Monográfico: Contexto de la Traducción

 

 

Monográfico
Contexto de la Traducción
I nfo T rad 30 de enero  de 2013


Abreu García, José Manuel, Daniel Bourge, et al. “Le lexique contextuel comme approche terminologique. etude de cas : Lexique électronique et Base de données hypertextuelle.” Jornadas Internacionales de Terminología vol. 4, n. (1997).  pp.: http://www.unilat.org/dtil/IVjornadas/abreu_garcia.htm

La terminologie et la traduction technique sont confrontées à un monde en évolution et par conséquent à des domaines hautement spécialisés. Des logiciels, sans limites de stockage de données, sont envisageables et restent à créer. Le spécialiste en langue ne pourra désormais travailler tout seul, un rapprochement avec l’outil informatique lui sera nécessaire : solution client serveur (consultation à distance).

Baker, Mona “Contextualization in translator- and interpreter-mediated events.” Journal of Pragmatics vol. 38, n. 3 (2006).  pp. 321-337. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/B6VCW-4HNSG62-3/2/94c08c00f675164a77d8f404035acdb3

The notion of context has been extensively invoked but rarely critiqued and elaborated in the study of translation and interpreting. This paper first explores recent thinking on the notions of context and contextualization in pragmatics and linguistic anthropology and examines the extent to which these notions have explicitly or implicitly informed current thinking on translation and interpreting. It then argues that closer attention to processes of contextualization in both the production and reception of translated texts and interpreted utterances can tell us much more about the goals and ideological positioning of participants than any static listing of contextual variables, however detailed and comprehensive. The discussion is supported by various examples of the way in which translators and interpreters frame their interaction with others.

Baker, Mona “Contextualization in translator- and interpreter-mediated events: Translation and Context.” Journal of Pragmatics vol. 38, n. 3 (2006).  pp. 321-337. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/B6VCW-4HNSG62-3/2/94c08c00f675164a77d8f404035acdb3

The notion of context has been extensively invoked but rarely critiqued and elaborated in the study of translation and interpreting. This paper first explores recent thinking on the notions of context and contextualization in pragmatics and linguistic anthropology and examines the extent to which these notions have explicitly or implicitly informed current thinking on translation and interpreting. It then argues that closer attention to processes of contextualization in both the production and reception of translated texts and interpreted utterances can tell us much more about the goals and ideological positioning of participants than any static listing of contextual variables, however detailed and comprehensive. The discussion is supported by various examples of the way in which translators and interpreters frame their interaction with others.

Bigoundou, Rodrigue ” Los títulos en el contexto universitario hispano-gabonés antes del proceso de Bolonia: análisis terminológico y traducción.” Gredos : Repositorio Documental de la Universidad de Salamanca vol., n. (2008).  pp.: http://hdl.handle.net/10366/22655

Esta tesis representa la primera aproximación realizada sobre estudios comparados, donde se intenta una traducción de títulos entre los contextos universitarios hispano-gaboneses. Para alcanzar nuestros objetivos, ha sido necesaria una metodología que ha sabido integrar los mismos criterios de comparabilidad de títulos en los dos ámbitos de estudio. Desde la perspectiva de la Educación Comparada, el tertium comparationis ha demostrado tener limitaciones y, por tanto, se recurrió a más criterios para acompañar el análisis terminológico. Una vez superado este requisito, se ha realizado un trabajo profundo de análisis de los conceptos relacionados con los títulos y diplomas en los dos países objeto de estudio. Este paso ha permitido establecer equivalencias entre los títulos y diplomas preparados en Gabón y España. De acuerdo con la traducción de los correspondientes títulos, se ha elaborado un glosario conservando las entradas en la lengua de origen, esto para distinguir la procedencia de cada título glosado. El repertorio final de títulos hispano-gaboneses podrá ser utilizado en procesos de equiparación de estudios y, muy especialmente, en comisiones de convalidación y homologación de títulos extranjeros.

