradumatica/revista/num7/articles/04/04art.htm

Este artículo estudia los planteamientos actuales sobre el uso de la web como corpus lingüístico y enfatiza las ventajas (así como los inevitables riesgos) que éstos pueden introducir en el trabajo del traductor. Para ilustrar este punto, se ofrece un ejemplo de las diferentes formas en que un corpus derivado de la web se puede aplicar provechosamente a una tarea de traducción especializada. (A.)

Fuertes-Olivera, Pedro A. “A corpus-based view of lexical gender in written Business English.” English for Specific Purposes vol. 26, n. 2 (2007).  pp. 219-234. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/B6VDM-4MWGYJF-1/1/af0e6c612518f92e5300dfbfe46f340c

This article investigates lexical gender in specialized communication. The key method of analysis is that of forms of address, professional titles, and ‘generic man’ in a 10 million word corpus of written Business English. After a brief introduction and literature review on both gender in specialized communication and similar corpus-based views of lexical gender in General English, the results obtained are explained. Mixed results were found. On the one hand, the ‘male-as-norm’ principle contributes to reinforcing typical gender stereotypes: for example, for each woman referred to in the corpus, there are more than 100 occurrences for man. On the other hand, advocates of non-sexist English have also influenced written Business English: for example, Ms is more than 9 times as frequent as Mrs. and Miss, which sustains the claim that equates Ms with professional settings. This article ends by discussing the ways in which the research findings of this study could positively impact upon the teaching of Business English.

Fung, Ascale and Athleen Mckeown “A Technical Word- and Term-Translation Aid Using Noisy Parallel Corpora across Language Groups.” Machine Translation vol. 12, n. 1 (1997).  pp. 53-87.http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/A:1007974605290

Technical-term translation represents one of the most difficult tasks for human translators since (1) most translators are not familiar with terms and domain-specific terminology and (2) such terms are not adequately covered by printed dictionaries. This paper describes an algorithm for translating technical words and terms from noisy parallel corpora across language groups. Given any word which is part of a technical term in the source language, the algorithm produces a ranked candidate match for it in the target language. Potential translations for the term are compiled from the matched words and are also ranked. We show how this ranked list helps translators in technical-term translation. Most algorithms for lexical and term translation focus on Indo-European language pairs, and most use a sentence-aligned clean parallel corpus without insertion, deletion or OCR noise. Our algorithm is language- and character-set-independent, and is robust to noise in the corpus. We show how our algorithm requires minimum preprocessing and is able to obtain technical-word translations without sentence-boundary identification or sentence alignment, from the English+óGé¼GÇ£Japanese awk manual corpus with noise arising from text insertions or deletions and on the English+óGé¼GÇ£Chinese HKUST bilingual corpus. We obtain a precision of 55.35% from the awk corpus for word translation including rare words, counting only the best candidate and direct translations. Translation precision of the best-candidate translation is 89.93% from the HKUST corpus. Potential term translations produced by the program help bilingual speakers to get a 47% improvement in translating technical terms.

Gabrielatos, Costas and Paul Baker “Fleeing, Sneaking, Flooding: A Corpus Analysis of Discursive Constructions of Refugees and Asylum Seekers in the UK Press, 1996-2005.” Journal of English Linguisticsvol. 36, n. 1 (2008).  pp. 5-38. http://ejournals.ebsco.com/direct.asp?ArticleID=45A2A60261207AA0A456

This paper examines the discursive construction of refugees and asylum seekers (and to a lesser extent immigrants and migrants) in a 140-million-word corpus of UK press articles published between 1996 and 2005. Taking a corpus-based approach, the data were analyzed not only as a whole, but also with regard to synchronic variation, by carrying out concordance analyses of keywords which occurred within tabloid and broad-sheet newspapers, and diachronic change, albeit mainly approached from an unusual angle, by investigating consistent collocates and frequencies of specific terms over time. The analyses point to a number of (mainly negative) categories of representation, the existence and development of nonsensical terms (e.g., illegal refugee), and media confusion and conflation of definitions of the four terms under examination. The paper concludes by critically discussing the extent to which a corpus-based methodological stance can inform critical discourse analysis.1

García Izquierdo, Isabel and Tomás Conde Ruano “Investigating specialized translators: corpus and documentary sources.” Ibérica: Revista de la Asociación Europea de Lenguas para Fines Específicos ( AELFE ) vol., n. 23 (2012).  pp. 131-156. http://dialnet.unirioja.es/descarga/articulo/3893285.pdf

El presente artículo da cuenta de una investigación con encuestas electrónicas llevada a cabo con tres grupos de traductores que trabajan en distintas áreas de especialidad (legal, médica y técnica) y cuyo objetivo es descubrir distintas facetas de su perfil socio-profesional, su opinión tanto acerca de los corpus como de otras fuentes documentales, así como el uso que hacen de estas. El análisis de los datos ha puesto de relieve rasgos característicos en los tres grupos de población, concretamente en relación con los años de experiencia, las fuentes de documentación utilizadas y los clientes habituales. Por ejemplo, los traductores jurídicos parecen más satisfechos con las fuentes documentales disponibles; los traductores médicos no utilizan nunca las memorias de traducción, mientras que los traductores técnicos a menudo recurren a los tesauros. En cualquier caso, y con independencia del área de especialidad, la mayoría de sujetos valoraría positivamente un corpus especializado que combinara aspectos conceptuales, macro-estructurales, terminológicos y léxicos, y que incluyera asimismo información sobre el contexto. Por todo ello, creemos que el Corpus GENTT 3.0 respondería bien a las expectativas y necesidades de los traductores profesionales.

García Izquierdo, Isabel and Tomás Conde Ruano “Investigating specialized translators: corpus and documentary sources.” Ibérica: Revista de la Asociación Europea de Lenguas para Fines Específicos ( AELFE ) vol., n. 23 (2012).  pp. 131-156. http://dialnet.unirioja.es/descarga/articulo/3893285.pdf

This paper describes research carried out through electronic surveys of three groups of translators working in different areas of expertise (legal, medical and technical) that aimed to discover their socio-professional profile, their opinions both on corpora and other documentary sources, and the use they make of them. Certain characteristic features emerged from the analysis of data on the three population groups, regarding years of experience, documentary sources used and most usual clients. For example, even if legal translators seem more satisfied with the documentary sources available, medical translators never use translation memories, and technical translators often refer to thesauri. In any event, regardless of their area of activity, most subjects feel the need for a specialized corpus combining formal, terminological-lexical, macrostructural and conceptual aspects, as well as contextual information. That is the reason why the GENTT 3.0 Corpus is believed to meet the expectations and needs of professional translators.

García-Ostbye, Ingrid “Dialogical surface text features in abstracts.” Ibérica: Revista de la Asociación Europea de Lenguas para Fines Específicos (AELFE) vol., n. 15 (2008).  pp. 89-112.http://www.aelfe.org/documents/06_15_GarciaOstbye.pdf

A sample driven description of Research Article-Comment-Reply (RA-C-R) abstracts in terms of abstract sentence length, reference, possessive structures, modal verbs and word range was carried out to find out whether their surface text features showed some trace of a dialogical construction of knowledge within the psychology discourse community.

Gardner, Dee “Validating the Construct of Word in Applied Corpus-based Vocabulary Research: A Critical Survey.” Applied Linguistics vol. 28, n. 2 (2007).  pp.: http://ejournals.ebsco.com/direct.asp?ArticleID=4887B98B59449DBB31FF

Corpus-based vocabulary research has had a profound impact on English language education, and there is abundant evidence that this will remain the case for the foreseeable future. Perhaps the greatest challenge of such research is the determination of what constitutes a Word for counting and analysis purposes. Decisions in this regard have important ramifications not only for the lexical findings themselves, but also for the pedagogical theories and practices that derive from them. This article surveys several fields of study in order to discuss this dilemma, with a particular focus on three problematic areas relating to computer-processed corpora: (a) morphological relationships between words, (b) homonymy and polysemy, and (c) multiword items. The article concludes with recommendations for assessing the validity of the Word construct in applied corpus-based vocabulary research.

Gehweiler, Elke “Going to the Dogs? A Contrastive Analysis of S.th. is Going to the Dogs and jmd./etw. geht vor die Hunde1Thanks to all of my colleagues who have read and commented on earlier versions of this paper, especially to Christiane Fellbaum, Patrick Hanks, and Undine Kramer.” International Journal of Lexicography vol. 19, n. 4 (2006).  pp.: http://ejournals.ebsco.com/direct.asp?ArticleID=440FB7A7382F9A0DC9FA

The paper discusses the origins of equivalent idioms across languages, and specifically the emergence of English s.th. is going to the dogs and German jmd./etw. geht vor die Hunde. Then a contrastive analysis of the two idioms is presented, departing from the assumption that superficially equivalent idioms must exhibit semantic and pragmatic differences. It will be shown that the two idioms differ not only with respect to frequency and register but prefer different external arguments, have different variants, and stand in different relations to other forms in the lexicon.

Gibson, Edward and Carson T. Schntze “Disambiguation Preferences in Noun Phrase Conjunction Do Not Mirror Corpus Frequency.” Journal of Memory and Language vol. 40, n. 2 (1999).  pp. 263-279.http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/B6WK4-45FKSK6-1V/2/2cd8158d80b9e41a71eb9da58829f30c

The results of two self-paced reading studies of a syntactic ambiguity involving conjoined noun phrases to three potential noun phrase sites were compared to the corpus frequencies of the resolutions of the same ambiguity. The reading times for the attachment to the first noun phrase were faster than for the attachment to the second noun phrase, but, to the extent that any differences were observed in the corpus frequencies, attachments to the second noun phrase were more frequent. We therefore argue that the sentence comprehension mechanism is not using corpus frequencies in arriving at its preference in this ambiguity, and hence the decision principles of sentence comprehension and sentence production must be partially distinct. It is proposed that there is a factor operative in sentence comprehension that is not operative in sentence production, and this factor favors attachment to the first noun phrase.

Girard, Marie-Hélène “Beeby, Allison, Rodríguez Inés, Patricia et Sánchez-Gijón, Pilar (2009) : Corpus Use and Translating. Corpus Use for Learning to Translate and Learning Corpus Use to Translate. Amsterdam/Philadelphia : John Benjamins, 149 p.” Meta: Journal des traducteurs = translators’ journal vol. 56, n. 4 (2011).  pp. 1032-1034. http://www.erudit.org/revue/meta/2011/v56/n4/1011270ar.html?vue=resume&mode=restriction

Revisión del libro: Beeby, Allison, Rodríguez Inés, Patricia et Sánchez-Gijón, Pilar (2009) : Corpus Use and Translating. Corpus Use for Learning to Translate and Learning Corpus Use to Translate. Amsterdam/Philadelphia : John Benjamins, 149 p

Goded Rambaud, Margarita “A descriptive algoritm for a wine tasting lexicon corpus.” Scire: Representación y organización del conocimiento vol. 15, n. 2 (2009).  pp. 39-62.http://ibersid.eu/ojs/index.php/scire/article/view/3711/3472

Se pretende mostrar los avances en las pruebas de validez de un procedimiento de identificación computacional de los componentes que constituyen el significado de las expresiones en el restringido subdominio de las notas de cata de los vinos. El procedimiento consiste en un algoritmo de enlace que incluye un conjunto de componentes etiquetados. Dichos componentes van desde los no lingüísticos, con etiquetas para la “entrada perceptiva” y el “conocimiento del mundo”, hasta los propiamente lingüísticos, tales como analizadores y definiciones de diccionario. Se utiliza la metodología Clashing Identification Procedure (CIP), que permite la reducción progresiva del corpus a un tamaño manejable. El interés de diseñar un sistema de etiquetado semántico reside en su contribución a la identificación de las expresiones metafóricas y sinestésicas que se usan frecuentemente en las notas de cata, y también a las tareas de desambiguación. En definitiva, se trata de mostrar cómo deducir computacionalmente la información relevante para la construcción de las metáforas en las que se basan las notas de cata y cómo un diseño de este tipo permite conectar conocimiento lingüístico y enciclopédico de una forma efectiva.

Gray, Bethany “On the use of demonstrative pronouns and determiners as cohesive devices: A focus on sentence-initial this/these in academic prose.” Journal of English for Academic Purposes vol. 9, n. 3 (2010).  pp. 167-183. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/B6X3M-4XWD010-1/2/193a8018f7cf1e6538ffa694be4d023b

A key concern for writers is the creation of cohesion in a text, and writers are told by style manuals to avoid the use of demonstratives (this, that, these, those) as pronouns in order to maintain cohesion. However, previous corpus-based investigations have already revealed that authors of academic texts use demonstratives as both determiners and pronouns. Using a corpus of academic research articles in Education and Sociology, I investigate the extended linguistic environments in which the demonstratives this and these are used with the goal of understanding how expert writers employ demonstratives as pronouns and determiners to create cohesion. The results of the study indicate that pronominal uses of this/these most overwhelmingly refer to antecedents that are complete clauses (but not extended discourse that spans sentence boundaries). When the demonstratives are followed by a noun, shell nouns and abstract nouns are used most of the time. Shell nouns, in contrast to other abstract nouns, most often refer to antecedents that are complete clauses or that are extended, meaning that the antecedent spans sentence boundaries. The implications of these results for teaching academic writing are discussed.

Guzmán, Josep R. and Alvar Serrano “Alineamiento de frases y traducción: AlfraCOVALT y el procesamiento de corpus.” Sendebar. Boletín de la Facultad de Traductores e Interpretes de Granada vol., n. 17 (2006).  pp. 169-186.

La aparición de los corpus en el campo de la traductología ha motivado la necesidad de generar instrumentos que permitan manejar toda esta información de forma rápida y efectiva. En este orden de cosas, este trabajo se ocupa de la presentación de una herramienta de alineamiento de textos paralelos integrados en el corpus COVALT (Corpus Valencià de Literatura Traduïda). Así pues, tras la realización de un pequeño repaso de los diversos métodos y instrumentos de alineamiento, se analizan las características del programa, AlfraCOVALT, especialmente por lo que se refi ere a la utilidad para el investigador de la traducción y su necesidad de alineamientos ajustados.

Halverson, Sandra “Translation studies and representative corpora: establishing links between translation corpora, theoretical-descriptive categories and a conception of the object of study.” Meta vol. 43, n. 4 (1998).  pp.: http://www.erudit.org/revue/meta/1998/v43/n4/003000ar.pdf

This paper discusses the issue of representativeness in the creation of general translation corpora. In the course of a in-depth examination of the stages involved in the selection of texts which adequately represent the target population, it demonstrates that prototype categories are better suited than the all-or-none classical ones to reconcile existing theoretical statements about what constitutes legitimate data in translation studies with the new methodology developed by the corpus-based approach.

Hanks, Patrick, Anne Urbschat, et al. “German Light Verb Constructions in Corpora and Dictionaries1We would like to thank Christiane Fellbaum and Katerina Stathi for their comments on earlier drafts of this paper.” International Journal of Lexicography vol. 19, n. 4 (2006).  pp.: http://ejournals.ebsco.com/direct.asp?ArticleID=48C1BD1F08F5EA8D4C8F

In this paper we explore the collocations and semantics of light verbs in German and propose a new kind of monolingual German dictionary entry for such verbs, paying equal attention to phraseology and meaning. As a rule of thumb, we follow the semantic criterion that the meaning of a light verb is more than usually bound up with its collocations (which, typically, are few in number and high in frequency). We consider problems of terminology and criteria. A corpus-based analysis of three verbs (leisten, erteilen, and hegen) is presented.

Hartmann, R. R. K. “Contrastive textology and corpus linguistics: On the value of parallel texts.” Language Sciences vol. 18, n. 3-4 (1996).  pp. 947-957. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/B6VD2-45F4N9P-R/2/9c3fa91e3e53dee088e06fcfba27113d

The paper sketches the development from contrastive lexicology to contrastive textology, distinguishes a number of different types of ‘parallel texts’, shows how computer-assisted corpus linguistics is coming to grips with text typological issues, and mentions some applications.

Harwood, Nigel “‘We Do Not Seem to Have a Theory … The Theory I Present Here Attempts to Fill This Gap’: Inclusive and Exclusive Pronouns in Academic Writing.” Applied Linguistics vol. 26, n. 3 (2005).  pp.: http://ejournals.ebsco.com/direct.asp?ArticleID=436BBC9DDC4960DBFAFB

This paper is a qualitative and quantitative corpus-based study of how academic writers use the personal pronouns I and inclusive and exclusive we. Using a multidisciplinary corpus comprising of journal research articles (RAs) from the fields of Business and Management, Computing Science, Economics, and Physics, I present data extracts which reveal how I and we can help writers create a sense of newsworthiness and novelty about their work, showing how they are plugging disciplinary knowledge gaps. Inclusive pronouns can act as positive politeness devices by describing and/or critiquing common disciplinary practices, and elaborating arguments on behalf of the community. They can also organize the text for the reader, and highlight the current problems and subject areas which preoccupy the field. The quantitative analysis reveals that while all instances of we in the Business and Management articles and all but one of the instances of we in the Economics articles are inclusive, only a third of the instances in the Computing articles and under 10 per cent of the instances in the Physics articles are inclusive. The study ends with a brief discussion of what a few English for Academic Purposes (EAP) textbooks tell students about inclusive and exclusive pronouns, and offers some suggestions for EAP classroom activities.