Bigoundou, Rodrigue and Joaquín García Palacios (2008). Los títulos en el contexto universitario hispano-gabonés antes del proceso de Bolonia: análisis terminológico y traducción. http://gredos.usal.es/jspui/bitstream/10366/22655/1/DTI_Titulos%20contexto%20universitario%20hispano-gabones.pdf

Esta tesis representa la primera aproximación realizada sobre estudios comparados, donde se intenta una traducción de títulos entre los contextos universitarios hispano-gaboneses. Para alcanzar nuestros objetivos, ha sido necesaria una metodología que ha sabido integrar los mismos criterios de comparabilidad de títulos en los dos ámbitos de estudio. Desde la perspectiva de la Educación Comparada, el tertium comparationis ha demostrado tener limitaciones y, por tanto, se recurrió a más criterios para acompañar el análisis terminológico. Una vez superado este requisito, se ha realizado un trabajo profundo de análisis de los conceptos relacionados con los títulos y diplomas en los dos países objeto de estudio. Este paso ha permitido establecer equivalencias entre los títulos y diplomas preparados en Gabón y España. De acuerdo con la traducción de los correspondientes títulos, se ha elaborado un glosario conservando las entradas en la lengua de origen, esto para distinguir la procedencia de cada título glosado. El repertorio final de títulos hispano-gaboneses podrá ser utilizado en procesos de equiparación de estudios y, muy especialmente, en comisiones de convalidación y homologación de títulos extranjeros.

Braun, Marina “Translation and nterpretation as restoration of context.” Proteus vol. 12, n. 2 (2003).  pp.: http://www.najit.org/proteus/PDFVersions/Proteus_Spr03%20web.pdf

Communication is likely to get disrupted when words are taken out of context. Context is a concept that belongs as much to the sphere of linguistic and psycholinguistic research as it does to everyday communication. A layperson may not know the types of context that linguists single out for analysis, but people intuitively know that context is essential for successful communication.

Bugnot, Marie-Ange “La traducción de la gastronomía: textos y contextos (español-francés).” Trans. Revista de Traductología vol., n. 10 (2006).  pp.: http://www.trans.uma.es/trans_10.html

La traducción (español-francés) de la gastronomía en el ámbito de los textos relacionados con el turismo presenta dificultades específicas, puesto que tratamos con tradiciones locales basadas en un amplio espectro de componentes, por lo que su adecuación a un receptor determinado depende de factores variables. El estudio de la naturaleza de estos ítems gastronómicos en tres contextos distintos (folletos turísticos, menús y recetas) permite determinar los procedimientos traslativos a los que da lugar y analizar su aceptabilidad.

Campos Figueiredo, Vivina Almeida Carreira De “La traducción en Portugal en la segunda mitad del siglo XIX: contexto socio-cultural y literario, y el concepto de la traducción en ese momento.” Translating in Portugal in the second half of 19th century: the socio-cultural and literary context and the existent concept of translation at that time vol., n. 14 (2010).  pp. 117-123.

Este artículo tiene como objetivo describir de forma concisa el contexto sociocultural y literario en el que aparecen las traducciones portuguesas en la segunda mitad del siglo XIX. Esta caracterización se ilustra preferentemente con comentarios de importantes intelectuales y escritores de la época. Además, ofrecemos una visión general del concepto de traducción y de la actividad traductora que imperaba en estos momentos de los que existen perspectivas opuestas bien documentadas.

Castro Ramírez, Nayelli “Traducir la filosofía más allá de la filosofía: firmas, acontecimientos, contextos.” Mutatis Mutandis: Revista Latinoamericana de Traducción vol. 1, n. 2 (2008).  pp. 180-195. http://dialnet.unirioja.es/servlet/articulo?codigo=2987536&orden=214629&info=link

En estas líneas, muestro algunas de las particularidades de la traducción de “Signature événement contexte” al español. El análisis propuesto se aleja de los enfoques hermenéuticos (la interpretación y construcción del sentido de un texto) y se acerca a la propuesta de una poética de la traducción. En una primera parte, a manera de introducción, sitúo el estudio de los textos filosóficos en el horizonte de la traductología. En la segunda, analizo la traducción al español de la conferencia. En las conclusiones, señalo las dificultades de clasificación de los textos filosóficos, en particular, los de Jacques Derrida y muestro la necesidad de traducir filosofía más allá del sentido conceptual de sus textos. Traducir filosofía es diferirla, construirla, hacer filosofía.

Chen, Wei “Contexte, compréhension, traduction.” Meta vol. 44, n. 1 (1999).  pp.: http://www.erudit.org/revue/meta/1999/v44/n1/002225ar.pdf

Understanding is the first phase of the translation process. But what does the act of understanding entail? To understand is to extract meaning, contextual meaning (signification) not virtual meaning. Meaning provides the basis for fidelity in translation. Extracting meaning involves analyzing context and situation. To achieve this, the translator cannot confine himself to language per se, but must concern himself with language in use.

Cobeta Melchor, María Del Mar “Problemas de traducción de las alteraciones semántico-formales en las paremias contextualizadas.” Paremia vol., n. 9 (2000).  pp.: http://www.paremia.org/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=24&Itemid=40&lang=es

Problemas de traducción de las alteraciones semántico-formales en las paremias contextualizadas

Dorado Cadilla, Jairo “Unha achega sobre a lingua croata e a súa relación co serbio no contexto do acceso á Unión Europea “ Quaderns: Revista de traducció vol., n. 18 (2011).  pp. 107-116. http://ddd.uab.cat/pub/quaderns/11385790n18/11385790n18p107.pdf

A aceptación da lingua croata como unha lingua de seu, separada do serbocroata foi unha cuestión de división na comunidade lingüística. O estatus da República de Croacia como candidata á Unión Europea volveu a revivir este debate non só en Croacia, senón tamén en Serbia. Unha visión crítica da historia dos estándares conxuntos do serbio e do croata así como unha reflexión sobre o papel que a tradución e o uso da lingua ten en Croacia, debería facilitar unha achega máis obxectiva e ceibe das ideoloxías que situaban o uso e a oficialidade desta variedade na herdanza do ultranacionalismo presente antes, durante e tras o conflito bélico de 1991 a 1995. Tamén permitiría observar que o parecer de certos sectores da opinión pública con respecto ao valor identitario do uso da lingua semella, no caso croata, ao existen en linguas minorizadas nun contexto de conflito lingüístico, algo que pode resultar novidoso ao abeiro da «diversidade lingüística» que, aparentemente, defenden as institucións europeas coas linguas oficiais dos países membros.
Accepting Croatian as a separate language on its own has been a dividing issue for linguists. The status of the Republic of Croatia as candidate country to join the European Union has brought this topic to the headlines not only in Croatia, but in Serbia too. A critical overview of the Serbian and Croatian languages common standards’ history as well as a reflection on the role translation plays as well as the language usage present in Croatia should enable a more objective and ideology- free approach which labelled the usage and the official status of this variety as an outcome of the ultra nationalism ideologies present before, during and after the 1991-1995 conflict. It shall also enable to observer the attitude of some sectors of the Croatian public opinion regarding the identity values the language provides, strikingly similar, in our opinion, to those faced by minority languages in contexts of linguistic conflict; this might be a new situation within the apparent «linguistic diversity» approach defended by the European institutions with all the member states’ official languages.

Feria García, Manuel C. “El tratado hispano-marroquí de amistad y comercio de 1767 en el punto de mira del traductor (I). Contextualización histórica: encuentro y desencuentros.” Sendebar. Boletín de la Facultad de Traductores e Interpretes de Granada vol., n. 16 (2005).  pp.:

El presente constituye el primero de tres artículos en los que se analiza el Tratado de Amistad y Comercio entre España y Marruecos de 1767 desde la traduc-tología y ¡a historia de la tradueción. En esta primera parte contextuábamos el Tratado: los acontecimientos que lo rodearon, su significado histórico y las discrepancias de interpretación que han ido surgiendo a lo iargo de los siglos. En cuanto a las discrepancias de interpretación, incidimos en: primero, la hipotética aceptación de la soberanía española de las plazas norleafrieanas por Marruecos y el cerco de Melilla de 1774-1775 y, segundo, el proceso de descolonización del Sahara Occidental. En la segunda y tercera partes de este artículo, que esperamos publicar en los próximos números de Sendebar, analizaremos hasta qué punto la traductología y la historia de la traducción pueden arrojar alguna luz respecto a todo ello.

Garbarini, Carmen Gloria “Reflexiones en torno a la traducción en un contexto interétnico.” Mutatis Mutandis: Revista Latinoamericana de Traducción vol. 3, n. 1 (2010).  pp. 116-124. http://aprendeenlinea.udea.edu.co/revistas/index.php/mutatismutandis/article/view/5236/5695

Las reflexiones de los traductólogos, enriquecidas con la voz de disciplinas como la antropología y la filosofía, han vuelto a plantear la traducción como resultado de una práctica transcultural. En este artículo, se habla de la naturaleza de la traducción y del papel que desempeña el traductor en contextos interétnicos, pluriculturales y plurilingüísticos. Se plantea una posible participación académica, política y social de la traducción para vehiculizar relaciones interculturales menos problemáticas y friccionadas que las que actualmente se vivencian, especialmente en la región de la Araucanía, donde conviven el mapudungun y el castellano. Mediante el planteamiento de un caso, se muestra una serie de inconvenientes, problemas y cuestionamientos que surgen al intentar llevar un mundo a otro. Se concluye con algunas reflexiones acerca de las implicaciones de la traducción en las relaciones interculturales en la región.