Hernández Guerra, Concepción and Juan M. Hernández Guerra “Discoursive analysis and pragmatic metadiscourse in four sub-areas of Economics research articles.” Ibérica: Revista de la Asociación Europea de Lenguas para Fines Específicos (AELFE) vol., n. 16 (2008).  pp. 81-108.http://www.aelfe.org/documents/06_16_Hernandez.pdf

English for Specific Purposes (ESP) and English for Academic Purposes (EAP) are two disciplines whose importance has been growing lately. This is due to the ever-increasing interest in the language that describes the most recent developments in varying disciplines and the need to communicate in and understand that language. One of the means for the spreading of those new developments in the different technologies is through research articles in specialised journals. These impose certain rules that must be fulfilled by all researchers who want to see their papers published. Much literature has been written about this, covering most linguistic areas (see, for instance, Bazerman, 1988; Bhatia, 1993; Dudley-Evans, 1994; Fortanet, 2002). Many articles contrast different genres but rarely distinguish different sub-areas within a genre (Bridgman & Carlson, 1984; Malcolm, 1987; Hyland, 1988; Neff Van Aertselaer, 2006). In the present case, we will consider texts within the discipline of Economics. The aim of this paper is to show a structural, grammatical and metatextual analysis of ten articles recently published in very prestigious specialised publications, covering the most important areas of study in Economics. We conclude by making a contrastive rhetorical analysis of the four sub-genres analysed here. These are: Applied Economy, Quantitative Economy, Financial Economy, and Management and Business.

Herrera Soler, Honesto “A metaphor corpus in business press headlines.” Ibérica: Revista de la Asociación Europea de Lenguas para Fines Específicos (AELFE) vol., n. 15 (2008).  pp. 51-70.http://www.aelfe.org/documents/04_15_Herrera.pdf

In linguistics a corpus typically involves a finite body of texts which are considered to be representative of a particular variety of language at a specific time (McEnery & Wilson, 2001). Those are the assumptions we have had in mind in this metaphor corpus based on business press headlines. Our body of texts is a finite number of headlines drawn from the specific field of the business sections of three newspapers: Financial Times, El País and El Mundo, published over a period running from January to July 2003. Compiling a small corpus of non-literal instantiations as different authors have done (Cortés de los Ríos, 2001; Kövecses, 2002; Charteris-Black, 2003; Koller, 2004; Deignan, 2005; and others) will enable us first to identify whether the contextual meaning of a word or a multiword unit of headline contrasts with its basic meaning and whether the contextual meaning can be understood by comparison with that basic meaning, and then to categorize, both in the Spanish and in the British press, the different linguistic realizations of a headline in terms of their syntactic structure, metaphor foci and source domains.

Isaiah Wonho, Yoo “A Corpus Analysis of (The) Last/Next + Temporal Nouns.” Journal of English Linguisticsvol. 36, n. 1 (2008).  pp. 39-61. http://ejournals.ebsco.com/direct.asp?ArticleID=4E1A8153A42303545FD5

Many reference grammars cover the use of last and next, but none pays overt attention to when and why those words combine with ° or the before temporal nouns; for example, (a) I came to Boston °last year and (b) I’ve been in Boston for the last year. Based on three theoretical notions of predicated time, extensivity, and the null article, and a corpus analysis of the tokens of (the) last/next from the Brown Corpus, the 1996 LA Times Corpus, and the Michigan Corpus of Academic Spoken English, this article presents a detailed account of when the determiners last and next combine with null or the; why last/next followed by singular temporal nouns occur with null, as in (a), or with the, as in (b); and why only singular temporal nouns, but not plural temporal nouns or non-temporal nouns, can combine with null + last/next.

Jensen Mlis, Bruce “The Case for Non-Intrusive Research: A Virtual Reference Librarian’s Perspective.” The Reference Librarian vol. 41, n. 85 (2004).  pp.:http://www.informaworld.com/smpp/title~content=t792306953~db=all

Electronic reference facilitates analyses not possible in face-to-face and telephone transactions. Texts of e-mail and chat reference sessions disambiguate issues of accuracy, interview discourse, and, to a lesser extent, patron satisfaction. Authentic transcripts are here advanced as superior instruments for study of AskA services, with significant applications also in better understanding other modes of reference. Clandestine questioning by colleagues, MLIS students, and researchers afflicts online reference services; it is argued here that unobtrusive study techniques useful in traditional settings are inappropriate for online reference, generating dubious data while undermining service quality. This paper examines how research affects the work of virtual reference librarians, and suggests appropriatemeans of assessing virtual reference services for scholarly as well as library management purposes.

Jim and Miguel A. Nez-Crespo “The future of general tendencies in translation: Explicitation in web localization.” Target vol. 23, n. 1 (2011).  pp. 3-25.http://www.ingentaconnect.com/content/jbp/targ/2011/00000023/00000001/art00002
http://dx.doi.org/10.1075/target.23.1.01jim

Explicitation has long been considered a tendency in translation and has been empirically investigated by a number of scholars. This paper responds to Chesterman´s (2004a: 47) call to test explicitation phenomena on different translation modalities and types, and tests the explicitation hypothesis against a comparable web corpus containing 40m words. The fast evolving field of web localization was selected given that (1) if explicitation is a potential universal or general tendency, it should be equally present in current and future translation types; (2) localization is a specific case of translation in which explicitation might not be expected due to space constraints and web usability guidelines; (3) research using comparable web corpora has produced evidence contradicting other proposed general tendencies, such as conventionalization (Jiménez-Crespo 2009a; Kenny 2001). The results of the study confirm that despite specific constraints, localized texts show explicitation if contrasted with non-translated web texts belonging to the same digital genre.

Jiménez Crespo, Miguel A. “El uso de corpus textuales en localización.” Revista Tradumatica vol., n. 7 (2009).  pp.: http://webs2002.uab.es/tradumatica/revista/num7/articles/05/05art.htm

El proceso de digitalización en la sociedad contemporánea ha supuesto un crecimiento exponencial en los procesos de localización de hipertextos, software o videojuegos. En la actualidad, estos procesos se encuentran altamente estructurados en la industria de la localización, siendo fundamental el papel que desempeñan los sistemas de memoria de traducción y las bases terminológicas como recursos de apoyo al traductor. Sin embargo, un tercer recurso de amplio impacto en los Estudios de Traducción no se encuentra plenamente incorporado a este proceso tecnológico, los corpus textuales (Bowker y Barlow, 2008; Shreve, 2006). El presente artículo defiende la pertinencia de su uso en el proceso de localización y posterior evaluación (análisis de calidad), con el objetivo de producir textos localizados de más calidad que en mayor medida (1) se ajusten a las expectativas de la audiencia meta y (2) se aproximen al objetivo de ser recibidos como si se hubieran producido originalmente en la región lingüística de destino (LISA, 2003). Sus posibles usos y ventajas se ilustrarán mediante análisis de concordancias usando el Corpus Web del español recopilado por el autor (Jiménez-Crespo, 2008a). (A.)

Jiménez Crespo, Miguel Angel and Maribel Tercedor “Applying Corpus Data to Define Needs in Web Localization Training.” Meta: Journal des traducteurs = translators’ journal vol. 56, n. 4 (2011).  pp. 998-1021.http://www.erudit.org/revue/meta/2011/v56/n4/1011264ar.html?vue=resume&mode=restriction

Localization is increasingly making its way into translation training programs at university level. However, there is still a scarce amount of empirical research addressing issues such as defining localization in relation to translation, what localization competence entails or how to best incorporate intercultural differences between digital genres, text types and conventions, among other aspects. In this paper, we propose a foundation for the study of localization competence based upon previous research on translation competence. This project was developed following an empirical corpus-based contrastive study of student translations (learner corpus), combined with data from a comparable corpus made up of an original Spanish corpus and a Spanish localized corpus. The objective of the study is to identify differences in production between digital texts localized by students and professionals on the one hand, and original texts on the other. This contrastive study allows us to gain insight into how localization competence interrelates with the superordinate concept of translation competence, thus shedding light on which aspects need to be addressed during localization training in university translation programs.

Johansson, Stig “Why change the subject? On changes in subject selection in translation from English into Norwegian.” Target: International Journal on Translation Studies vol. 16, n. 1 (2004).  pp.:http://www.ebsco.com/online/direct.asp?JournalID=105690

This paper reports on a study of syntactic changes in alternative translations of a short story and a scientific article, each translated by a group of ten professional translators. The subject is kept in approximately nine cases out of ten, with a somewhat higher degree of change in the scientific article. Where changes occur, they can very often be traced to differences between the languages on the lexical or syntactic level, but absolute differences signalled by identical behaviour of a whole translator group are as good as non-existent. After more features have been studied, it may be possible to identify profiles for the individual translators ­ and the two translator groups ­ showing to what extent their choices are guided by adequacy in relation to the source text vs. acceptability in relation to the target language.

Kast-Aigner, Judith “Terms in context: a corpus-based analysis of the terminology of the European Union’s development cooperation policy.” Fachsprache: Internationale Zeitschrift für Fachsprachenforschung -didaktik und Terminologie vol. 31, n. 3 (2009).  pp. 139-152.

Terms in context: a corpus-based analysis of the terminology of the European Union’s development cooperation policy. Judith Kast-Aigner. Fachsprache: Internationale Zeitschrift für Fachsprachenforschung -didaktik und Terminologie, ISSN 0256-2510, Vol. 31, Nº. 3-4, 2009, pags. 139-152

Kretzschmar, William “Habeas Corpus?” Journal of English Linguistics vol. 37, n. 1 (2009).  pp. 88-92.http://ejournals.ebsco.com/direct.asp?ArticleID=4BBF81A155F37A59A922

At one point early in my career, in the early 1980s, I sat in a basement adjunctfaculty office at Loyola University in Chicago and made a 3 × 5 notecard for every time that William Caxton used the word history (or its aphetic variant, story) in his own writing, as published in Blake (1973). I wanted to know what Caxton meant by the word, what he could mean by it, because he had claimed that his edition of the King Arthur legend was a work of history. I later published what I discovered in Kretzschmar (1992), but I learned far more about words in use than what I published about Caxton’s sense of history: that the plural form of a word could mean something essentially different from its singular form; that different senses of a polysemous word might have different rates of occurrence; and that the same word might typically mean something different in different types of texts. In short, I discovered some of the basic findings of corpus linguistics

Kwasniak, Renata “Wer Hat Nun Den Salat? û Now Who’s Got the Mess? Reflections on Phraseological Derivation: From Sentential to Verb Phrase Idiom.” International Journal of Lexicography vol. 19, n. 4 (2006).  pp.: http://ejournals.ebsco.com/direct.asp?ArticleID=4C8C9BF45986F7572AF8

The paper investigates a case of phraseological derivation for the sentential idiom Da haben wir den Salat (æthere we have the messÆ). Corpus data show the development over time of a new verb phrase idiom jmd. hat den Salat (æs.b. has the messÆ).

Laviosa, Sara “Core patterns of lexical use in a comparable corpus of English narrative prose.” Meta vol. 43, n. 4 (1998).  pp.: http://www.erudit.org/revue/meta/1998/v43/n4/003425ar.pdf

This paper investigates the linguistic nature of English translated texts. The author’ corpus consists of a sub-section of the English Comparable Corpus (ECC). It comprises two collections of narrative prose in English: one is made up of translations from a variety of source languages, the other includes original English texts produced during a similar time span. The study reveals four patterns of lexical use in translated versus original texts.

Lawick, Heike Van “El corpus paralelo bitextual en la enseñanza de traducción: identificación y soluciones para DOCH.” Congreso AIETI vol. 2, n. (2006).  pp.:

Los corpora textuales como instrumento del aprendizaje autónomo Numerosos estudios han subrayado la utilidad de combinar la lingüística contrastiva, los estudios sobre traducción y la lingüística aplicada, basándose en metodologías compartidas de explotación de córpora (Laviosa, 2003). En los estudios traductológicos predomina el uso de córpora comparables1 bilingües o multilingües y de córpora paralelos2 bilingües o multilingües.

Lobanova, Anna, Tom Van Der Kleij, et al. “Defining Antonymy: A Corpus-based Study of Opposites by Lexico-syntactic Patterns.” International Journal of Lexicography vol. 23, n. 1 (2010).  pp. 19-53.http://ejournals.ebsco.com/direct.asp?ArticleID=4DBF89EA4AB17E5C1DA8

Using small sets of adjectival seed antonym pairs, we automatically find patterns where these pairs co-occur in a large corpus of Dutch, and then use these patterns to extract new antonym pairs. Evaluation of extracted pairs by five human judges showed that automatic scores correlate with human evaluation and that pattern-based methods can be used to extract new antonym pairs. The majority of extracted pairs were noun-noun pairs, contrary to expectations based on previous research. Additionally, the method identifies a subgroup of co-hyponyms that frequently function antonymously, and together with more traditional antonyms makes up a wider class of incompatibles, suggesting that antonymy is a diverse relation that includes pairs of different types and categories that are not captured by any single linguistic theory. Comparison with Dutch WordNet and an online Dutch dictionary shows that only a handful of extracted pairs are currently listed in these existing resources, emphasizing the usefulness of the project.

López Sanjuán, Victoria “Integración de los corpus como herramienta de apoyo en la enseñanza de ESP.”Porta Linguarum. Revista Internacional de Didáctica de las Lenguas ExtranjerasPorta Linguarum. Revista Internacional de Didáctica de las Lenguas Extranjeras vol., n. 10 (2008).  pp. 115-136.http://www.ugr.es/~portalin/articulos/PL_numero10/9%20Victoria%20Lopez.pdf

En los últimos años se ha estudiado la aplicación de los corpus a la enseñanza de lenguas, dada su condición de textos reales. Sin embargo, para ver la validez de la aplicación de los corpus a la enseñanza de lenguas es necesario mostrarlo desde dos perspectivas diferentes: la de los aprendientes y la de los docentes que son quienes van a hacer uso de ellos en el proceso de aprendizaje. Además, aquí se propone su integración en el proceso de aprendizaje como herramienta de apoyo y se muestra un modo sencillo de compilar un corpus de ESP a través de Internet. (A)

Macken, Lieve, Orphée De Clercq, et al. “Dutch Parallel Corpus: A Balanced Copyright-Cleared Parallel Corpus.” Meta vol. 56, n. 2 (2011).  pp. 374-390. http://id.erudit.org/iderudit/1006182ar

This paper presents the Dutch Parallel Corpus, a high-quality parallel corpus for Dutch, French and English consisting of more than ten million words. The corpus contains five different text types and is balanced with respect to text type and translation direction. All texts included in the corpus have been cleared from copyright. We discuss the importance of parallel corpora in various research domains and contrast the Dutch Parallel Corpus with existing parallel corpora. The Dutch Parallel Corpus distinguishes itself from other parallel corpora by having a balanced composition and by its availability to the wide research community, thanks to its copyright clearance. All texts in the corpus are sentence-aligned and further enriched with basic linguistic annotations (lemmas and word class information). Approximately 25,000 words of the Dutch-English part have been manually aligned at the sub-sentential level. Rich metadata facilitates the navigability of the corpus and enables users to select the texts that satisfy their needs. The entire corpus is released as full texts in XML format and is also available via a web interface, which supports basic and complex search queries and presents the results as parallel concordances. The corpus will be distributed by the Flemish-Dutch Human Language Technology Agency (TST-Centrale).

Maia, Belinda “Word order and the first person singular in Portuguese and English.” Meta vol. 43, n. 4 (1998).  pp.: http://www.erudit.org/revue/meta/1998/v43/n4/003539ar.pdf

From the perspective of contrastive linguistics, this article analyses the frequency and nature of the SVO sentence structure in English and Portuguese, particularly in those cases where the subject is realised by the first person pronoun I and eu respectively or by a name

Malmkjaer, Kirsten “Love thy neighbour: will parallel corpora endear linguists to translators?” Meta vol. 43, n. 4 (1998).  pp.: http://www.erudit.org/revue/meta/1998/v43/n4/003545ar.pdf

This paper analyses the advantages and difficulties that the study of parallel corpora presents when attempting to answer questions arising specifically from within translation studies.

Maniez, Fran Ois “Text Corpora and Multilingual Lexicography.” Terminology vol. 14, n. 2 (2008).  pp. 266-272.http://www.swetswise.com/link/access_db?issn=0929-9971&vol=00014&iss=00002&year=2008&page=266&ft=1

Reseña del libro: Wolfgang Teubert (ed.). 2007. Text Corpora and Multilingual Lexicography, Amsterdam: John Benjamins. ISBN-13: 9789027239655

Marco, Josep “Normalisation and the Translation of Phraseology in the COVALT Corpus.” Meta vol. 54, n. 4 (2009).  pp. 842-856. http://id.erudit.org/iderudit/038907ar

Le présent article traite de l’hypothèse selon laquelle l’emploi d’unités phraséologiques dans les textes traduits peut être considéré comme un indicateur d’une tendance vers la normalisation. En effet, les unités phraséologiques sont des formes conventionnelles de la langue cible appartenant au répertoire lexical de cette dernière. Des données puisées dans le sous-corpus anglais-catalan de COVALT (corpus valencien de textes littéraires traduits) indiquent que les textes traduits en catalan sont moins que les textes sources anglais. Toutefois, cette différence est faible, ce qui semble témoigner d’un effort, de la part des traducteurs, pour préserver ou recréer une phraséologie significative dans les textes cibles. Cependant, il faudra mener d’autres études pour identifier les motivations sous-jacentes à cette pratique.

Marco, Josep “The translation of wordplay in literary texts: Typology, techniques and factors in a corpus of English-Catalan source text and target text segments.” Target vol. 22, n. 2 (2010).  pp. 264-297.http://www.ingentaconnect.com/content/jbp/targ/2010/00000022/00000002/art00005

The present study aims to analyse wordplay translation on the basis of the three aspects mentioned in the title ­ wordplay typology, translation techniques and relevant factors. The theoretical framework is eclectic but draws particularly on Delabastita (1996, 1997) and Lladó (2002). Empirical analysis is based on three English source texts and six Catalan translations, and focuses on two main issues: the frequency distribution of pairs of ST + TT segments across translation techniques, and the possible correlation(s) between translation techniques and factors influencing decision-making. It is observed that translators tend to use techniques implying a negative punning balance, i.e. resulting in some degree of loss of punning activity. Moreover, some factors identified in the literature are seen to correlate with the use of particular translation techniques. Finally, in the last section an attempt is made to go beyond description and explanation and to assess wordplay translation techniques in terms of their suitability as translation solutions.

Maryam Mohammadi, Dehcheshmeh “Specialized Monolingual Corpora in Translation.” The Translation Journal vol. 11, n. 2 (2007).  pp.: http://www.accurapid.com/journal/40corpus.htm

In the new world of technology, the translation profession, like other disciplines, cannot be deprived of modern tools such as electronic corpora. Recently, large monolingual, comparable and parallel corpora have played a crucial role in solving various problems of linguistics, including translation. In this study we shall attempt to show the effectiveness of a specialized monolingual corpus in translating various collocations usually found in political texts from English into Persian. This experiment compares the accuracy in translating collocations using a specialized monolingual corpus to the conventional resources (e.g. monolingual as well as bilingual dictionaries). The results show how the quality of translation can be improved using corpus-based translation tools.

Melby, Alan K. “MT+TM+QA : the future is ours.” Tradumática vol. 4, n. (2006).  pp.:http://ddd.uab.es/pub/tradumatica/15787559n4a4.pdf

Aquest article fa prediccions sobre el futur de la traducció automàtica i els sistemes de memòries de traducció i el paper dels traductors com a garantia de qualitat. Els ordinadors adquiriran un paper cada cop més important en el processament mecanitzat de corpus de bitextuals existents, mentre que als traductors se’ls demanarà funcions de més nivell.

Mendoza García, Inmaculada and Nuria Ponce Márquez “Proposal for the analysis of the source text in the comprehension phase of the translation process: contextualization, and analysis of extra-linguistic and intra-linguistic aspects.” redit: Revista electrónica de didáctica de la traducción y la interpretación vol., n. 2 (2009).  pp. 128-150. http://dialnet.unirioja.es/servlet/extart?codigo=3104820

This paper underlines the importance of textual analysis in the comprehension phase of the translation process. It proposes a teaching activity model for first year Translation students, consisting mainly of three different stages focused on detecting and classifying translation problems in a specific text: contextualization of the source text and analysis of extra-linguistic and intra-linguistic aspects related to the translation process. For this purpose, we present a table-based methodology to be applied to the teaching of Basic Concepts for Interpreter and Translator Training.

Mosavi Miangah, Tayebeh “Constructing a Large-Scale English-Persian Parallel Corpus.” Meta vol. 54, n. 1 (2009).  pp. 181-188. http://id.erudit.org/iderudit/029804ar

Au cours des derniFres annqes, l’exploitation de grands corpus de textes pour rqsoudre des problFmes linguistiques, notamment des problFmes de traduction, est devenue une pratique courante. Jusqu’a rqcemment, aucun corpus bilingue anglais-persan a grande qchelle n’avait qtq constituq, en raison des difficultqs qu’implique une telle entreprise.In recent years the exploitation of large text corpora in solving various kinds of linguistic problems, including those of translation, is commonplace. Yet a large-scale English-Persian corpus is still unavailable, because of certain difficulties and the amount of work required to overcome them.

Mukherjee, J. “Principles of Pattern Selection: A Corpus-Based Case Study.” Journal of English Linguistics vol. 29, n. 4 (2001).  pp.: http://ejournals.ebsco.com/Issue.asp?IssueID=86481

Analyses of linguistic corpora have revealed that natural language is to a very large extent based on (semi-)preconstructed phrases. Drawing on corpus-based ap-proaches to the description of such lexico-grammatical patterns in language use, the present study puts into perspective the question of why one and the same lexical item occurs in different patterns. The question of pattern selection (i.e., the analysis of factors that lead the language user to prefer a specific pattern in a given context) deserves further consideration. The present corpus-based case study is intended to illuminate this aspect of authentic language behavior.

Munday, Jeremy “A computer-assisted approach to the analysis of translation shifts.” Meta vol. 43, n. 4 (1998).  pp.: http://www.erudit.org/revue/meta/1998/v43/n4/003680ar.pdf

This article is an analysis of shifts in Seventeen Poisoned Englishmen, Edith Grossman’s English translation, of a novel in Spanish by Gabriel García Márquez. It makes use of a variety of basic tools of corpus linguistics as aids to the inductive exploration of texts.

Nenadic, Goran, Irena Spasic, et al. “Mining term similarities from corpora.” Terminology vol. 10, n. 1 (2004).  pp. 55-81.

In this article, we present an approach to the automatic discovery of term similarities, which may serve as a basis for a number of term-oriented knowledge mining tasks. The method for term comparison combines internal (lexical similarity) and two types of external criteria (syntactic and contextual similarities). Lexical similarity is based on sharing lexical constituents (i.e. term heads and modifiers). Syntactic similarity relies on a set of specific lexico-syntactic co-occurrence patterns indicating the parallel usage of terms (e.g., within an enumeration or within a term coordination/conjunction structure), while contextual similarity is based on the usage of terms in similar contexts. Such contexts are automatically identified by a pattern mining approach, and a procedure is proposed to assess their domain-specific and terminological relevance. Although automatically collected, these patterns are domain dependent and identify contexts in which terms are used. Different types of similarities are combined into a hybrid similarity measure, which can be tuned for a specific domain by learning optimal weights for individual similarities. The suggested similarity measure has been tested in the domain of biomedicine, and some experiments are presented.

Nicaise, Laurent “On Going Beyond the Literal: Translating Metaphorical Conceptualizations in Financial Discourse.” Meta vol. 56, n. 2 (2011).  pp. 407-423. http://id.erudit.org/iderudit/1006184ar

This article, through a bilingual French-Dutch corpus, looks at how identical financial-economic concepts are articulated distinctively in the two language communities. The article shows that understanding why an author makes a particular (metaphorical) choice in the lexical repertoire of the discipline could provide language learners and translators with knowledge that will foster their understanding of financial-economic discourse and raise their awareness of ideological, pragmatic and cognitive differences between languages in the role of metaphors. The data indicate that a corpus analysis may contribute to explaining the impact of culture and other communication variables on the lexical realizations of financial-economic concepts in the press.

Pastor Enríquez, Verónica “Corpus et dictionnaires de langues de sp??cialit??” Terminology vol. 15, n. 2 (2009).  pp. 291-298. http://www.swetswise.com/link/access_db?issn=0929-9971&vol=15&iss=2&year=2009&page=291&ft=1

Maniez, François, Pascaline Dury, Nathalie Arlin and Claire Rougement (eds.). 2008. Corpus et dictionnaires de langues de spécialité. Grenoble (France): Presses universitaires de Grenoble. ISBN: 978–2-7061-1481-6 Reviewed by Verónica Pastor Enríquez

Pecman, Mojca “Tentativeness in term formation: A study of neology as a rhetorical device in scientific papers.” Terminology vol. 18, n. 1 (2012).  pp. 27-59. http://www.swetswise.com/link/access_db?issn=0929-9971&vol=18&iss=1&year=2012&page=27&ft=1

The study on term formation presented in this paper is related to the problem of determining the function of neologisms in scientific communication and to the issue of processing the concomitant variation, typical of such new denominations. Our analysis of scientific texts shows that neologisms can have quite a different role in scientific communication than they are generally credited with in terminological studies. The well-known referential role, consisting of the creation of a new designation for naming a new concept is overshadowed in scientific texts by a more rhetorical role. Here the scientist resorts consciously to variation, hence creating a “neology effect”, specifically for the reason of emphasising various novel aspects of his thought. This function of neology as a rhetorical device is generally glossed over in terminology studies, in much the same way as the analysis of variation used to be, due to the expected stability that neologism should eventually gain in line with well-established terms. Consequently, in this article, we try to place the phenomenon of neology within the framework of discourse analysis.

Pérez-Paredes, Pascual “Examen de la utilización del vocabulario por estudiantes de inglés con fines académicos: Análisis de un corpus especializado y de un corpus producido por estudiantes.” Examining English for academic purposes students’vocabulary output: corpus-aided analysis and learner corpora vol., n. monográfico (2005).  pp. 201-212. http://dialnet.unirioja.es/servlet/listaarticulos?tipo_busqueda=EJEMPLAR&revista_busqueda=1727&clave_busqueda=134676

La adquisición del léxico de una lengua extranjera es de suma imporratcia en el proceso de aprendizaje de la misma. No en vano, el vocabulario de un idioma se configura como uno de los elementos más sustantivos en la caracterización y representación de lo fenomenológico (Alcaraz 2000). El presente artículo se vale de los procedimientos de trabajo propios de la lingüística del corpus con una doble finalidad: favorecer las destrezas lectoras de los estudiantes y, a la vez, mejorar la capacidad de aprendizaje del léxico propio de un lenguaje especializado. Como parte de nuestra investigación, recopilamos un corpus del Joumaa of Psychotherapy. Este corpus se puso a disposición de los aprendices de inglés para fines específicos de la rama de Psicología. Asimismo se les pidió que redactasen un texto sobre la sub-especialidad en cuestión. Con estas redacciones recopilamos un corpus de aprendices de inglés que, posteriormente, usamos para comparar la utilización del léxico con el corpus anteriormente citado. Los resultados de nuestro trabajo confirman las conclusiones de investigaciones previas en el campo de la lingüística del corpus. Los estudiantes utilizaron en exceso el vocabulario muy técnico y el vocabulario general, delatando así su “presencia” como autores en mayor medida que los expertos en la lengua de especialidad. (A)

Picton, Aurélie “Picturing short-period diachronic phenomena in specialised corpora: A textual terminology description of the dynamics of knowledge in space technologies.” Terminology vol. 17, n. 1 (2011).  pp. 134-157. http://www.swetswise.com/link/access_db?issn=0929-9971&vol=17&iss=1&year=2011&page=134&ft=1

This article presents a first description and a proposal for the classification of the evolution phenomena involved in short-term diachrony in the field of space. It is based on the principles of Textual Terminology and relies on a tool-based analysis of two diachronic corpora. The linguistic methodology is briefly described but the emphasis is on the list of evolution phenomena revealed through our analysis. These results present an original description of knowledge evolution: 17 types of evolution are listed, revealing the heterogeneity and richness of terminology dynamics and offering a descriptive basis to start new subsequent research that would complete this typology.

Possamai, Viviane “Catálogo de acceso libre a corpora relacionados con la traducción.” Catalogue of Free-Access Translation-Related Corpora vol., n. 7 (2009).  pp.:http://webs2002.uab.es/tradumatica/revista/num7/articles/09/9art.htm

La utilización de corpus ha aportado nuevas perspectivas al campo de la traducción durante los últimos 10 años. Se han utilizado corpus en distintas áreas relacionadas con la traducción, como por ejemplo en los estudios sobre la traducción y, en concreto, la didáctica o la práctica de la traducción. Con tan distintas aplicaciones y tantos usuarios, resulta comprensible porqué cada corpus disponible en Internet a día de hoy presenta características únicas y ofrece distintos tipos de información, herramientas o tipos de texto. En este catálogo se han incluido hipervínculos y sintetizado datos sobre corpus monolingües y corpus paralelos que pueden resultar útiles tanto en estudios de traducción como en la práctica de la traducción. (A.)

Puurtinen, Tina “Syntax, readability and idelogy en children’s literature.” Meta vol. 43, n. 4 (1998).  pp.:http://www.erudit.org/revue/meta/1998/v43/n4/003879ar.pdf

NAATI directorio en línea de los traductores e intérpretes acreditados

NAATI Online Directory

Buscar en el directorio en línea de los traductores e intérpretes acreditados o reconocidos por NAATI (National Accreditation Authority for Translators and Interpreters),  organismo de acreditación de traductores e intérpretes en Australia. Es el único organismo que emite las acreditaciones para los profesionales que deseen trabajar en esta profesión en Australia. La compañía es propiedad conjunta de los gobiernos de la Commonwealth, los estados y territorios de Australia.

Una credencial NAATI es una prueba de su capacidad profesional como traductor o intérprete. Sólo las credenciales emitidas por NAATI son aceptados oficialmente por los empleadores en Australia.

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Index Translationum : Bibliografía Mundial de Traducciones y Traductores

 

Index Translationum es un repertorio de obras traducidas en el mundo, una bibliografía internacional de traducciones. El Index Translationum fue creado en 1932. La base de datos permite buscar a su vez traductores, y a que lenguas traducen. Las traducciones de una obra, autores, las traducciones a un determinado idioma, etc.

La base de datos contiene información bibliográfica acumulativa sobre las obras traducidas y publicadas en un centenar de estados miembros de la UNESCO desde 1979 y asciende a más de 2.000.000 de entradas en todas las disciplinas: literatura, ciencias sociales y humanas, las ciencias naturales y exactas, el arte, la historia y etcétera. La base de datos se actualiza regularmente.

la UNESCO ofrece al público en general una herramienta insustituible para hacer inventarios bibliográficos de traducciones a escala mundial. La cooperación internacional hace de “Index Translationum” una herramienta de trabajo única en el mundo. Cada año, los centros bibliográficos o las bibliotecas nacionales de los países participantes envian los datos a la Secretaría de la UNESCO  sobre libros traducidos en todos los campos del conocimiento. Publicaciones, artículos de revistas, patentes y folletos no están incluidos.

Index Translationum

Tablas de Transliteración

AudioNota : Bloc de Notas y Registrador de Voz

AudioNote Lite (Gratis)

AudioNota

 

AudioNote Lite combina la funcionalidad de un bloc de notas y grabadora de voz para crear una poderosa herramienta que te ahorrará tiempo y mejorara la calidad de tus notas. Permite grabar voz, una conversación, o una conferencia y a la vez ir anotando apuntes con un estylus.  Las notas se notas sincroniza con el audio por lo que no hay necesidad de perder tiempo buscando a través de toda la grabación para saber en donde se hablo de determinado asunto, de manera que te ayuda a recordar en el contexto en que las notas fueron tomadas.  Cada nota actúa como un enlace directo al punto en que se registro el audio llevando de manera inmediata a lo que deseamos oír. Incuso se pueden añadir notas a posteriori.

Estaa aplicación se puede usar en el iPad o iPhone, y en cualquier lugar: reuniones, entrevistas, conferencias, charlas, sesiones de estudio. Incluso puedes usarlo para grabar tus propias notas al escribir nuevas ideas.

Características:

– Escritos y grabaciones de audio sincronizado

–  Con todas funcionalidades del texto como copiar y pegar

– Modo de lápiz para dibujar o notas escribir a mano

– Tocar en una nota para buscar en el audio. Si tocas y mantienes presionado puedes buscar 10 segundos antes.

– Exportar notas y audio a través de correo electrónicoa través de Wi-Fi.

 

La Diferencia entre la versión LITE (Gratuita) y la de pago está en la capacidad de exportar estas audio notas.

 

 

Formación Profesional del Intérprete

Formación Profesional del Intérprete
 I nfoTrad 16 de enero de 2013


“Traductores e intérpretes, el nexo entre las lenguas.” European Commission. Tanslation Service vol., n. (2001).  pp.: http://europa.eu.int/comm/dgs/translation/bookshelf/traduc_int_es.pdf

Cualidades, formación profesional y otros aspectos en torno a la profesión de los Traductores e Interpretes.

Aixelá, Javier Franco “BITRA: An International On-Line Bibliography of Interpreting and Translation Studies.” Babel: Revue internationale de la traduction/International Journal of Translation vol. 49, n. 2 (2003).  pp.: http://ejournals.ebsco.com/direct.asp?ArticleID=7EMKP91WF546N3XKFVXT

The article explains the structure, aims and rationale of BITRA (Bibliography of Interpreting and Translation). It is a monthly-updated on-line database which already (September, 2003) comprises more than 20,500 documents and which aspires to cover all the literature on interpreting and translation taking advantage of information technology. BITRA is: 1) International: It accepts works from any country and written in any language, and although English is the lingua franca, there are several working languages (Spanish, Catalan, English, French, German, Italian and Dutch are already in use) so that as many users as possible can search in their mother tongues. 2) Annotated: Apart from the mere bibliographical information, there are metatextual fields aimed at offering an abstract, commenting on special traits of the text or reproducing the table of contents. 3) Interactive: There is a system for suggestions and contributions that allows users to propose changes in the existing data or the inclusion of new documents. 4) Flexible: Apart from its interactive possibilities, BITRA allows searches to be performed using any criterion or combination of criteria, from author, language or type of document to the subjects the documents deal with. 5) Open and free: In keeping with its academic nature, BITRA is easy to search and open to everybody without any sort of subscription or payment.

Alonso Araguás, Icíar and Jesús Baigorri Jalón “Enseñar la interpretación en los servicios públicos: una experiencia docente.” redit: Revista electrónica de didáctica de la traducción y la interpretación vol., n. 1 (2008).  pp. 1-25. http://dialnet.unirioja.es/servlet/extart?codigo=2986710

The current demand of public service translators and interpreters and the proliferation of ad hoc solutions in our socio-political context were decisive factors in the initiative taken by the research group Alfaqueque of the University of Salamanca to develop multimedia training materials in this area. At the same time, the group has carried out other training initiatives, in both regular and occasional courses, in order to offer a theoretical-practical framework to students and immigrants who had never acted as public service interpreters and also to sporadic volunteer interpreters. The article describes the academic and pedagogical context of this project and the social partners who enable us to approach training to our social reality ant to immigrants’ integration. We describe our teaching tools and the way we use at different training stages our teaching units based on practical cases. Lastly, we highlight the strong and the weak points of this programme and the difficulties experienced to involve public administrations in the field and we make a few comments about the future.