Garbarini, Carmen Gloria “Reflexiones en torno a la traducción en un contexto interétnico.” Mutatis Mutandis: Revista Latinoamericana de Traducción vol. 3, n. 1 (2010).  pp. 116-124. http://aprendeenlinea.udea.edu.co/revistas/index.php/mutatismutandis/article/view/5236/5695

Las reflexiones de los traductólogos, enriquecidas con la voz de disciplinas como la antropología y la filosofía, han vuelto a plantear la traducción como resultado de una práctica transcultural. En este artículo, se habla de la naturaleza de la traducción y del papel que desempeña el traductor en contextos interétnicos, pluriculturales y plurilingüísticos. Se plantea una posible participación académica, política y social de la traducción para vehiculizar relaciones interculturales menos problemáticas y friccionadas que las que actualmente se vivencian, especialmente en la región de la Araucanía, donde conviven el mapudungun y el castellano. Mediante el planteamiento de un caso, se muestra una serie de inconvenientes, problemas y cuestionamientos que surgen al intentar llevar un mundo a otro. Se concluye con algunas reflexiones acerca de las implicaciones de la traducción en las relaciones interculturales en la región.

Garbarini, Carmen Gloria “Reflexiones en torno a la traducción en un contexto interétnico.” Mutatis Mutandis: Revista Latinoamericana de Traducción vol. 3, n. 1 (2010).  pp. 116-124. http://dialnet.unirioja.es/servlet/extart?codigo=3247533

Las reflexiones de los traductólogos, enriquecidas con la voz de disciplinas como la antropología y la filosofía, han vuelto a plantear la traducción como resultado de una práctica transcultural. En este artículo, se habla de la naturaleza de la traducción y del papel que desempeña el traductor en contextos interétnicos, pluriculturales y plurilingüísticos. Se plantea una posible participación académica, política y social de la traducción para vehiculizar relaciones interculturales menos problemáticas y friccionadas que las que actualmente se vivencian, especialmente en la región de la Araucanía, donde conviven el mapudungun y el castellano. Mediante el planteamiento de un caso, se muestra una serie de inconvenientes, problemas y cuestionamientos que surgen al intentar llevar un mundo a otro. Se concluye con algunas reflexiones acerca de las implicaciones de la traducción en las relaciones interculturales en la región.

González García, Erika “Interpretación social: una necesidad que emerge día a día. Aproximación al contexto guipuzcoano Erika González García.” Sendebar. Boletín de la Facultad de Traductores e Interpretes de Granada vol., n. 15 (2004).  pp.:

Los países Mediterráneos de Europa, entre ellos España, Grecia e Italia, han pasado de ser países de gran tradición emigrante a países receptores. Debido a su situación geográfica son el puente hacia la Europa occidental para muchos colectivos procedentes del magreb, del ¦frica subsahariana y de Europa del este. No obstante, en el caso de España, existe todavía una diferencia abismal en cuanto al flujo de inmigrantes entre las provincias septentrionales y meridionales del país. Por esta razón, analizaremos el estado de la cuestión de una provincia del norte, Guipúzcoa, en cuanto a la Interpretación Social, para dejar constancia de la labor que queda todavía por hacer a pesar de que el número de personas que requieren tal servicio no sea tan numeroso como en otras provincias del sur.

González Pueyo, María Isabel “Translation of in, on, at and over into Spanish in a technical context.” Meta vol. 40, n. 1 (1995).  pp.: http://www.erudit.org/revue/meta/1995/v40/n1/003878ar.pdf

Se estudian cuatro preposiciones locativas del inglés y sus correspondientes traducciones al español. Se estudia su frecuencia en contextos especializados. Por último, se analizan sintácticamente las traducciones posibles y su utilización en contexto según su frecuencia.