Aneca (2004). [e-Book]  Titulo de Grado de Traducción e Interpretación: Libro Balnco. Madrid, Agencia Nacional de Evaluación de la Calidad y Acreditación. Texto completo: http://www.aneca.es/var/media/150288/libroblanco_traduc_def.pdf

Se trata de un proyecto bien estructurado, bien documentado y con una planificación del título, por lo que respecta a competencias, perfiles y distribución de créditos coherente, si bien se plantean dos posibilidades bastante diferentes. Hay que destacar la exhaustividad de las informaciones presentadas y la presencia de gráficos y valoraciones de los mismos que ayudan significativamente a interpretar los datos. Se valora especialmente la inclusión de una amplia Introducción en la que se revisa la tradición universitaria de estos estudios en España y se justifica la pertinencia del título y su relación con otros títulos del actual catálogo. Asimismo, la inclusión de tabas, gráficos y anexos es muy adecuada. Por lo que respecta al aspecto de contenidos, se valora muy positivamente la inclusión de un apartado de valoración de ventajas e inconvenientes de la implantación del título con 180 o 240 créditos, ya que da idea de la profundidad con que se ha abordado por parte de la comisión el aspecto de la duración de los estudios en relación con las competencias y perfiles. La titulación que proponen responde, en principio, a los parámetros exigidos por Europa. Por tanto, pensamos que cumple con los objetivos de la convocatoria. Estudio presentado por los centros españoles que imparten la actual Licenciatura en Traducción e Interpretación, en el marco de la segunda convocatoria de ayudas para el diseño de planes de estudios y títulos de grado de la Agencia Nacional de Evaluación de la Calidad y Acreditación (programa de convergencia europea)

Arencibia Rodríguez, Lourdes “El diseño del aula/taller: una pieza clave en la dinámica del aprendizaje del intérprete de conferencias.” Congreso Internacional de la Asociación Ibérica de Estudios de Traducción e Interpretación vol. 1, n. (2003).  pp.: http://www.ugr.es/~dpto_ti/act/congresoICAIETI/res/archivos/Arencibia.doc

El trabajo parte de la noción admitida de aula/taller como actividad central de la formación práctica del intérprete de conferencias concebida para complementar y verificar los conceptos teóricos que el alumno adquiere en la disciplina de Traductología. Propone un diseño metodológico para la realización en colectivo de un programa orientado de interpretaciones graduadas por niveles de dificultad, de contenido multitemático encaminado a familiarizar al tallerista con las modalidades y técnicas de la interpretación de conferencias y concebido de forma altamente participativa con un alto valor pragmático.

Argís Molina, Sofia “Recursos de información en Internet sobre traducción.” Boletín de la Asociación Andaluza de Bibliotecarios vol. 17, n. 66 (2002).  pp.: http://www.aab.es/pdfs/baab66/66a1.pdf

Se recoge una relación de recursos de información sobre traducción que se encuentran en Internet. Su fin es el de procurar obtener una relación de recursos que sirvan de iniciación -para aquéllos que por primera vez se adentran en el tema de la traducción-, o de complemento y apoyo -a los ya iniciados en este medio y materia-. La organización de estos recursos responde a una lógica temporal: formación del traductor, desarrollo de su profesión (universidades que imparten los estudios de Traducción e Interpretación y que realizan selecciones de recursos; herramientas informáticas: bases de datos terminológicos y traducción automática), y por último, la materialización de su actividad (las traducciones) y cómo conseguirlas (directorios y servicios de traducción)..

Argüeso, Antonio “L’enseignement de la traduction et de l’interprétation en Espagne.” Meta vol. 50, n. 1 (2005).  pp.: http://www.erudit.org/revue/meta/2005/v50/n1/010670ar.pdf

Cet article fait le point sur les développements récents des études de traduction et d’interprétation en Espagne. L’analyse du nouveau cursus s’accompagne d’un passage en revue des publications scientifiques et des organisations professionnelles espagnoles en matière de traduction et d’interprétation.

Arumi Ribas, Marta “Una propuesta pedagógica aplicada a la enseñanza y aprendizaje de la interpretación consecutiva.” Congreso Internacional de la Asociación Ibérica de Estudios de Traducción e Interpretación vol. 1, n. (2003).  pp.: http://www.ugr.es/~dpto_ti/act/congresoICAIETI/res/archivos/Arumi.DOC

La intención de esta comunicación es presentar un estudio cualitativo que se propone la observación y el análisis de la integración de una propuesta pedagógica en una asignatura de introducción a la interpretación consecutiva. La investigación se ha realizado en el marco de una concepción del aprendizaje que cuenta con resultados empíricos contrastados en otros ámbitos afines, como la enseñanza y aprendizaje de segundas lenguas. Me propongo apuntar los resultados de tal investigación, además de considerar las implicaciones directas que puede tener para la didáctica de la interpretación consecutiva.

Baigorri Jalón, Jesús “Guerras, extremos, intérpretes.” Congreso Internacional de la Asociación Ibérica de Estudios de Traducción e Interpretación vol. 1, n. (2003).  pp.: http://www.histal.umontreal.ca/pdfs/Guerras%20extremos%20intérpretes.pdf

No hace mucho hemos asistido, igual que el resto del mundo, a lo que la CNN nos ha querido mostrar sobre el fenómeno bélico en Afganistán. Es quizás el más reciente, pero ni mucho menos el único, en el que se ha puesto de manifiesto la necesidad de mediadores lingüísticos para facilitar la comunicación entre la ‘opinión pública’ y los lugareños de regiones más o menos remotas. Nadie podía pensar hace unos años que se iban a necesitar intérpretes afganos, lo mismo que nadie podía prever una situación similar con el albanés en Kosovo o el serbocroata en la ex Yugoslavia. Las guerras y los ‘extremos’ (haciendo un ‘guiño’ a Eric Hobsbawm y su The Age of Extremes, que es su manera de denominar al siglo XX) son fuente de demanda de intérpretes y a la vez crean las condiciones directas e indirectas para el aprendizaje de los idiomas, para su perfeccionamiento o para su explotación y práctica, según los casos.

Balacescu, Ioana “La didactique de la traduction à l’heure allemande.” Meta vol. 50, n. 1 (2005).  pp.: http://www.erudit.org/revue/meta/2005/v50/n1/010673ar.pdf

C’est en Allemagne que la discussion traductologique a été la plus intense. C’est là aussi qu’elle a été centrée primordialement sur l’élaboration d’une didactique. On peut y distinguer deux grands courants : l’approche analytique et l’approche intuitive. La première entretient des liens étroits avec une linguistique qui a évolué du structuralisme au cognitivisme. La seconde se situe dans la tradition des philosophes allemands, comme Wittgenstein, Heidegger et Gadamer, dont elle se réclame dans son herméneutique.

Beeby, Allison “Course Profile : Licenciatura en traducción e interpretación.” The Translator vol. 2, n. 1 (1996).  pp. 113-126. http://www.stjerome.co.uk/periodicals/viewfile.php?id=152&type=pdf

The Facultat de Traducción i d’Interpretación (FTI) of the Universitat Autónoma de Barcelona, originally established in 1972 as the Escuela Universitaria de Traductores e Interpretes, was the first centre in Spain to provide training for professional translators and interpreters at university level. The Spanish university system and the Spanish society at large have changed dramatically over the past twenty years. This profile outlines the Faculty’s attempt to adapt its programme to the needs of the bilingual society of Catalonia, within the immediate context of the Spanish state and the larger context of the European community.

Benis, Michael “Rates charged by interpreters and translators working using the Internet/Compuserve in 1997.” Lantra-L vol., n. (1997).  pp.: http://www.geocities.com/Athens/7110/rates.htm

The survey was carried out between January 1997 and April 1997. All respondents were on the Internet and/or CompuServe, mainly contacted via the Lantra mailing list for interpreters and translators on the Internet and the FLEFO Forum on CompuServe. A total of 337 people replied to the questionnaire. Of these answers, 39 were not used because they were supplied in an incorrect format, preventing accurate collection. The number of language combinations with a sufficient number of respondents to enable statistically significant results to be obtained was quite limited.

Bidoli, Cynthia Jane Kellett “International perspectives on sign language interpreter education.” Interpreting vol. 12, n. (2010).  pp. 273-279. http://www.ingentaconnect.com/content/jbp/intp/2010/00000012/00000002/art00010
http://dx.doi.org/10.1075/intp.12.2.10kel

Jemina Napier (Ed.). International perspectives on sign language interpreter education. Washington, DC: Gallaudet University Press, 2009. 312 pp. ISBN 1 56368 411 X, 978 1 56368 411 1. Reviewed by Cynthia Jane Kellett Bidoli

Bili , Viktorija , Anja  Holderbaum, et al. “The Conceptual Mapping Model in Consecutive Interpreting Teaching.” T21N vol. 3, n. (2012).  pp.: http://www.t21n.com/homepage/articles/T21N-2010-07-Jin.pdf

This paper focuses on some essential difficulties that are encountered when interpreting simultaneously from Japanese into German and provides some technical approaches to assist the interpreter. After highlighting typical characteristics of the source language, the study analyses whether and how common interpreting strategies can be applied to this specific language combination.

Blasco Mayor, María J. “El reto de formar intérpretes en el siglo XXI.” The Translation Journal vol. 9, n. 1 (2005).  pp.: http://accurapid.com/journal/31interprete2.htm

Los grandes avances tecnológicos se están haciendo sentir en todos los ámbitos sociales, y también en el entorno educativo. La formación de intérpretes en este siglo comienza una nueva andadura en el progreso tecnológico, andadura lenta pero firme; ya se anuncian cursos de interpretación ‘a distancia’, on-line (Carr & Steyn 2000), algo que parecía técnicamente inviable hace tan sólo menos de una década. Si quieren estar a la altura, los centros que forman intérpretes tendrán ante sí el desafío de incorporar las nuevas tecnologías a la formación que ofrecen, pero no sólo eso: sus docentes deberán a su vez realizar un doble esfuerzo en relación a su formación técnica y metodológica; y acudir a disciplinas como la tecnología educativa para dotar de fundamentos sólidos a su práctica docente.

Boéri, Julie “Translation/Interpreting Politics and Praxis The Impact of Political Principles on Babels’ Interpreting Practice.” The translator vol. 18, n. 2 (2012).  pp. 269-290. https://www.stjerome.co.uk/tsa/abstract/14608/

Focusing on Babels, an international network of volunteer translators and interpreters, this article provides an in-depth examination of the politics of organizing interpreting in the context of the Social Forum and the Alter-Globalization Movement, and discusses the extent to which interpreting is constitutive of the complex political process sparked by such initiatives. Babels’ specifically activist, critical and self-reflective project of volunteer interpreting is examined as emerging and evolving out of a series of internal and external pressures. These pressures involve implementing the principles of horizontality, deliberation, participation and prefiguration that Babels calls for in the organizational process of the Social Forum, and delivering interpreting efficiently on the day of the event, while not undermining the professional market of conference interpreting. The article recommends approaching translation and interpreting from both a top-down and a bottom-up perspective – from principles to practice and from practice to principles – in order to better account for the ways in which translation and interpreting shape and are shaped by the geo-political and socio-economic contexts in which they are embedded

Bogucki, ukasz (2010). [e-Book]  Teaching Translation and Interpreting: Challenges and Practices. Cambridge, Cambridge Scholars Publishing. Texto completo: http://www.c-s-p.org/flyers/978-1-4438-2500-9-sample.pdf

Translator and interpreter training has recently received ample attention, manifested in numerous articles, books and conference papers. However, many central issues still appear controversial. Should translation and interpreting be taught within the curricula of language studies or independently? What is translator competence made up of? Which of its elements can be developed through practice and which require coaching? What kind of translators and interpreters, if any, are “born, not made”? In an attempt to address these and other questions as well as to exchange experience and expertise regarding translation curricula in Poland and abroad, the Department of Translation Theory and Practice, part of the Chair of English Language and Applied Linguistics at Lodz University, has organised two conferences under the title “Teaching Translation and Interpreting”; the first was held in April 2008, the second almost exactly a year later. The present volume is an outcome of these two events. It is meant as a response to the developments in translation didactics which result from the recognition of the role of the  translator/interpreter and the consolidating status of Translation Studies. The rationale behind the publication is manifold. First, there is evidently a need among translation scholars and translators to exchange information on the process of becoming a translator – issues like the optimum profile of a translation adept, the most efficient methods for guiding students who wish to pursue the career or balancing formal education with practical training. What is more, the volume hopes to offer an opportunity to discuss the design of translation and interpreting teaching tracks as they actually function in different institutions within Poland and across Europe. The contributions talk about the challenges and solutions in a translation and interpreting classroom by combining theory and practice, hence allowing for implementation of the different methods in real-life situations. As the authors come from a number of institutions and countries, the volume offers varied perspectives on analogous issues to arrive at a comprehensive up-to-date account but also to discuss outlooks for the future.

Bourke, John F. and Rosemary Lucadou-Wells “Intepreters, translators and legal practitioners: a perspective of working together for refugee and asylum-seeking clients in Australia.” redit: Revista electrónica de didáctica de la traducción y la interpretación vol., n. 2 (2009).  pp. 1-10. http://dialnet.unirioja.es/servlet/extart?codigo=3104791

At this moment in the twenty-first century, displaced human beings are increasingly seeking refuge in safe-haven foreign countries. For lawyers assisting refugee clients, communication is a fundamental issue. Frequently the lawyer and refugee client do not share a common verbal language. Consequently, lawyers rely heavily upon the specific expertise of interpreters and translators to ascertain essential information from the client. Administrative decisions by government bodies and courts in Australia demonstrate that a team approach by lawyers, interpreters and translators is required for the optimum preparation of a refugee client’s case.

Burbat, Ruth and Julia Möller Runge “La enseñanza/ aprendizaje de la segunda lengua extranjera en la formación del traductor/ intérprete.” Congreso Internacional de la Asociación Ibérica de Estudios de Traducción e Interpretación vol. 1, n. (2003).  pp.: http://www.ugr.es/~dpto_ti/act/congresoICAIETI/res/archivos/BurbatMoller.doc

En esta ponencia se presentan los resultados obtenidos en los últimos dos años dentro del grupo de investigación HUM 644 y del proyecto de innovación docente subvencionado por la Universidad de Granada, cuya labor principal se centra en buscar formas y procedimientos más eficaces en la enseñanza de una segunda lengua extranjera.

Cabré Castellvi, María Teresa, Rosa Estopà, et al. “La programació de terminologia en els estudis de Traducció i Interpretació.” Jornadas Internacionales de Terminología vol. 4, n. (1997).  pp.: http://www.unilat.org/dtil/IVjornadas/cabre_estopa.htm

El propòsit d’aquesta comunicació és la presentació dels continguts generals de la matèria de terminologia i de l’orientació amb què s’ensenya. Prèviament, pretenem fer una presentació del marc de docència d’aquesta matèria: els estudis de Traducció i Interpretació de la Universitat Pompeu Fabra.

Carmen Valero Garcés, Raquel Lázaro Gutiérrez B. V. “La enseñanza de la interpretación jurídica online. experiencias docentes en un programa oficial de postgrado.” redit: Revista electrónica de didáctica de la traducción y la interpretación vol., n. 2 (2009).  pp. 76-85. http://www.redit.uma.es/Archiv/v1_2009/mono_Valero_redit2.pdf

Since the academic course 2006-2007 the University of Alcalá, Madrid, offers a Master on Intercultural Comunication, Public Service Interpreting and Translating taught in five language pairs (Spanish and Arabic, French, English, Polish and Romanian). Within its syllabus two activities on line were designed in order to complement two subjects: Healthcare Interpreting and Legal and Administrative Interpreting. The purpose of this article is to describe, on the one hand, some technical issues related to the design and practice of these activities such as students’ degree of participation and satisfaction, problems that occurred and solutions that were taken to solve them and, on the other hand, to analyse issues related to the teaching and learning of specialized vocabulary, the use of strategies to translate terminology from one language into another and the evaluation methods of the teaching staff. Eventually, we will try to draw conclusions about the applicability of our experience in the teaching of interpreting.

Carrasco Eguino, Diego “La preparación de discursos para las prácticas de interpretación.” Congreso Internacional de la Asociación Ibérica de Estudios de Traducción e Interpretación vol. 1, n. (2003).  pp.: http://www.ugr.es/~dpto_ti/act/congresoICAIETI/res/archivos/Carrasco.doc

Las prácticas de interpretación, ya sea en consecutiva o en simultánea, plantean el problema de escoger los discursos adecuados. Es evidente que los textos destinados a la comunicación escrita, meramente descriptivos, de carácter frecuentemente literario, no se ajustan a la mayoría de las situaciones reales en las que el intérprete de conferencias debe intervenir. Por otro lado, es preciso graduar aquellos elementos que intervienen en la emisión formal del discurso, elementos que tantas dificultades crean entre los estudiantes -velocidad de enunciación, nivel de lengua, modismos y giros idiomáticos-, con el fin de lograr que no se encuentren ante un muro aparentemente infranqueable.

Cerdeiras Uria, Mercedes “El Servicio de Atención a Personas Sordas en la Biblioteca: la experiencia de Forum Metropolitano.” Educación y Biblioteca vol. 15, n. 138 (2003).  pp.: http://gredos.usal.es/jspui/handle/10366/102624

El Servicio de Atención a Personas Sordas en la Biblioteca: la experiencia de Forum Metropolitano

Ceres, W. and Ingrid Rsig “The jeunes de langues in the eighteenth century: Spains first diplomatic interpreters on the European model.” Interpreting vol. 14, n. 2 (2012).  pp. 127-144. http://www.ingentaconnect.com/content/jbp/intp/2012/00000014/00000002/art00001
http://dx.doi.org/10.1075/intp.14.2.01cac

This article explores the history in Europe of the training of interpreters specialized in diplomacy, which began in the Renaissance Venetian Republic, when this European power started to train the so-called giovani di lingua in its embassy in Constantinople. The Venetian model was imitated and developed by other European powers, especially by France and the Austrian monarchy, trying to strengthen their relations with the Ottoman Empire by training their own jeunes de langues and Sprachknaben, respectively. In Spain the equivalent figure, the joven de lenguas, emerged later, in the last third of the 18th century, and there is evidence of several proposals to create a Spanish school to train these youngsters. The profile of the selected jóvenes who would serve at the Spanish embassies and consulates in foreign regions is also analyzed. Finally, the Spanish example is compared with the pioneering European models, especially with the Venetian, the French and the Austrian ones.

Chiang, Yung-Nan “Foreign Language Anxiety in Taiwanese Student Interpreters.” Meta vol. 54, n. 3 (2009).  pp. 605-621. http://id.erudit.org/iderudit/038318ar

Bien que le rôle déterminant de l’anxiété ait été démontré autant en situation d’interpération que dans le cadre de l’acquisition d’une langue seconde (L2), pratiquement aucun dialogue n’a été établi entre ces deux domaines. Afin de combler ce vide, la présente étude analyse l’anxiété liée à l’usage d’une langue étrangère (LE) chez des étudiants en interprétariat de Taïwan au cours de leurs premières années universitaires. La mesure de l’anxiété est fondée sur l’échelle d’anxiété en classe de langue étrangère mise au point par Horwitz, Horwitz (1986). Les résultats ont révélé : a) que malgré leur aptitude pour les langues, qui était attendue, ces étudiants éprouvaient une anxiété liée à l’usage d’une LE ; b) que la prévalence de cette anxiété était lègèrement moins importante que chez des apprenants asiatiques en L2, aussi importante que chez des apprenants américains en L2 et beaucoup plus importante que chez les apprenants européens en L2 ; c) que leur anxiété était légèrement moins intense que chez la plupart des étudiants d’appartenances culturelles diverses, toutes langues cibles confondues, à l’exception des étudiants américains de l’arabe et du russe. Enfin, la présente étude discute des implications pédagogiques de ces résultats et propose des orientations de recherches futures.Although anxiety has been found to be a key variable in both interpretation performance and second language (L2) acquisition, there has been virtually no dialogue between these two fields. In order to bridge this gap, this study investigated Taiwanese undergraduate student interpreters’ foreign language (FL) anxiety using Horwitz, Horwitz ‘s (1986) . Results showed that (1) Taiwanese student interpreters did have FL anxiety despite the language facility expected from them; (2) the scope of their FL anxiety was slightly less prevalent than regular Asian L2 learners, as widespread as American L2 learners, and more far-reaching than European L2 learners; and (3) the level of their FL anxiety was slightly less severe than in most of the university students from several cultural groups with various L2s, except for American college students of Arabic and Russian. Implications for pedagogy and future research are suggested.

Colado Cruces, Susana “Más sobre la enseñanza de la Traducción e Interpretación en España.” La linterna del traductor vol., n. 4 (2002).  pp.: http://traduccion.rediris.es/4/susana.htm

En el número 2 de La linterna del traductor salía publicado un extenso artículo de Manuel Mata Pastor, “cuando no hay pan”, en el que se analiza la situación de la enseñanza de traducción e interpretación en España diez años después de que se implantase la licenciatura. Este periodo parece lo suficientemente amplio como para mirar hacia atrás con una cierta perspectiva, comprobar a dónde hemos llegado desde el punto de partida. Así, aún constatando cambios cuantitativos, no siempre podemos comprobar que se correspondan con saltos cualitativos.

Collados Aís, Angela “Efectos de la entonación monótona sobre la recuperación de la información en receptores de interpretación simultánea.” Trans. Revista de Traductología vol., n. 5 (2001).  pp. 103-110. http://www.trans.uma.es/Trans_5/t5_103-110_AAis.pdf

El artículo parte de la importancia que la comunicación no verbal tiene sobre la interpretación, en concreto se estudian los efectos que la entonación monótona pueda tener sobre la recuperación de la información en la interpretación simultánea. El análisis se basa en un estudio experimental realizado por la autora. Como material se utilizaron tres vídeos en los que se manipuló la entonación de la interpretación y que contenían tanto la exposición o ponencia original como las interpretaciones superpuestas. Los sujetos, 42 profesores de las Facultades de Derecho y Ciencias Políticas y Sociología de la Universidad de Granada, así como 15 intérpretes profesionales, fueron repartidos en tres subgrupos. Todos los sujetos vieron y contestaron a sendos cuestionarios sobre los vídeos. Los resultados confirman los efectos negativos de la entonación monótona sobre la recuperación de la información

Davidson, Peter and Judy Wakabayashi “Course Profile MA Japanese Interpreting & Translation (MAJIT).” The Translator vol. 3, n. 1 (1997).  pp. 109-124. http://www.stjerome.co.uk/periodicals/viewfile.php?id=496&type=pdf

In 1981, when the Department of Japanese & Chinese Studies (as it then was) instituted its postgraduate degree in conference interpreting and translation between Japanese and English., there were no tertiary institutions in Japan or anywhere else in the world teaching such a course. Australia has a national government body that sets the standards for interpreters and translators practising within the country and that develops the means by which practitioners can become accredited. The existence of such national standards has certain implications for the way in which interpreting and translation may be taught, as does the fact that Japanese differs in certain respects from the range of languages on which the European tradition of translation and interpreting is based. The MA in Japanese Interpreting and Translation and its ongoing development are profiled against this background.

Dimitrova, Birgitta Englund “Interpreting studies and beyond: A tribute to Miriam Shlesinger; Efforts and models in interpreting and translation research: A tribute to Daniel Gile.” Interpreting vol. 12, n. (2010).  pp. 249-258. http://www.ingentaconnect.com/content/jbp/intp/2010/00000012/00000002/art00006
http://dx.doi.org/10.1075/intp.12.2.06eng

Franz Pöchhacker, Arnt Lykke Jakobsen and Inger Mees (Eds.). Interpreting studies and beyond: A tribute to Miriam Shlesinger. Copenhagen: Samfundslitteratur, 2007. 312 pp. ISBN 978 87 593 1349 7 [Copenhagen Studies in Language 35]. Gyde Hansen, Andrew Chesterman and Heidrun Gerzymisch- Arbogast (Eds.). Efforts and models in interpreting and translation research: A tribute to Daniel Gile. Amsterdam/Philadelphia: John Benjamins, 2008. ISBN 978 90 272 1689 2 [Benjamins Translation Library 80]. Reviewed by Birgitta Englund Dimitrova

Dwyer, Tessa. “Fansub Dreaming on ViKi “Don’t Just Watch But Help When You Are Free”.” The translator vol. 18, n. 2 (2012).  pp. 217-243 https://www.stjerome.co.uk/books/b/160/

Fan subtitling, or ‘fansubbing’, is a heterogeneous and rapidly growing field of amateur translation exhibiting a number of traits that have so far been overlooked by scholars of audiovisual translation. Current research on fansubbing is broadened by examining this phenomenon beyond the strictures of anime subculture alone, drawing on the counter example of Internet start-up company ViKi and exploring the gaps in mainstream subtitling that fansubbing both exposes and fills. The team of volunteer translators working for ViKi re-animates notions of global diversity by capitalizing on the affordances of new technologies and collective intelligence to break down the national and linguistic hierarchies that dominate contemporary media and professional audiovisual translation. Despite a largely conservative ‘look and feel’ and signs of increasing commercialization, ViKi’s fansubbing model makes an important contribution to the internationalization of audiovisual translation practices, bringing programs from small-language communities to diverse audiences across the globe. The paper further considers the extent to which the legalization of ViKi’s fansubbing activity empowers fans to bring about real change in the media marketplace.

Ersozlu, Elif “Training of Interpreters: Some Suggestions on Sight Translation Teaching.” The Translation Journal vol. 9, n. 4 (2005).  pp.: http://accurapid.com/journal/34sighttrans.htm

Sight translation has been considered as a part of simultaneous and consecutive interpretation. However, due to recent developments in the fields of business, finance, international trade, science and technology and due to changing market demands, sight translation has gained an extra place beyond consecutive and simultaneous interpretation. This paper aims at laying a groundwork for teaching sight translation, based on concepts and strategies of skill training.

Feuerle, Lois M. “Mira Kadric. Dialog als Prinzip. Fur eine emanzipatorische Praxis und Didaktik des Dolmetschens.” Interpreting vol. 14, n. 2 (2012).  pp. 271-273. http://www.ingentaconnect.com/content/jbp/intp/2012/00000014/00000002/art00008
http://dx.doi.org/10.1075/intp.14.2.08feu

Mira Kadri . Dialog als Prinzip. Für eine emanzipatorische Praxis und Didaktik des Dolmetschens. Tübingen: Narr, 2011. 184 pp. ISBN 978-3-8233-6561-7 [Translationswissenschaft 6].Reviewed by Lois M. Feuerle The use of reality-based role-plays to provide a basis or road map to help interpreters address problematical professional and ethical issues is not new; however, using the Theater of the Oppressed as the frame of reference to structure and execute these exercises is indeed a fresh approach. In this work Mira Kadri places this new approach to interpreter training in a historical perspective with roots reaching back to the works of the early pedagogical reformers Johann Heinrich Pestalozzi, Jean-Jacques Rousseau and Johann Friedrich Herbart. In Martin Buber’s philosophy of dialogue Kadri traces an interdisciplinary route that leads her to the Brazilian thinkers and activists, Paulo Freire, author of the Pedagogy of the Oppressed, and Augusto Boal, theater practitioner and creator of the Theater of the Oppressed

Fleury, François and Madelein Cuha “Behind Every Word, There Are More Words That Evoke the Worst.” Critical Link vol. 3, n. (2001).  pp.: http://www.criticallink.org/proceedings/16.pdf

For the past five years, the ‘Appartenances’ association in Lausanne has been training people from various foreign communities in Switzerland as well as people working with them. The training is focused on interpreters, cultural mediators, mental health advocates and other health professionals. Last year, 600 new requests for assistance were received by the association. ‘Appartenances’ uses psychodynamic and ethno-psychoanalytic approaches. Recently we have been particularly interested in the question of interpretation of words and their translation which is subject to interpretation on the part of the interpreter. In this case, we will focus on certain words that are used and which foster a fluidity in language and its comprehension, occasionally to the detriment of exactitude in representing what is taking place. This places a greater emphasis on the meaning than on the representations. Working a posteriori has allowed us to give a new dimension to a so-called mechanical translation.

Francisco Javier, V. M. “¿Qué formación en traducción jurídica reciben los intérpretes jurados en la universidad?” redit: Revista electrónica de didáctica de la traducción y la interpretación vol., n. 2 (2009).  pp.: http://www.redit.uma.es/Archiv/v1_2009/mono_vigier_redit2.pdf

La legislación vigente, al establecer la posibilidad de que los licenciados en Traducción e Interpretación puedan conseguir el título de Intérprete Jurado sin tener que superar los correspondientes exámenes del Ministerio de Asuntos Exteriores, convierte a las facultades que imparten dicha Licenciatura en responsables, directa o indirectamente, de la preparación de estos egresados con vistas a su ejercicio profesional en el ámbito de la traducción jurada. Con el objetivo de describir y analizar la formación universitaria en traducción jurídica que reciben estos licenciados, en este artículo se presentan los resultados del análisis de los programas de las asignaturas que componen la formación que los egresados han de acreditar para obtener dicha exención de examen, prestando especial atención a los campos temáticos cubiertos por las mismas.

García De Quesada, Mercedes and Silvia Montero Martínez “Optimización de la adquisición y documentación terminográficas del intérprete: el comportamiento terminográfico en el proceso interpretativo.” Congreso Internacional de la Asociación Ibérica de Estudios de Traducción e Interpretación vol. 1, n. (2003).  pp.: http://www.ugr.es/~dpto_ti/act/congresoICAIETI/res/archivos/GarciaMontero.doc

Durante los últimos cuatro años se ha venido estudiando la metodología de documentación utilizada por los estudiantes de las asignaturas de Interpretación durante las prácticas ofertadas en la Facultad de Traducción e Interpretación de la Universidad de Valladolid. El objetivo final era contar con datos empíricos que nos permitieran proponer soluciones plausibles a las necesidades cognitivas y terminográficas con las que se enfrenta el alumnado a la hora de llevar a cabo interpretaciones con un cierto grado de especialización. Partiendo de estas observaciones, se ha podido esbozar un paradigma cognitivo que cubre desde el comienzo del encargo de interpretación, pasando por la documentación y adquisición terminográfica, la producción oral y terminando por la evaluación por parte del cliente y el público.

Gile, Daniel “L’évaluation de la qualité de l’interprétation en cours de formation.” Meta vol. 46, n. 2 (2001).  pp.: http://www.erudit.org/revue/meta/2001/v46/n2/002890ar.pdf

L’évaluation de la qualité de I’interprétation en cours de formation differe de I’évaluation professionnelle essentiellement en raison de sa fonction d’orientation et de la part importante qu’elle accorde au processus d’interprétation, par opposition au seul discours d’arrivée. Il est pro posé de faire appel a une évaluation orientée processus en début de formation, en raison de ses avantages psychologiques aussi bien que pour son efficacité dans I’orientation des étudiants. 1I faudra toutefois passer progressivement a une évaluation orientée produit afin de rendre plus puissante I’action de I’enseignant sur le parachevement du produit et pour préparer les étudiants aux tests d’aptitude de fin de parcours. L:éventuelle différence entre les normes des enseignants et celles du marché ne pose pas de probleme fondamental tant qu’elle porte sur le niveau requis, plus élevé en formation, et non pas sur les normes et stratégies de I’interprete.

González, Eduardo “Essential Activities in Translator-Interpreter Training.” The Translation Journal vol. 12, n. 2 (2008).  pp.: http://accurapid.com/journal/44training.htm

The extremely fast pace of life, business and communications in our present world demands, more than ever before, the training of professionals in the field of translation and interpretation who are capable of successfully tackling a true mosaic of challenges in their linguistic and cultural endeavors, both in the field of written translation and in the field of interpreting or oral translation. It is not enough anymore to train a specialist by translating literary excerpts or hardly useful, outdated texts. It is of the essence to train specialists who can accurately translate and interpret in the fields of science and technology, health care, business, immigration, courts, media and other areas of great demand in today’s fast-paced world. This article strives to illustrate what can be done in this respect, especially when it comes to training exercises and the creation of new translation-interpretation texts.

Harding, Sue-Ann “Making a Difference? Independent Online Media Translations of the 2004 Beslan Hostage Disaster.” The translator vol. 18, n. 2 (2012).  pp. 311-338. https://www.stjerome.co.uk/tsa/abstract/14611/

With increasingly fewer independent media outlets operating in the Russia Federation over the past decade, the Internet is one of the rare remaining sites where alternatives to mainstream news and opinion can be voiced. In spite of repeated government interference and, in some cases, prosecution, fringe media websites connected to non-governmental organizations, grassroots civic movements and separatist factions have developed into persistent, if marginalized, media alternatives. This paper examines the online reportage and translations generated in response to the 2004 hostage-taking in Beslan published by ‘non-professionals’ on two websites, using a case study approach and drawing on socio-narrative theory. It discusses the elements and characteristics of these fringe narratives that distinguish them as significant alternatives to the mainstream, contrasting the Beslan narratives constructed by the two independent sites with those elaborated by a large, mainstream Russian news agency. It then considers the translations of this material into English to determine the extent to which the specific features that characterize the alternative narratives are also present in translation. The study finds that the restricted use of translation on these websites led to the reinforcement of simplistic, reductionist narratives and weakened or eliminated the more complex and multivalent alternative ones that had been present in the Russian originals. It concludes by considering how ‘non-professional’ translators might avoid a similar outcome.

Hermida, Ana “Universidades con estudios de traducción e interpretación en España y Portugal.” La linterna del traductor vol., n. 8 (2004).  pp.: http://traduccion.rediris.es/cdb/traduweb.htm

Este trabajo pretende ser una guía de universidades españolas y portuguesas que ofrecen algún tipo de estudios de traducción e interpretación. Estos datos se basan, principalmente, en la información que figura en los sitios web de estas instituciones. Si encuentra algún error u omisión, por favor, póngase en contacto con la autora a través de la página web que figura en la firma al final de este artículo.

Hermida Ruibal, Ana “Estudios de traducción e interpretación en las universidades españolas y portuguesas: TraduWeb en El Cuaderno de Bitácora.” Congreso Internacional de la Asociación Ibérica de Estudios de Traducción e Interpretación vol. 1, n. (2003).  pp.: http://www.ugr.es/~dpto_ti/act/congresoICAIETI/res/archivos/Hermida.doc

El recurso que queremos dar a conocer consiste en la lista de universidades españolas y portuguesas que cuentan con algún tipo de estudios de traducción e interpretación. Esta lista fue publicada en el n.º 2 de la revista virtual La linterna del traductor (Hermida, 2002: 44-51). Sin embargo, debido al carácter efímero de las páginas web -sus contenidos y direcciones pueden cambiar de repente- y con el fin de poder modificar rápidamente esta lista para que cuente con un contenido siempre actualizado, se ha creído más conveniente incluirla en la sección permanente de esta revista, denominada ‘Cuaderno de Bitácora’ (http://traduccion.rediris.es/cdb/cdb.htm), en donde también se pueden consultar otros recursos para traductores, clasificados por temas y comentados, como publicaciones periódicas y artículos, direcciones útiles, bases de datos y glosarios, listas de distribución, páginas de traductores y de agencias, recursos laborales para el traductor y una agenda de cursos y congresos. A partir del n.º 4 de La linterna del traductor, que se prevé que se publique sobre principios de diciembre de 2002, la dirección de este recurso será la siguiente: http://traduccion.rediris.es/cdb/traduweb.htm.

Hertog, Erik “Multilingualism and educational interpreting: Innovation and delivery.” Interpreting vol. 12, n. (2010).  pp. 263-267. http://www.ingentaconnect.com/content/jbp/intp/2010/00000012/00000002/art00008
http://dx.doi.org/10.1075/intp.12.2.08her

Marlene Verhoef and Theodorus du Plessis (Eds.). Multilingualism and. educational interpreting: Innovation and delivery. Pretoria: Van Schaik Publishers, 2008. 215 pp. ISBN 978 0 627 02777 2 [Studies in Language. Policy in South Africa 7]. Reviewed by Erik Hertog

Hokkanen, Sari “Simultaneous Church Interpreting as Service. The Translator: Non-Professionals.” The translator vol. 18, n. 2 (2012).  pp. 217-243 https://www.stjerome.co.uk/tsa/abstract/14609/

Although volunteer interpreting in church settings is common throughout the world, there is scant research on this topic in translation and interpreting studies. This article provides a starting point for discussion of this issue through an examination of non-professional, volunteer simultaneous interpreting in a Pentecostal church in Tampere, Finland. The approach to church interpreting at the Pentecostal church is mapped onto Pöchhacker’s (2004) scheme of the dimensions and domains of interpreting theory in order to compare its features to those identified by Pöchhacker. The paper also discusses the volunteer simultaneous interpreting organized at this church in relation to two distinct notions: service and volunteer work. A detailed examination of these two concepts is undertaken in relation to interpreting activity in this specific context. The paper concludes that interpreting is understood within Pentecostalism as service not only to its members but also to God, and that this has important consequences for the type of interpreter training and practice required by church interpreters and valued by the Tampere Pentecostal Church.