Gross, Gaston “Sur la notion de contexte.” Meta vol. 55, n. 1 (2010).  pp. 187-197. http://www.erudit.org/revue/meta/2010/v55/n1/index.html

Le présent article constitue une réflexion sur la notion de , qui est l’une des plus importantes de l’analyse linguistique, dans la mesure où presque tous les prédicats sont polysémiques et que seule la distribution permet de déterminer la lecture adéquate. Mais le contexte ne peut pas être réduit à l’environnement immédiat de gauche et de droite de l’élément à analyser : seule la détermination des relations argumentales permet de définir un opérateur avec précision. Or, un texte n’est pas constitué d’une suite de phrases simples dans leur ordre canonique. Aussi est-il nécessaire d’éliminer les contextes immédiats qui ne participent à cette reconnaissance. Il peut s’agir d’incises, de structures figées, etc. Il faut donc être en mesure de trouver les relations prédicat-arguments qui caractérisent les phrases simples. Cette recherche repose sur l’utilisation de dictionnaires électroniques qui comprennent ces informations. Ces dictionnaires sont fondés sur les classes d’objets. Celles-ci permettent, entre autres, de montrer que dans la reconnaissance des emplois les compléments sont plus discriminants que les sujets. La détection de la relation prédicat-arguments est encore facilitée si on a recensé, pour chaque emploi, toutes les restructurations qu’un schéma d’arguments est en mesure de subir. La notion de contexte ne constitue donc pas une délimitation mécanique que l’on peut effectuer en sélectionnant un nombre déterminé de mots à gauche et à droite mais relève d’une analyse qui met en jeu la totalité des informations syntaxiques.

Grove Ditlevsen, Marianne “The Diversity of the Annual Report in an International Context.” Fachsprache: Internationale Zeitschrift für Fachsprachenforschung -didaktik und Terminologie vol. 32, n. 3-4 (2010).  pp. 163.

House, Juliane “Text and context in translation.” Journal of Pragmatics vol. 38, n. 3 (2006).  pp. 338-358. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/B6VCW-4HPD3R5-1/2/b5445f1476a38df67f33f21f17551a4d

While research on texts as units larger than sentences has a rich tradition in translation studies, the notion of context, its relation to text, and the role it plays in translation has received much less attention. In this paper, I make an attempt at rethinking the relationship between context and text for translation. I first review several conceptions of context and the relationship between text and context in a number of different disciplines. Secondly, I present a theory of translation which is to be understood as a theory of re-contextualization that explicates the relationship between context and text in its design and categorial scheme. Finally, I sketch a recent development in translation and multilingual text production, which may limit the scope of re-contextualization in translation.

House, Juliane “Text and context in translation: Translation and Context.” Journal of Pragmatics vol. 38, n. 3 (2006).  pp.: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/B6VCW-4HPD3R5-1/2/b5445f1476a38df67f33f21f17551a4d

While research on texts as units larger than sentences has a rich tradition in translation studies, the notion of context, its relation to text, and the role it plays in translation has received much less attention. In this paper, I make an attempt at rethinking the relationship between context and text for translation. I first review several conceptions of context and the relationship between text and context in a number of different disciplines. Secondly, I present a theory of translation which is to be understood as a theory of re-contextualization that explicates the relationship between context and text in its design and categorial scheme. Finally, I sketch a recent development in translation and multilingual text production, which may limit the scope of re-contextualization in translation.

Hovy, Eduard, Margaret King, et al. “Principles of Context-Based Machine Translation Evaluation.” Machine translation vol. 17, n. 1 (2002).  pp.: http://ipsapp009.kluweronline.com/IPS/content/ext/x/J/4598/I/17/A/3/abstract.htm #

This article defines a Framework for Machine Translation Evaluation ( FEMTI) which relates the quality model used to evaluate a machine translation system to the purpose and context of the system. Our proposal attempts to put together, into a coherent picture, previous attempts to structure a domain characterised by overall complexity and local difficulties. In this article, we first summarise these attempts, then present an overview of the ISO/IEC guidelines for software evaluation (ISO/IEC 9126 and ISO/IEC 14598). As an application of these guidelines to machine translation software, we introduce FEMTI, a framework that is made of two interrelated classifications or taxonomies. The first classification enables evaluators to define an intended context of use, while the links to the second classification generate a relevant quality model (quality characteristics and metrics) for the respective context. The second classification provides definitions of various metrics used by the community. Further on, as part of ongoing, long-term research, we explain how metrics are analyzed, first from the general point of view of “meta-evaluation”, then focusing on examples. Finally, we show how consensus towards the present framework is sought for, and how feedback from the community is taken into account in the FEMTI life-cycle.

Huijsen, Willem-Olaf “Translation Completeness for Context-Free Grammars.” WEB-SLS: The European Student Journal of Language and Speech vol. 4, n. (1997).  pp.: http://www.essex.ac.uk/web-sls/papers/97-04/97-04.html

Systems for translation of controlled language require the source text to be expressed within severe syntactic and lexical limits. One of the objectives of such systems is that an author who conforms to the restrictions is rewarded with a reliable and fully automatic translation of the text into one or more target languages. Thus a proof of the completeness of such systems is of great importance. A machine-translation system is complete if and only if all expressions that are correct according to the source language grammar have at least one translation in the target language. The present research is inspired by the method of compositional machine translation developed in the Rosetta project [Rosetta 1994]. It focuses on the provability of completeness for relatively simple grammar formalisms, which are more appropriate for machine translation of controlled languages.

Inmaculada Mendoza, N. P. “Proposal for the Analysis of the Source Text in the Comprehension Phase of the Translation Process: Contextualization and Analysis of Extra-Linguistic and Intra-Linguistic Aspects.” redit: Revista electrónica de didáctica de la traducción y la interpretación vol., n. 2 (2009).  pp.: http://www.redit.uma.es/Archiv/v1_2009/mono_Mendoza_redit2.pdf

This paper underlines the importance of textual analysis in the comprehension phase of the translation process. It proposes a teaching activity model for first year Translation students, consisting mainly of three different stages focused on detecting and classifying translation problems in a specific text: contextualization of the source text and analysis of extra-linguistic and intra-linguistic aspects related to the translation process. For this purpose, we present a table-based methodology to be applied to the teaching of Basic Concepts for Interpreter and Translator Training.

Ji-Hae, Kang “Recontextualization of News Discourse: A Case Study of Translation of News Discourse on North Korea.” The Translator vol. 13, n. 2 (2007).  pp.: http://www.stjerome.co.uk/periodicals/journal.php?j=72&v=151&i=153

This paper explores the translation of news discourse in terms of the way in which recontextualization of discourse across the boundaries of language, culture and institutions results in the transformation, as well as transfer, of information. Based on a comparative analysis of news stories on North Korea published in Newsweek and Newsweek Hankuk Pan (Korean edition), the study examines how North Korea is (re)constructed in translation. The primary focus is on the translating context and the producers of translated news stories as they engage in an institutional routine to re-situate the source text (discourse on North Korea by Newsweek journalists), which is anchored in a specific discourse context (the context of a Newsweek story being written and published for original Newsweek readers), into the translating situation (the context of producing a translated story at Newsweek Hankuk Pan) for a new context of use (the context of reception by South Korean readers of Newsweek Hankuk Pan). As the producers of translated news at Newsweek Hankuk Pan link the two situations, elements of the prior discourse as manifested in the source text are lifted from the original setting, re-perspectivized, differently foregrounded, silenced, elaborated on or blended with other voices. The findings suggest that contrary to the lay perception of translated news as a complete and accurate representation of the intention and meaning of the source text writer, news translation as recontextualization practice is a complex site of institutional goals and procedures, coupled with tension and conflict among different representations, ideologies and voices.

Kwong, Oi Yee, Benjamin K. Tsou, et al. “Alignment and extraction of bilingual legal terminology from context profiles.” Terminology vol. 10, n. 1 (2004).  pp. 81-100.

In this study, we propose a method for aligning terms and extracting translations from a small, domain-specific corpus consisting of parallel English and Chinese court judgments from Hong Kong. With a sentence-aligned corpus, translation equivalents are suggested by analysing the frequency profiles of parallel concordances. The method overcomes the limitations of conventional statistical methods which require large corpora to be effective, and those of lexical approaches which depend on existing bilingual dictionaries. Pilot testing on a parallel corpus of about 113K Chinese words and 120K English words gives an encouraging 79% precision and 38% recall on average. The method has its own limitations such as failure to detect multiple candidates and secondary translations, but it provides a good basis for acquiring an initial translation lexicon for legal terminology from indigenous bilingual legal texts.

Li, Li “Ideological Manipulation in Translation in a Chinese Context: Su Manshu’s Translation of Les Misérables.” The Translation Journal vol. 9, n. 2 (2005).  pp.: http://accurapid.com/journal/32ideology.htm

Su Manshu (1884-1918), whose original name was Xuanying and his Buddhist name Manshu, was born in Yokohama, Japan, of a Cantonese merchant and a Japanese woman. At the age of six, he was sent back to Xiangshan, Guangdong Province, China, the birthplace of his father. He was a poet, writer, painter, translator, dictionary and Sanskrit grammar book compiler, anthologist and Buddhist monk.