Horváth, Ildikó “Autonomous learning: What makes it work in postgraduate interpreter training?” Across Languages and Cultures vol. 8, n. 1 (2007).  pp. 103-122. http://www.akademiai.com/openurl.asp?genre=article&id=doi:10.1556/Acr.8.2007.1.6

Autonomous learning is a complex and multi-faceted construct. It can be defined as the learners’ capacity to self-direct their own learning, which means taking responsibility for the decisions concerning the different aspects of the learning process. However, there is more to autonomous learning than its purely management aspect. Autonomous learning, first of all, means critical thinking, planning and evaluating learning, and reflection, a conscious effort on the part of the learner to continuously monitor the learning process from beginning to end. This is the cognitive side of autonomous learning. This paper reports on the findings of an empirical investigation conducted at the Interpreter and Translator Training Centre (ITTC) of ELTE University, Budapest, Hungary. ITTC offers post-graduate translator and interpreting training. The current research focuses on the role of autonomous learning in interpreter training in particular. The study explores the research question whether interpreter training at ITTC develops the students’ capacity to carry out autonomous learning. It also intends to ascertain what makes autonomous learning work in the context of postgraduate interpreter training.

Inggs, Judith “Current Developments in Court Interpreter Training in South Africa.” Proteus vol. 7, n. 4 (1998).  pp.: http://www.najit.org/proteus/back_issues/inggs.htm

Court interpreters in South Africa play a crucial, everyday role in the judicial system. For obvious historical reasons, the only two official languages in the country for many years were English and Afrikaans. These two languages were therefore also the official languages of the courts. As the majority of the South African population has neither English nor Afrikaans as a first language, court interpreters were, and still are, needed in all courts on an almost continuous basis. Previously, the provision of court interpreters for all of the other languages of South Africa (another nine have been adopted as official languages) was seen as an unfortunate necessity. Since 1994 linguistic rights have been enshrined in the constitution and not only are court interpreters a necessity, but it is now recognised that their provision is a vital means of ensuring the linguistic and legal rights of the whole population.

Jacobsen, Bente “The significance of interpreting modes for questionanswer dialogues in court interpreting.” Interpreting vol. 14, n. 2 (2012).  pp. 217-241. http://www.ingentaconnect.com/content/jbp/intp/2012/00000014/00000002/art00005
http://dx.doi.org/10.1075/intp.14.2.05jac

Studies of court interpreting have so far neglected interpreters’ choice of mode for interpreting question-answer dialogues, though their choice of mode may impact the way questions and answers are reproduced and received by end receivers. Typically, the (short) consecutive mode, regarded as the more complete mode, is recommended for interpreting these dialogues, because it facilitates the inclusion of features such as hesitations, discourse markers, repetitions etc. which play a significant role in identifying speaker meaning. Moreover, in courts without interpreting equipment, answers interpreted in the simultaneous (whispered) mode will be inaudible to end receivers. Nevertheless, as demonstrated in this article, which is based on a survey among court interpreters in Denmark, some interpreters ignore official recommendations and choose strategies for interpreting questions and answers which potentially hinder the flow of information between the original speaker and listener and the accurate and complete translation of original utterances. Furthermore, Danish courts seem to accept the court interpreters’ behaviour, despite its potential consequences for trial outcomes. The article discusses the reasons for this passivity and its wider implications.

Jiménez Ivars, Amparo and Daniel Pinazo Calatayud “Aptitudes necesarias en la formación de intérpretes. Un estudio exploratorio.” Quaderns vol. 8, n. (2002).  pp.: http://ddd.uab.es/search.py?&cc=quaderns&f=issue&p=11385790n8&rg=100&sf=fpage&so=a&as=0&sc=0&ln=ca

El trabajo analiza las competencias que tienen una mayor influencia sobre el rendimiento en interpretación en la modalidad de traducción a la vista. Con un diseño experimental de carácter exploratorio se pone a prueba el efecto de tres componentes de la competencia para la interpretación (control de la ansiedad, memoria a corto plazo y rapidez de reflejos orales) sobre el rendimiento, a partir de una muestra de 22 sujetos. Los resultados obtenidos indican que sólo la rapidez de reflejos orales influye en el rendimiento. El análisis de comparación por grupos, muestra, por otra parte, que los sujetos cuyo índice de competencia en los tres componentes es bajo, tienen un rendimiento significativamente menor que los sujetos con índices medios o altos. Se discuten las implicaciones para la identificación de los componentes relevantes en la interpretación que pueden predecir el éxito en el rendimiento.

Klotchkov, Claudio “Apuntes sobre la fisonomía profesional de intérpretes.” Hermeneus: Revista de la Facultad de Traducción e Interpretación de Soria vol., n. 2 (2000).  pp.: http://recyt.fecyt.es/index.php/HS/issue/view/585/showToc

Se cree, y con toda razón, que la competencia interpretativa abarca determinados conocimientos y determinadas habilidades individuales de la personalidad del intérprete. La interpretación no vale para cualquiera sino para personas con elevadas vocación y plasticidad comunicativas, lindantes con la dinámica del arte escénico. ¿Cuáles son las supuestas condiciones que un intérprete debe reunir? ¿Qué estrategias y tácticas del perfeccionamiento conductual ha de desplegar para estar a la altura de su cometido y rendir al máximo? Éstas y algunas otras cuestiones (mentalidad, imagen social, protocolo, equipamiento, proyección extraprofesional, etc.) adquieren presencia inevitable en la labor y en la didáctica de la interpretación

Ko, Leong “Teaching Interpreting by Distance Mode: An Empirical Study.” Meta vol. 53, n. 4 (2008).  pp. 814-840. http://id.erudit.org/iderudit/019649ar

Cet article se fonde sur une étude empirique de l’enseignement à distance de l’interprétation de liaison, plus précisément l’interprétation de dialogue, l’interprétation consécutive et la traduction à vue. Pour cette recherche, nous avons recruté deux groupes d’étudiants : un groupe expérimental, qui devait être formé à distance, et un groupe contrôle, formé selon le mode face à face. Le stage de formation était d’une durée de 39 heures, c’est-à-dire de 13 semaines à raison de 3 heures de contact par semaine. La formation a suivi le principe selon lequel aucun contact face à face avec les étudiants à distance ne devait se produire pendant le stage, y compris à l’examen. Les principaux médias employés dans le cadre de la recherche étaient les téléconférences non visuelles, le téléphone et l’Internet. Les compétences des étudiants en interprétation, dont le transfert linguistique et les compétences paralinguistiques, ont été évaluées par des épreuves variées, y compris une épreuve indépendante de niveau national. Les résultats de cette recherche indiquent que les étudiants formés à distance sont capables d’atteindre un niveau de compétences et d’habiletés, pour l’interprétation, égal ou comparable à celui qui a été atteint par les étudiants formés selon le mode face à face. Cette recherche a des implications pédagogiques pour de futurs projets dans le domaine du téléenseignement de l’interprétation.This paper is based on an empirical study of teaching liaison interpreting – specifically, dialogue interpreting, consecutive interpreting and sight translation – by distance mode. In this research, two groups of students were recruited – the experimental group to be taught by distance mode and a control group trained face-to-face. The training program lasted for 13 weeks or 39 hours, with three contact hours per week. The training followed the principle that no face-to-face contact with distance students was made during the training process, including the final examination. The major media used in the research included sound-only teleconferencing, telephone and the Internet. Students’ interpreting skills including language transfer and paralinguistic skills were assessed in different tests including an independent national test. The results of the research indicate that students trained by distance mode can achieve a level similar or comparable to those trained in the face-to-face manner in terms of interpreting ability and skills. The research has generated pedagogical implications for future attempts to teach interpreting by distance mode.

Kreutzer, Martin and Wilhelm Neunzig “¿Traductores especializados o especialistas en traducción? Reflexiones en torno a la futura formación de traductores e intérpretes en el ámbito europeo.” Congrés Internacional sobre Traducció vol., n. 2 (1994).  pp.: http://ddd.uab.es/pub/traduccio/Actes4.pdf

Todos sabemos que uno de los objetivos de la universidad es formar a profesionales, es decir, transmitir a los estudiantes los conocimientos y procedi-mientos propios de la materia con el fin de que los apliquen ­al acabar la carrera­ en el ejercicio de su profesión, sea como profesionales independientes o como empleados de empresas públicas o privadas. Este, sin embargo, es sólo uno de los aspectos de la formación universitaria, ya que el personal docente de las universidades se suele reclutar entre los titulados universitarios y éste, a su vez, constituye la base de la investigación niversitaria. En otras palabras, la formación de futuros licenciados debe adaptarse a los tres aspectos profesionales mencionados, o sea, debe producir profesionales para el mercado, para la enseñanza universitaria y no universitaria y también investigadores que sean capaces de descubrir nuevos métodos y procedimientos en su respectiva área y las áreas afines.

Langman, Juliet “Marjorie Faultisch Orellana. Translating Childhoods. Immigrant Youth, Language and Culture.” The translator vol. 18, n. 2 (2012).  pp. 388-392. https://www.stjerome.co.uk/tsa/abstract/14618/

Review of The Cult of the Amateur. How Blogs, MySpace, YouTube and the Rest of Today’s User Generated Media are Killing Our Culture and Economy. Andrew Keen. London & Boston: Nicholas Brealey, 2007; revised edition, 2008.

Lasorsa, Antonella “Interprete professionista o professionista interprete?” The Translation Journal vol. 9, n. 1 (2005).  pp.: http://accurapid.com/journal/31interprete.htm

During a physiotherapy session given by two French teachers and attended by a group of Italian therapists, interpretation was carried out by a professional interpreter in the morning and by a bilingual therapist in the afternoon. The author evaluates the two interpretation performances on the basis of a questionnaire filled out by the participants. In particular, the author tries to determine which of the two factors better contributes to interlingual communication in teaching: a perfect mastery of the subject discussed or the ability to translate and hold the attention of the audience.

Leong, Ko “Interpretation: Techniques and Exercises.” Babel: Revue internationale de la traduction/International Journal of Translation vol. 56, n. 2 (2010).  pp. 194-196. http://www.ingentaconnect.com/content/jbp/bab/2010/00000056/00000002/art00008

This is a book for learners of conference interpreting. Its aim is to fill the need for training conference interpreters “by providing a structured syllabus and an overview of interpretation accompanied by exercises” and “to serve as a practical guide for interpreters and as a compliment to interpreter training programs, particularly those for students preparing for conference interpreting in international governmental and business settings” (p. 1). The author provides a systematic discussion of various issues relating to conference interpreting as well as different types of exercises for developing and enhancing interpreting techniques. He also emphasizes the importance of written exercises and translation in improving interpreting skills.

Lequy, Anne and Nina Sander “Neuer binationaler Master-Studiengang “Juristisches Übersetzen und Dolmetschen”.” redit: Revista electrónica de didáctica de la traducción y la interpretación vol., n. 3 (2009).  pp. 52-62. http://dialnet.unirioja.es/servlet/extart?codigo=3150222

The purpose of this article is to introduce the new binational master s programme Legal translating and interpreting . In cooperation with the Université de Bretagne-Sud in Lorient/France, the Hochschule Magdeburg-Stendal (FH) University of Applied Sciences Magdeburg-Stendal, Germany will admit the first 16 students to the master s degree programme next year. National courts and international institutions complain about a significant lack of professionally trained legal interpreters. The master’s programme Legal translating and interpreting aims to remedy this lack and actively prepare students for careers as translators of legal texts, editors/proofreaders of legal texts as well as legal interpreters. Jurists, students holding a degree in applied linguistics, technical translators und (legal) interpreters as well as other from related fields of study may apply for the master’s degree programme. Specific courses offered in the first term will ensure a common state of knowledge among all students. Due to the great demand for translators and interpreters for languages of limited diffusion we plan to open this Master s degree programme for the above mentioned group of students as soon as possible.

Leung, Ester S. M. “Rights to be Heard and the Rights to be Interpreted.” Babel: Revue internationale de la traduction/International Journal of Translation vol. 49, n. 4 (2003).  pp.: http://ejournals.ebsco.com/direct.asp?ArticleID=YR8DCFJ1CR32GUUHC8EM

The principle that during police interviews people who do not speak English should have access to interpreters has long been established in legal practice in the UK. However, very little is known about the extent to which or how this principle is actually applied. The aim of this study was to provide a close look at current legal interpreting practices in different types of legal encounter in the UK. What was actually going on in these events; what were the specific problems associated with interpreting in legal settings; and what were the problems associated with interpreting between Cantonese and English? What can the close study of interpreters as they interpret tell us about the process of interpretation in legal settings? An ethnographic approach was adopted to collect and analyze the data. I observed and audio-recorded four interpreting events which involved Chinese interpreters.

Liu, Minhua and Yu-Hsien Chiu “Assessing source material difficulty for consecutive interpreting: Quantifiable measures and holistic judgment.” Interpreting vol. 11, n. 2 (2009).  pp. 244-266. http://www.ingentaconnect.com/content/jbp/intp/2009/00000011/00000002/art00007

Motivated by the need for better control of standards of a certification examination for interpreters in Taiwan, this exploratory study aimed at identifying indicators that may be used to predict source material difficulty for consecutive interpreting. A combination of quantifiable measures ­ readability level, information density and new concept density ­ was used to examine different aspects of three English source materials. Expert judgment was also used as a more holistic method of judging source material difficulty. The results of these analyses were compared with two groups of student interpreters’ performance on consecutive interpreting of the source materials into Mandarin Chinese. The participants’ assessment of speech difficulty after the interpreting task was also compared with the other measures and the expert judgment. The quantifiable measures all failed statistically in predicting source material difficulty, possibly due to the very small sample size of the materials or to the fact that the materials were very similar in the aspects assessed by these measures. A trend emerged to suggest that information density and sentence length may be potentially useful indicators for predicting source material difficulty. It was also shown that source material difficulty affected the performance of lower-skilled interpreters more than that of higher-skilled interpreters.

Manuel Jerez, Jesús De “Cómo formar intérpretes contando con los estudiantes.” Puentes: hacia nuevas investigaciones en la mediación intercultural vol., n. 3 (2002).  pp.: http://www.ugr.es/~greti/revista_puente_pdf.htm

La introducción de material audiovisual digitalizado procedente de grabaciones de acontecimientos intetlingües reales desde fases tempranas de la formación especializada de intérpretes, facilitada por las nuevas tecnologías, es posible, pero no está exenta de riesgos. Para controlarlos el autor de este estudio propone un enfoque que complemente la evaluación del nivel de dificultad que puede realizar el profesor combinando criterios objetivos cuantifl-cables y otros más aproximativos o subjetivos con la percepción de los estudiantes de tres parámetros fundamentales para mantener su motivación: la dificultad, la utilidad y el interés de distintos ejercicios individuales o tipos de ejercicios. Para llevarlo a la práctica se sugiere aplicar la metodología de la investigación en la acción incorporando tanto análisis cuantitativos como cualitativos.

Martin, Anne “La enseñanza de la interpretación de conferencias.” Aproximaciones a la traducción vol., n. (2000).  pp.: http://cvc.cervantes.es/obref/aproximaciones/martin.htm

La didáctica de la interpretación es evidentemente un tema de considerable envergadura y sobre el que existen numerosas publicaciones. Por ser éste el único trabajo del volumen que se refiere a la interpretación, no nos proponemos profundizar en una única faceta de la misma, sino abarcar una amplia gama de aspectos, aunque sea someramente. De acuerdo con este propósito, trataremos en primer lugar algunos aspectos generales sobre los inicios de la enseñanza de la interpretación y su organización académica, para luego pasar a considerar algunas cuestiones de metodología. Finalmente, en términos más concretos, esbozaremos algunos de los ejercicios prácticos que se suelen emplear en la enseñanza de la interpretación tanto consecutiva como simultánea.

Mcdonough Dolmaya, Julie “Analyzing the Crowdsourcing Model and Its Impact on Public Perceptions of Translation. .” The translator vol. 18, n. 2 (2012).  pp. 167-191. https://www.stjerome.co.uk/tsa/abstract/14604/

This paper draws on the results of an online survey of Wikipedia volunteer translators to explore, from a sociological perspective, how participants in crowdsourced translation initiatives perceive translation. This perception is examined from a number of perspectives, including the participants’ profiles, motivations and idiosyncrasies vis-à-vis those of individuals involved in other collaborative social phenomena. Firstly, respondents are grouped on the basis of their training background, their current professional status and their former occupation to compare how translation is perceived by volunteers who do and those who do not work in the translation industry. To further understand the range of respondents’ perceptions of translation, the crowdsourced translation initiatives they participate in are divided into three types: product-driven (localization/translation of free/open-source software projects), cause-driven (not-for-profit initiatives with an activist focus), and outsourcing-driven (initiatives launched by for-profit companies). A comparison between the results of this survey and two others focusing on the motivations and profiles of free/open-source software developers seeks to identify distinctive features of participatory translation practices. The final part of this article discusses how participants in a crowdsourced translation initiative view translation and how the latter is depicted by the organizations behind such collaborative projects.

Messina, Alessandro “Lingue e interpretazione: riflessioni sull’insegnamento/apprendimento linguistico nella formazione degli interpreti di conferenza.” InTRAlinea : Rivista de traduttologia vol. 4, n. (2001).  pp.: http://www.intralinea.it/vol4/messina.htm

Fra le varie competenze che un interprete deve possedere la competenza essenziale è indubbiamente quella linguistica. La competenza linguistica va ovviamente intesa in senso lato: non si tratta soltanto della conoscenza degli aspetti formali del codice linguistico, ma anche degli aspetti pragmatici, sociolinguistici, culturali. Tale competenza linguistica, comunque, non è sufficiente: all’interprete si richiedono anche capacità di public speaking, il che implica fluenza, precisione e chiarezza di esposizione, impostazione della voce, correttezza deontologica.