Lombardi, John “Translation and nterpretation as restoration of context.” Proteus vol. 12, n. 2 (2003).  pp.: http://www.najit.org/proteus/PDFVersions/Proteus_Spr03%20web.pdf

The year is 2004. A French interpreter is at the witness stand interpreting for an eyewitness in an armed robbery which took place in a convenience store in northern Vermont almost a year earlier. There are several French speakers in the courtroom hanging on the interpreter’s every word. The interpreter has an air of sang froid about him in spite of his limited experience at the witness stand. He seems to have an extraordinary memory and accurately renders the testimony in the consecutive mode, even when interpreting the witness’s response to that open-ended question: “What, if anything, happened on the date in question?” He omits none of the false starts, changes in intonation, or fillers characteristic of the witness’s long answer.

Lönneker, Birte “Meanings and Contexts on the World Wide Web. A Survey of Translators’ Sources.” WEB-SLS: The European Student Journal of Language and Speech vol. 1, n. (2002).  pp.: http://www.essex.ac.uk/web-sls/papers/01-02/web-sls.htm

The World Wide Web is used more and more as a source of linguistic data for various purposes. This paper focuses on the use of the web by translators as a special group of web users. The postings of a mailing-list for German technical translators (1) show that translators use the web very frequently in order to get terminological information or to consider examples of other persons’ language use in case of doubt. However, it is not always easy for translators to get the best out of the web. Translators are confronted with a wide range of different services that try to make available linguistic data via the web. Online dictionaries and glossaries are the most obvious examples of such services, but online corpora with integrated search functions can be of great help as well. Finally, internet search engines make accessible linguistic information along with content information in many languages. This paper will discuss the use of the World Wide Web as a source of linguistic data and metadata from the users’ viewpoint. The considerations about how helpful different online services can be for different purposes should also be taken into account by the designers of the services in question. The survey might thus help them to improve existing services or to create new ones developed for a specific users group.

Lozano Moreno, Susana “El método aplicado al texto y al contexto.” Hyeronymus complutensis vol. 11, n. (2004).  pp.:

El método aplicado al texto y al contexto. Susana Lozano Moreno. pags. 63-70

Mendoza García, Inmaculada and Nuria Ponce Márquez “Proposal for the analysis of the source text in the comprehension phase of the translation process: contextualization, and analysis of extra-linguistic and intra-linguistic aspects.” redit: Revista electrónica de didáctica de la traducción y la interpretación vol., n. 2 (2009).  pp. 128-150. http://dialnet.unirioja.es/servlet/extart?codigo=3104820

This paper underlines the importance of textual analysis in the comprehension phase of the translation process. It proposes a teaching activity model for first year Translation students, consisting mainly of three different stages focused on detecting and classifying translation problems in a specific text: contextualization of the source text and analysis of extra-linguistic and intra-linguistic aspects related to the translation process. For this purpose, we present a table-based methodology to be applied to the teaching of Basic Concepts for Interpreter and Translator Training.

Merkle, Denise “Modes of Censorship and Translation. National Contexts and Diverse Media.” Target: International Journal on Translation Studies vol. 21, n. 2 (2009).  pp. 381-387. http://dx.doi.org/10.1075/target.21.2.11mer

Francesca Billiani, ed. Modes of Censorship and Translation. National Contexts and Diverse Media. Manchester: St. Jerome Publishing, 2007. 328 pp. ISBN 978-1900650-94-6. £22,50. Reviewed by Denise Merkle (Moncton)

Millán Varela, Carmen “Exploring Advertising in a Global Context: Food for Thought.” The Translator vol. 10, n. 2 (2004).  pp.: http://www.stjerome.co.uk/periodicals/journal.php?j=72&v=140&i=144

The aim of this article is to explore the policies and strategies used by a multinational company (Unilever plc) to advertise one of its star products (Cornetto ice cream) in various cultural settings, namely Europe, Asia and South America. Given that eating habits vary from country to country, the advertising and success of a food product such as ice cream will be subject to both cultural and socio-economic constraints, hence the need to take into account the cultural specificity of each context when designing a marketing strategy. Kress and van Leeuwen’s model of visual design (1996/2001) is applied to the analysis of a corpus provided by Unilever, which comprises all available Cornetto ads since the product’s very first appearance on the market. The main objective is to explore how the same brand and product have been adapted to suit the domestic needs of each context, or rather, how a balance has been achieved between specific local needs and the company’s global aspirations. This paper focuses on the role played by culture and ideology in the elaboration of these adverts, taking into account not only discourse features, but also visual elements and semiotic functions.