Milton, John and Lucia Helena De Sena Franca “The Selection and Training of Interpreters in the Community at the Catholic University, São Paulo.” Critical Link vol. 3, n. (2001).  pp.: http://www.criticallink.org/proceedings/15.pdf

As in most developing countries, the profession of a community interpreter as such does not exist in Brazil. Sworn translators may be called to act in legal situations, or representatives of the community of friends or family ‘who speak the language’ unofficially play the role of the community interpreter. Rather than speaking of community interpreters as such, we perhaps should think of interpreters involved in the community, their work and training not being restricted to simultaneous booth work. Nowhere should this be more so than the Catholic University São Paulo (PUC), one of the homes of Brazilian Liberation Theology, which has a strong tradition of working for and with poorer communities. This paper examines how elements of community interpreting are present in the PUC Interpretation course, the first university course in Brazil specifically designed to train interpreters, set up in March 1999.

Monzó, Esther “E-lectra: A Bibliography for the Study and Practice of Legal, Court and Official Translation and Interpreting.” Meta vol. 55, n. 2 (2010).  pp. 355-373. http://id.erudit.org/iderudit/044245ar

Le développement scientifique oblige les chercheurs à communiquer efficacement les résultats de leurs travaux. L’augmentation du nombre de revues et de publications académiques dans le monde entier accable les spécialistes et les contraint à se maintenir au courant d’une littérature de plus en plus dispersée. De plus, les professionnels de la traduction juridique doivent trouver et sélectionner la documentation et le matériel de référence spécialisés que le marché n’adresse pas aux traducteurs et interprètes mais aux spécialistes du droit. est une base de données bibliographiques électronique qui a pour but d’aider les étudiants et les spécialistes en traduction juridique à repérer les fonds de littérature et de documentation, et d’aider les chercheurs à présenter leurs travaux en leur apportant un réservoir de formats et de styles incorporés dans un système facile à utiliser pour citer des références dans leurs travaux et les adapter aux conventions des différentes revues dans le domaine des études de traduction.

Muñoz, Ricardo “Not a ‘Monkey Business’. The Translator: Non-Professionals Translating and Interpreting. Participatory and Engaged Perspectives.” The translator vol. 18, n. 2 (2012).  pp. 363-371 https://www.stjerome.co.uk/tsa/abstract/14612/

Review of The Cult of the Amateur. How Blogs, MySpace, YouTube and the Rest of Today’s User Generated Media are Killing Our Culture and Economy. Andrew Keen. London & Boston: Nicholas Brealey, 2007; revised edition, 2008.

Napier, Jemina “Training sign language interpreters in Australia: An innovative approach.” Babel: Revue internationale de la traduction/International Journal of Translation vol. 51, n. 3 (2005).  pp.: http://ejournals.ebsco.com/direct.asp?ArticleID=4D50B357946F85182067

An accreditation system for the qualification of Australian Sign Language (Auslan)/ English1 interpreters has been available in Australia for approximately twenty years, under the auspices of the National Authority for the Accreditation of Translators and Interpreters (NAATI). Blewett (1987) stated that “Australia leads the world in the provision of community interpreting and translating services and in the regulation and training of interpreters and translators for that provision” (cited in Roberts-Smith, Frey & Bessell-Browne 1990: 3). After long negotiations, NAATI accepted Auslan as one of 26 official languages in Australia in which interpreters can be tested (Flynn 1985, 1990). Accordingly, Auslan is indirectly recognised as a community language, along with languages of other minority groups in Australia,such as Aborigines and Torres Strait Islanders; as well as languages of other migrant communities, such as Bosnian, Cantonese, Greek, Hindi, Italian, or Vietnamese languages. This makes Australia one of the few countries in the world that accredits spoken and signed language interpreters through the same system (Bridge 1991), which may lead us to think that Blewett’s (1987) comments were somehow justified ­ at least in relation to the system of testing and accreditation. Accreditation is offered through three different routes: (a) completion of a NAATI approved course; (b) sitting a one-off accreditation examination in the specific language of the translator or interpreter; or (c) assessment of specialized interpreter/ translator qualifications obtained from overseas (Bell 1997).

Neather, Robert. “‘Non-Expert’ Translators in a Professional Community. Identity, Anxiety and Perceptions of Translator Expertise in the Chinese Museum Community. .” The translator vol. 18, n. 2 (2012).  pp. 217-243 https://www.stjerome.co.uk/tsa/abstract/14607/

This paper focuses on issues of translator expertise, professionalism and identity in and around a community of practice (Wenger 1998) not normally associated with translation: the ‘museum community’. In Guangzhou, Hong Kong and Macau, where exhibitionary practice is predominantly bi/trilingual, the museum community is a nexus of translational activity that brings together a whole variety of stakeholders with differing forms of professional competence (Bhatia 2004). Adopting an ethnographic approach and drawing on interviews with curators and translation-related staff across museums in the region, the paper focuses on interactions between the museum and translation communities in these three cities, as a means of interrogating our assumptions about expertise and professionalism. The discussion is organized around two key issues: community practices, focusing on the stakeholders in the translation process; and community identities, focusing on perceptions of expertise in the museum community, ‘boundary practices’, and genre ownership. The findings suggest that no one community has the full set of competences needed for fully effective museum translation, and that much museum translation involves an anxious negotiation of differing expertise deficits.

Nord, Christiane “All New on the European Front? : What the Bologna Process Means for Translator Training in Germany.” Meta vol. 50, n. 1 (2005).  pp.: http://www.erudit.org/revue/meta/2005/v50/n1/010669ar.pdf

After giving a brief survey of traditional translator training in Germany, the paper will discuss the changes introduced by the Bologna process. All German universities are reorganizing their translator training programmes, replacing the four-year Diplom degree by modular courses leading to a Bachelor’s and/or Master’s degree. Since legal regulations permit a variety of combinations with regard to duration, each German university is planning its own model. The main bone of contention in this process is the question of whether specialized translation should be taught at undergraduate or postgraduate level.

Norstr, Eva M, et al. “Working conditions of community interpreters in Sweden: Opportunities and shortcomings.” Interpreting vol. 14, n. 2 (2012).  pp. 242-260. http://www.ingentaconnect.com/content/jbp/intp/2012/00000014/00000002/art00006
http://dx.doi.org/10.1075/intp.14.2.06nor

The aim of this article is to describe and analyse the working conditions of interpreters and interpreting services in Sweden. An understanding of interpreters’ working conditions is a key to such factors as the management of resources, the reading and implementation of legislation, the organisation of interpreting services and the performance of interpreters in different situations. An understanding of interpreters’ working conditions is also important in understanding how multiculturalism and multilingualism are viewed on a national scale in Sweden. This review of the working conditions of interpreters is based on material from two joint research projects, which appear to indicate that interpreters as a group have much to say and often reflect on their work and working conditions. The interpreters participating in this study often demonstrated a strong commitment to professionalism. At the same time, however, many of the reflections recorded for this study were about things that undermine professionalism: bad working conditions, low pay, the feeling of being “as replaceable as potatoes“, and the feeling that the social status of interpreters is low. In analysing the consequences of working conditions we have found a tension between professionalism and deprofessionalisation. This tension has consequences for the rule of law and integration.

Olohan, Maeve “Volunteer Translation and Altruism in the Context of a Nineteenth-Century Scientific Journal.” The translator vol. 18, n. 2 (2012).  pp. 193-215. https://www.stjerome.co.uk/tsa/abstract/14605/

This paper constitutes a first attempt to theorize volunteer translation using behavioural economic models of altruism. It applies the notions of pure and impure altruism to the study of a nineteenth-century journal of scientific translations, Scientific Memoirs. Volunteer translating and editing activities were instrumental in ensuring the commercial survival of that periodical over a 15-year period. A range of motivations may be posited for the volunteer work carried out, from the purely altruistic wish to expand scientific knowledge to motivations which could be linked to a sense of satisfaction (warm glow) or enhancement of personal, professional or social standing. Differences can be observed in the utility likely to have been derived from their volunteer activities by men of science and women translators, and an insight is offered into how volunteer contributions were encouraged and managed by the journal’s editor, Richard Taylor. By drawing on research on altruism and volunteering undertaken by disciplines other than translation studies, the paper offers a fruitful starting point for further research on volunteer translation and interpreting in both present-day and historical settings.

Peng, Gracie “Using Rhetorical Structure Theory (RST) to describe the development of coherence in interpreting trainees.” Interpreting vol. 11, n. 2 (2009).  pp. 216-243. http://www.ingentaconnect.com/content/jbp/intp/2009/00000011/00000002/art00006

Making global sense has long been seen as one of the most important criteria for judging the success of a given interpretation. For consecutive in particular, special emphasis is placed on the coherence and structure of the rendition. This study addresses the question of how to investigate coherence in interpreting and observe its development in trainees. We propose Rhetorical Structure Theory (RST), as a framework for exploring how coherence is realised in interpretations produced by professional as well as trainee interpreters. A corpus of 66 consecutive interpretations, by eight novice and three professional interpreters, of three Chinese and three English speeches, was transcribed, segmented into functional units, and mapped into a tree-like RST description. The analyses and results reveal that novices tend to focus on local cohesion while professionals tend to emphasise the global structure of the discourse. This difference can usefully be addressed in training.

Pérez-González, Luis and ebnem Susam-Saraeva “Non-professionals Translating and Interpreting. Participatory and Engaged Perspectives.” The translator vol. 18, n. 2 (2012).  pp. 149-165. https://www.stjerome.co.uk/tsa/abstract/14603/

Translation studies finds itself today at a stage where its traditional focus on translator and interpreter training and on the advancement of the status of translators and interpreters as professionals is no longer sufficient to address the complexity of real-life situations of translating and interpreting. As increasing numbers of non-professionals translate and interpret in a wider range of contexts and in more diversified forms, their work  emerges not only as an alternative to established professional practice, but also as a distinctive phenomenon, which the discipline has yet to recognize as a noteworthy area of study. This article looks into the relatively uncharted territory of non-professional translation and interpreting, drawing mainly on Arjun Appadurai’s conceptualization of global transactions, and offers a number of insights into what these new developments might mean for the discipline at large.

Pripps-Huertas, Marianne “Even If I Open Pandora’s Box.” Translorial-Online vol., n. (2000).  pp.: http://www.ncta.org/displaycommon.cfm?an=1&subarticlenbr=16

I’ve often asked myself why I’m so bothered by the apparent apathy that I perceive occurs between translators and interpreters. In my mind, those two professions are inextricably linked. At NCTA general meetings interpreters and translators mingle freely, but when issues pertaining to either one are on the table, the other generally does not attend or pay attention. Yet many of us are practicing both professions more and more, and the increase in NCTA membership reflects this fact. Even ATA is establishing an interpreting division. Why, then, is it that I feel this ‘separation?’ Is this chasm good or is it counterproductive to our interests as an industry? Is it just me…?

Radlex “Translation Versus Interpretation.” Translorial-Online vol., n. (2000).  pp.: http://www.ncta.org/displaycommon.cfm?an=1&subarticlenbr=17

The concepts of translating and interpreting are often confused, particularly by the public at large, whereas professionals make a careful distinction between the two. Professionally, written material is translated from one language to another in written form. Spoken communications are interpreted orally, either simultaneously or consecutively. But that is only part of the picture. The lines between the two modes become blurred when we think of the court interpreter who normally listens to Language A and then translates what he hears into Language B, orally. But, what is the interpreter doing when he is handed a written document in one language to read aloud in another language (technically called ‘sight translation’)?

Rainof, Alexander “B.A. in Translation and Interpretation at Cal State Long Beach.” Proteus vol. 8, n. 3-4 (1999).  pp.: http://www.najit.org/proteus/v8n3-4/rainof_v8n3-4.htm

The development of B.A. and M.A. degrees in Translation and Interpretation at California State University, Long Beach (CSULB) is a historic event which will affect our present standing and professional future and should be shared with the entire translation and interpretation community. The project started when Richard Weatherby, former two-term President of the California Court Interpreters Association, visited the Long Beach campus in the fall of 1998. At that time I was a newly appointed Professor in the Romance, German, Russian Languages and Literatures Department at CSULB, and I mentioned to him that I was interested in developing a program at the university leading to a B.A. and M.A. in Translation and Interpretation. Mr. Weatherby was delighted and told me that, by a felicitous coincidence, the Judicial Council and the President of CCIA, Carlos Cerecedo, believed that a B.A. degree program in translation and interpretation, possibly followed by an M.A., should be created at a California university.

Rainof, Alexander “Charlotte’s Corner: Web on the Web Part V.” Proteus vol. 8, n. 2 (1999).  pp.: http://www.najit.org/proteus/v8n2/rainofv2n8.htm

Charlotte, a pedagogue at heart if ever there was one, has been ecstatic for over a year now with the superb Web site that Court TV has on the internet, located at http://www.courttv.com/. As demonstrated in the brief overview below of previous installments, this Web site alone can be used to orchestrate a comprehensive, cross-language, step-by-step methodology in forensic translation and interpretation, culminating in a thematic approach.

Renau-Michavila, Marta “Del discurso al cuerpo: La técnica Alexander en interpretación.” The Translation Journal vol. 12, n. 2 (2008).  pp.: http://accurapid.com/journal/44alexander.htm

Los estudios sobre interpretación en el mundo académico son relativamente recientes. El impulso dentro del ámbito universitario occidental surgió a mediados del siglo XX y, desde entonces, son diversos los enfoques que se han planteado, tanto en la didáctica como en la investigación (Iglesias Fernández, 2007). La propuesta que presento se enmarca en la línea de formación de intérpretes y pretende trabajar con un elemento que todavía no ha recibido la necesaria atención del mundo académico, pese a su repercusión: el uso del cuerpo en la interpretación.

Renau-Michavila, Marta “Del discurso al cuerpo: la técnica alexander en interpretación “ Translation Journal vol. 12, n. 2 (2008).  pp.: http://repositori.uji.es/xmlui/bitstream/handle/10234/18514/28889.pdf?sequence=1

Los estudios sobre interpretación en el mundo académico son relativamente recientes. El impulso dentro del ámbito universitario occidental surgió a mediados del siglo XX y, desde entonces, son diversos los enfoques que se han planteado, tanto en la didáctica como en la investigación (Iglesias Fernández, 2007). La propuesta que presento se enmarca en la línea de formación de intérpretes y pretende trabajar con un elemento que todavía no ha recibido la necesaria atención del mundo académico, pese a su repercusión: el uso del cuerpo en la interpretación. El presente artículo presenta de forma introductoria una propuesta didáctica implantada ya en la Universitat Jaume I de Castellón, gracias a un proyecto de mejora educativa que dirijo, y que lleva por título “Coordinación de la adquisición de la subcompetencia psicofisiológica en interpretación: asignaturas con un alto índice de ansiedad”1. Este proyecto se dirige a mejorar el proceso de aprendizaje-enseñanza de la interpretación y reducir el nivel de ansiedad del estudiantado. Para ello, se trabaja con la técnica Alexander, que ha dado frutos provechosos en otras prácticas profesionales, y que presentaremos sucintamente en un epígrafe posterior.

Rodríguez Medina, María Jesús “Reflexiones en torno a la traducción y la interpretación: entrevista a Zinaida Lvovs kaya.” Trans. Revista de Traductología vol., n. 4 (2000).  pp.: http://www.trans.uma.es/trans_04.html

La profesora Zínaida Lvovskaya es una figura indiscutible en el mundo de la traducción y la interpretación, en el que ha desarrollado su larga trayectoria académica y profesional. En estas páginas, reproducimos la conversación que mantuvimos con ella en Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, ciudad donde reside actualmente. Sus numerosas publicaciones y más de cuarenta años de experiencia tanto en la profesión de traductora e intérprete (ruso-español), como en la docencia universitaria de estas disciplinas, avalan las opiniones y las reflexiones de esta especialista sobre distintos aspectos relacionados con la teoría, la práctica y la didáctica de la traducción y la situación actual de los traductores e intérpretes en España. Zínaida Lvovskaya nos revela también las nuevas líneas de investigación que se plantean actualmente en este campo.

Roy, Cynthia “The Critical Link: Innovative Theory and Practice for Educating Interpreters.” Critical Link vol. 2, n. (2001).  pp.: http://www.criticallink.org/journalscl2/3.pdf

Acknowledging that interpreters are an active part of and influence conversational discourse, changes our ways of thinking about what interpreters are doing as they expedite the exchange in a face-to-face conversation. With this changing perspective on how interpreters actually accomplish their task will come changes in educational practice. This article suggests that what is significant in the process of learning to interpret is understanding the nature of social situations, knowing how language is used, and becoming familiar with discourse processes. Because these processes and the interpreter’s role are ineluctably bound to language and patterns of discourse, discourse analysis not only offers a new research framework, but also a new understanding of what aspects are important in the process of teaching interpreting.

Russell, Amy “New University Course in Translation and Interpretation.” Translorial-Online vol., n. (1998).  pp.: http://www.ncta.org/displaycommon.cfm?an=1&subarticlenbr=25

The purpose of the new T&I certificate program is two-fold: First, it seeks to train professionals for entry into the field of translation and interpretation. Second, it aims to set up standards of proficiency in various specialties within the field of T&I. The hope is to introduce a credential system covering both translation and interpretation.

Schick, Brenda “EIPA Guidelines of Professional Conduct for Educational Interpreters.” EIPA Professional Guidelines vol., n. (2007).  pp.: http://www.classroominterpreting.org/Interpreters/proguidelines/EIPA_guidelines.pdf

This document describes obligations for educational interpreters employed in school settings. While the Code of Professional Conduct developed by the Registry of Interpreters for the Deaf (www.rid.org) and the National Association of the Deaf is a very useful document for interpreters who work with adults, interpreters who work in schools are members of an educational system. Educational interpreters are working with children with developmental needs and with constraints and requirements imposed by educational practice and law. Because of this, it is appropriate to define guidelines for professional conduct for interpreters who work in educational settings.

Schouten, Barbara, Jonathan Ross, et al. “Informal Interpreters in Medical Settings A Comparative Socio-cultural Study of the Netherlands and Turkey.” The translator vol. 18, n. 2 (2012).  pp. 311-338. https://www.stjerome.co.uk/tsa/abstract/14610/

Between 2008 and 2010, academics in five European countries collaborated on an EU-funded project, Training Intercultural and Bilingual Competences in Health and Social Care (TRICC). Among TRICC’s aims was to deepen understanding of informal interpreting through eliciting the perspectives of interpreters themselves. To identify commonalities and differences in the experiences, attitudes and practices of informal interpreters in distinct settings, the Dutch and Turkish partners interviewed 15 young migrant adults in the Netherlands and 15 Kurdish speakers in Istanbul respectively, asking them about emotional and technical aspects of interpreting, and about their expectations and roles, communicative challenges and actions. Thematic analysis of the 30 interviews corroborated the findings of previous research – namely, that informal interpreters are highly visible, use diverse communicative strategies, adopt various roles, and occasionally speak as primary interlocutors. Noticeable differences between the two sets of interpreters included their attitudes towards interpreting and their preferences for informal versus professional interpreting, both of which can be better understood in the light of the cultural backgrounds of the interpreters and the institutional and political frameworks within which they interpret. This comparative study appears to support Angelelli’s (2004a) claim that interpreted events are heavily influenced by socio-political and cultural contexts.

Shaw, Sherry, Nadja Grbic, et al. “Applying language skills to interpretation: Student perspectives from signed and spoken language programs.” Interpreting vol. 6, n. 1 (2004).  pp.: http://www.benjamins.com/jbp/series/INTP/6-1/art/0005a.pdf

Interpretar Education Programs (lEPs) frequently encounter a dilemma when attempting to assist students who have completed a second-language learning sequence in their transition to interpreter education. Typically, students exhibit difficulties making this transition when they perceive their language base is inadequate to successfully complete the interpreting sequence in their program. This investigation was designed to (a) explore factors that contribute to or inhibit readiness to apply language skills to interpretation, and (b) identify similarities and differences between students’ perspectives of this transition in the context of signed language and spoken language interpretation programs. The Interpreter Education Program (American Sign Language/English) at the University of Arkansas at Little Rock, USA conducted this study in collaboration with the Institute of Theo-retical and Applied Translation Studies at the Karl-Franzens-University of Graz, Austria (which offers eleven languages). Observations from both programs provide insight for interpreter educators as they strive to improve programs and enhance student retention and program completion rates.

Sherwood-Gabrielson, Pam , Veronica  Newington, et al. (2008). [e-Book]  Consecutive Interpreting:An Instructor’s Manual : A 45-hour generic interpreting course for bilingual speakers. Builds on the Program in Translation and Interpreting’s Introduction to Interpreting: An Instructor’s Manual. Minnesota, Program in Translation and Interpreting, University of Minnesota. Texto completo: http://www.wciconline.com/Consecutive_InterpretingBD_draft_12-08.pdf

This manual is the result of a process that began in 1991 when the first version of this course was offered at the University of Minnesota. In developing and teaching this course, we have relied upon the expertise of many colleagues. We would like to acknowledge the contributions of all  the individuals who have worked with us, both directly and indirectly. The original purpose of this manual was to provide instructors with a framework for teaching the Consecutive Interpreting course at the University of Minnesota. However, as interest in interpreter training grows throughout the country, it also serves as a tool for those who plan to initiate interpreter training elsewhere or to supplement their existing courses.

Shyr, Ming “Opening Remarks.” Critical Link vol. 3, n. (2001).  pp.: http://www.criticallink.org/proceedings/17.pdf

Generally, our voices speak the words of others. Today I am happy to be given the occasion to have my own voice heard, my own voice and my feelings as an interpreter. The complexity of community interpretation is always challenging. This is particularly so when one must take into account radically different cultures and highly dissimilar values and social systems. For example, must one attempt to, and how can one, transmit the ambiguity of Asian speech when interpreting towards a Western language that is much more direct without betraying the spirit of the meaning when one language uses a high degree of ambiguity and the other more direct? Interpreters are the links that transform cultural differences into solidarity. They are also the bridges that allow communities to come together and communicate harmoniously.

Susam-Sarajeva, ebnem and Luis Pérez-González “Non-Professionals Translating and Interpreting. Participatory and Engaged Perspectives.” The translator vol. 18, n. 2 (2012).  pp. Todas. https://www.stjerome.co.uk/tsa/issue/2557/

Non-professional translation/interpreting has so far been of peripheral interest to scholars, who often express concern over the quality of ‘amateur output’ and the intrusion of ‘unregulated outsiders’ into the precarious translation industry. As it diversifies and moves towards the core of economic and cultural activities, however, non-professional translation and interpreting is increasingly bound to challenge our understanding of professional identities and the current organization of labour in the translation and interpreting industries. This special issue of The Translator explores the field with a view to learning from the individuals and networks who take on such ‘non-professional’ translation and interpreting activities. It showcases the work of researchers who look into the phenomenon within a wide variety of settings: from museums to churches, crowdsourcing and media sites to Wikipedia, and scientific journals to the Social Forum. Drawing on a wide range of disciplines and models, the contributions to this volume enhance the visibility of non-professionals engaged in translating and interpreting and challenge a range of widely-held assumptions within the discipline and the profession.

Taylor, Christopher “Degree in Conference Interpreting/Translation.” The Translator vol. 3, n. 2 (1997).  pp. 247-260 http://www.stjerome.co.uk/periodicals/viewfile.php?id=125&type=pdf

From its beginnings as an offshoot of the Faculty of Economics of the University of Trieste in the 1950s, the Scuola Superiore di Lingue Moderne per Interpreti e Traduttori has developed over the years into a fully-fledged university faculty offering first degree courses in translation and interpreting in a variety of language combinations. Trieste occupies a strategic geographical position at the crossroads of Western and Eastern Europe and is thus ideally placed for the development of courses designed to foster international relations. In addition to the range of European Union languages on offer, and given the ethnic and multilingual nature of its community, the School offers translation and interpreting courses in Slovenian, Serb/Croat and Russian. First degree courses in translation and interpreting are largely profiled here against the needs of the European community and the local linguistic reality. The discussion also touches on aspects of research into translation and interpreting including the difficulties of designing aptitude tests for students wishing to specialize in interpreting, and of assessing the results of such tests.

Timarova, Sarka and Heidi Salaets “Learning styles, motivation and cognitive flexibility in interpreter training: Self-selection and aptitude.” Interpreting vol. 13, n. 1 (2011).  pp. 31-52. http://www.ingentaconnect.com/content/jbp/intp/2011/00000013/00000001/art00003

Admission testing for conference interpreter training programmes traditionally focuses on skills directly related to the interpreting skills, and while soft skills, such as motivation, are recognised as important, they are not systematically tested or researched. The present study attempts to address this gap by exploring three traits and abilities, namely learning styles, motivation and cognitive flexibility, and to relate them to students’ self-selection for interpreting and to their success on final exams. Three tests were used to compare a group of self-selected interpreting students and applicants (n = 32) and a subgroup of conference interpreting students (n = 14) to a control group of undergraduate students (n = 104), from among whom the majority of Lessius University College interpreting students are recruited: the Inventory of Learning Styles (Vermunt & Rijswijk 1987), the Achievement Motivation Test (Hermans 1968/2004) and the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (Grant & Berg 1948). The results show that self-selected interpreting students are cognitively more flexible and are less negatively affected by anxiety. Compared to the control group, successful conference interpreting students, but not unsuccessful students, are cognitively more flexible and benefit more from some level of anxiety. Moreover, all conference interpreting students are less affected by stress than the control group and seem to have more clearly developed learning preferences

Torres Del Rey, Jesús ” Memoria ID-0014. Ayudas de la Universidad de Salamanca para la innovación docente, curso 2008-2009.” Gredos : Repositorio Documental de la Universidad de Salamanca vol., n. (2009).  pp.: http://hdl.handle.net/10366/72005

El objetivo final de formación, que creemos que se ha conseguido en gran medida, esla comprensión por parte de los alumnos de la necesidad de adoptar una actitud activay de autonomía en la reflexión y la acción ante los retos de aprendizaje y de trabajoprofesional mediante la adopción de herramientas de gestión tecnológica de latraducción como parte integral de su labor de mediación interlingüística e intercultural, así como la necesidad del trabajo en equipo y la idoneidad de maximizar la gestión de los esfuerzos interpersonales en estas situaciones.

Torres Díaz, María Gracia “Aptitudes innatas o aprendidas en la interpretación de Conferencias.” Trans. Revista de Traductología vol., n. 4 (2000).  pp.: http://www.trans.uma.es/trans_04.html

Este artículo presenta en primer lugar, un recorrido sintético por las investigaciones realizadas sobre el polémico tema de las aptitudes del candidato a un curso de interpretación de conferencias; en segundo lugar, este trabajo nos demuestra a través de un estudio empírico realizado con 30 alumnos, que es posible mejorar ciertas aptitudes como la memoria, o la técnica de hablar en público por medio de un curso introductorio específicamente orientado hacía el aprendizaje de esta disciplina.

Torres Díaz, María Gracia “El trabajo en equipo y el aprendizaje cooperativo en la formación de intérprete en la modalidad de simultánea.” Trans. Revista de Traductología vol., n. 7 (2003).  pp.: http://www.trans.uma.es/trans_07.html

Este artículo intenta reflejar la importancia del aprendizaje cooperativo del alumno durante su formación en la modalidad de simultánea y recoge y presenta los resultados obtenidos de un proyecto didáctico experimental de aprendizaje cooperativo llevado a cabo en un curso académico de la asignatura Técnicas de Interpretación Simultánea, sección inglés, de la Universidad de Málaga.

Tse, Chung Alan “Is the Simultaneous Mode Feasible and Desirable in Court Interpreting? The Hong Kong Experience and Experiment.” Critical Link vol. 2, n. (2001).  pp.: http://www.criticallink.org/journalscl2/7.pdf

Under the existing arrangement in the present judicial system of Hong Kong, interpretation in the courtroom is conducted in the consecutive mode for witness examinations and judgements. Simultaneous interpreting, in the whispered mode, is usually limited to counsels’ submissions. In order to increase time and cost effectiveness, the Hong Kong judiciary proposed the implementation of the simultaneous mode to all interpretation required in court proceedings. Two rounds of mock trials were mounted in order to evaluate the efficacy of simultaneous interpreting and its impact on the administration of justice. This paper discusses the Hong Kong experiment which led to the judiciary’s decision to abandon plans to expand the use simultaneous interpretation services and facilities. The author summarizes the evaluation of the interpreters’ performance in the mock trials, and gives an overview of the problems documented. He concludes by suggesting a possible justification for the judiciary’s decision to retain the simultaneous mode in the interpretation of counsels’ submissions.

Viaggio, Sergio “La calamitosa preparación de intérpretes de conferencia en España.” La linterna del traductor vol., n. 5 (2002).  pp.: http://traduccion.rediris.es/5/6articulos.htm

Leía yo el artículo de Susana Cruces Colado en el número 4 y volvía a taladrarme el seso mi sempiterna angustia: Pasas el examen para sacar la licencia de conductor y puedes sacar el coche a la autopista, sacas diploma de dentista y puedes sacar tu primera muela, te recibes de abogado y puedes defender a un acusado. En cambio, te gradúas de traductor/intérprete (así, de las dos cosas, que, como se sabe, son más o menos lo mismo, ¿verdad?) y ni sueñes con meterte en una cabina que, si no huyes despavorido tú solito, te van a sacar carpiendo. ¿Qué pasa con la inmensa mayoría de las escuelas de traducción e interpretación españolas que no confieren títulos de veras habilitantes?

Vidal, Mirta “New Study on Fatigue Confirms Need for Working in Teams.” Proteus vol. 6, n. 1 (1997).  pp.: http://www.najit.org/proteus/back_issues/vidal2.htm

The practice of having simultaneous interpreters work in teams of two during lengthy assignments, although standard procedure in all other forums requiring interpretation, has never been universally accepted by the courts. In most state and many federal courts, it is simply not done. Attempts by interpreters to institute the policy have met with resistance from judges who consider it wasteful and administrators who cite budgetary constraints. But a study recently conducted at the University of Geneva has contributed important new information on the subject: its findings provide further scientific evidence to support the position that accuracy is directly related to the length of time that a person interprets.

Vidal, Mirta “Telephone Interpreting: Technological Advance or Due Process Impediment?” Proteus vol. 7, n. 3 (1998).  pp.: http://www.najit.org/proteus/back_issues/vidal3.htm

Although it has become commonplace to argue that telephone interpretation of court proceedings is a complex issue involving many different factors and considerations, I believe there are really only two schools of thought: some favor telephone interpretation because it is expedient and cheap, and others distrust it because they consider the telephone an inadequate medium for communication in a legal setting. What I propose to do here is lay out the various arguments pro and con, analyze the available data, albeit scarce, and offer some conclusions in order to initiate a discussion in which I hope all will participate, to help NAJIT articulate a clear and unequivocal position on what I think is one of the most important questions to challenge this profession since its inception two decades ago

Vigier Moreno, Francisco Javier “¿Qué formación en traducción jurídica reciben los intérpretes jurados en la universidad?” redit: Revista electrónica de didáctica de la traducción y la interpretación vol., n. 2 (2009).  pp. 109-128. http://dialnet.unirioja.es/servlet/extart?codigo=3104807

According to current Spanish legislation, Translation and Interpreting graduates may qualify as sworn interpreters without taking the exams set by the Spanish Ministry of Foreign Affairs. This makes Translation and Interpreting schools directly or indirectly responsible for the quality of their studentsâ training as far as the professional activity of sworn translation is concerned. In an attempt to describe and analyse the legal translator training they receive at Spanish universities, this paper presents the major results of the analysis of the syllabuses of the subjects implied, with a special focus on the subject areas covered by this training.

Villeneuve, Suzanne “Closing Remarks.” Critical Link vol. 3, n. (2001).  pp.: http://www.criticallink.org/proceedings/18.pdf

Community interpreters are the first to be concerned about the development of their profession. They should be present and be partners in decisions that affect their field, whether it be in the development of training programmes or of standards for practice. Critical Link 3 has been an excellent opportunity for us to share our ideas, theories and experience…Throughout the conference, it has been evident that the need for appropriate professional training for community interpreters is now fully recognised. The next step will be the acknowledgement of community interpreters as professionals. As professionals they can then come together to create a united professional body and gain recognition, better working conditions and the ability to make living in the community interpretation field.

Wolfson, Leandro “The Contact Between Text, Mind, and One’s Own Word in a Translation Workshop.” The Translation Journal vol. 9, n. 4 (2005).  pp.: http://accurapid.com/journal/34workshop.htm

In the past few years, a productivist pragmatism which presents itself as an unquestionable and universally valid doctrine seems to be subjecting human exchanges to the empire of its economical laws. All pursuits are reduced to their lucrative and income-producing aspects. From a purely professional perspective, translation has now come to be thought of as a way of earning a living, while the historical role it had within human evolution as a means of communication through the word is forgotten. I’m far from proposing that the practical aspects of the profession be neglected, but in my opinion if the transcendent humanistic character of our work is not taken into account in the first place and mere profitability is sought, the very essence of our profession is distorted.

Xu, Jianzhong “Training Translators in China.” Meta vol. 50, n. 1 (2005).  pp.: http://www.erudit.org/revue/meta/2005/v50/n1/010671ar.pdf

Translation training in China has a long history, but it is only in the last two decades that translation training has been developing increasingly fast. This article firstly reviews the history of translation training in China, then examines its present practice such as training program, training materials, training methods, interpretation training, advanced translation training, and Translator Accreditation Tests, and finally makes suggestions for improvement of training translators in China.

Zhan, Cheng “Mediation through personal pronoun shifts in dialogue interpreting of political meetings.” Interpreting vol. 14, n. 2 (2012).  pp. 192-216. http://www.ingentaconnect.com/content/jbp/intp/2012/00000014/00000002/art00004
http://dx.doi.org/10.1075/intp.14.2.04zha

This paper examines the mediation role of government staff interpreters in China. Based on data collected from six political meetings involving senior officials of Guangdong Province, with interpreting performed by staff interpreters in the Protocol Department of the Foreign Affairs Office of the People’s Government of Guangdong, the paper analyzes cases of personal pronoun shifts in the rendition of the interpreters. Results show that personal pronoun shifts occur in all of the interpreted dialogues, and can be divided into: (1) personal pronoun shifts with the same footing, including shifts between first person and third person pronouns and shifts between second person and third person pronouns, (2) personal pronoun shifts with a different footing, for purposes of avoiding misunderstanding or impoliteness, coping with frequent changes of speaking subjects, and correcting an error in the rendition. The paper argues that government staff interpreters of dialogues, with all the constraints posed by the political settings, do not always conform with the norms and rules, but perform a mediation role in communication.

Zhong, Weihe “Memory Training in Interpreting.” The Translation Journal vol. 7, n. 3 (2003).  pp.: http://accurapid.com/journal/25interpret.htm

This paper discusses memory training in interpreting. According Gile’s Effort Model (a Processing Capacity Account), short-term memory is an essential part in the process of interpreting. This paper analyzes the major characteristics of Short-term Memory (STM) and their implications for interpreters’ memory training. The author believes that interpreting is an STM-centered activity, which includes encoding of information from the Source Language, storing of information, retrieval of information, and decoding of information into the target language. The training of STM skills is the first step in training a professional interpreter. Tactics for memory training for interpreters like retelling, categorization, generalization, comparison, shadowing exercises, mnemonics, etc. are presented in this paper.

Zimanyi, Krisztina “Revisión del libro:  Rachele Antonini (ed.). Child Language Brokering. Trends and Patterns in Current Research.” The translator vol. 18, n. 2 (2012).  pp. 382-388. https://www.stjerome.co.uk/tsa/abstract/14617/

Review of The Cult of the Amateur. How Blogs, MySpace, YouTube and the Rest of Today’s User Generated Media are Killing Our Culture and Economy. Andrew Keen. London & Boston: Nicholas Brealey, 2007; revised edition, 2008.