Olohan, Maeve “Volunteer Translation and Altruism in the Context of a Nineteenth-Century Scientific Journal.” The translator vol. 18, n. 2 (2012).  pp. 193-215. https://www.stjerome.co.uk/tsa/abstract/14605/

This paper constitutes a first attempt to theorize volunteer translation using behavioural economic models of altruism. It applies the notions of pure and impure altruism to the study of a nineteenth-century journal of scientific translations, Scientific Memoirs. Volunteer translating and editing activities were instrumental in ensuring the commercial survival of that periodical over a 15-year period. A range of motivations may be posited for the volunteer work carried out, from the purely altruistic wish to expand scientific knowledge to motivations which could be linked to a sense of satisfaction (warm glow) or enhancement of personal, professional or social standing. Differences can be observed in the utility likely to have been derived from their volunteer activities by men of science and women translators, and an insight is offered into how volunteer contributions were encouraged and managed by the journal’s editor, Richard Taylor. By drawing on research on altruism and volunteering undertaken by disciplines other than translation studies, the paper offers a fruitful starting point for further research on volunteer translation and interpreting in both present-day and historical settings.

Peña Martín, Salvador and Miguel Vega Martín “La reconstrucción de los contextos del legado epigráfico andalusí: ‘el Amigo de Dios’ en el discurso numismático almorávide.” Trans. Revista de Traductología vol., n. 10 (2006).  pp.: http://www.trans.uma.es/trans_10.html

El sintagma árabe ‘Wali Allahn’ (el Amigo de Dios) es uno de los epigrafes que aparecen grabados en las monedas de plata acuñadas por los almorávides del Andalus y el Magreb durante las primeras décadas del siglo VI d.C./XII h. Predicado normalmente del emir’Ali ibn Yusuf, el mencionado sintagma no plantea problemas en cuanto a su léxico o sintaxis. Sin embargo, la determinación de su valor pragmático en el marco del discurso almorávide de legitimación exige una labor de reconstrucción de los entornos implicados, sobre todo por la ambigüedad de dichas palabras en dicho discurso. (A)

Percebois, Jacqueline “Fonctions et vie des sigles et acronymes en contextes de langues anglaise et française de spécialité.” Meta vol. 46, n. 4 (2001).  pp.: http://www.erudit.org/revue/meta/2001/v46/n4/003821ar.pdf

Cet article s’attache a étudier les fonctions et la vie des sigles et des acronymes dans les langues anglaise et française de spécialité en général, et en particulier dans le contexte de I’économie internationale. II met en évidence une fonction commune, la Fonction Dénominative Lapidaire, qui prendra, selon les cas, un aspect Véhiculaire, Grégaire ou Euphémique. L’ observation de la vie des sigles et acronymes met en évidence des variations synchroniques et diachroniques dans leur emploi et celui de leur développement. En conclusion, I’article souligne que, par leurs fonctions, ces néologismes sont un outil linguistique essentiel dan s les langues française et anglaise de spécialité.

Percebois, Jacqueline “Fonctions et vie des sigles et des acronymes en contextes de langues anglaise et française de spécialité.” Meta vol. 46, n. 4 (2001).  pp.: http://www.erudit.org/revue/meta/2001/v46/n4/003821ar.pdf

Fonctions et vie des sigles et des acronymes en contextes de langues anglaise et française de spécialité.

Pozo Triviño, Mª Isabel Del “The Devil’s Advocate, análisis traductológico de una película basada en el contexto legal.” Congreso Internacional de la Asociación Ibérica de Estudios de Traducción e Interpretación vol. 1, n. (2003).  pp.: http://www.ugr.es/~dpto_ti/act/congresoICAIETI/res/archivos/DelPozo.doc

Nuestra comunicación analiza las dificultades a las que se enfrenta el traductor de guiones de películas que se desarrollan dentro del ámbito legal. Además de todos los problemas a los que se enfrenta cualquier traductor audiovisual, (sincronías, lenguaje técnico o pseudo-técnico, coherencia texto-imagen, etc. ) el traductor de películas basadas en argumentos legales debe resolver las dificultades traductológicas que surgen de las enormes diferencias existentes entre el sistema legal de la cultura origen y el de la cultura meta. Nuestro estudio trabajará con los contextos de cultura anglosajón y español y sus sistemas jurídicos, los cuales difieren en muchos aspectos: desde la base del ordenamiento jurídico, las fuentes del derecho, organización de los tribunales, etc. hasta la indumentaria que portan jueces y abogados y que, obviamente, no es ‘traducible’ en esta modalidad de trasvase interlingüístico. El mediador debe conocer todos estos factores y tenerlos muy presentes a la hora de elaborar su traducción para no dar lugar a incongruencias en la versión doblada o subtitulada.

Pozzi Prado, María “El español en el contexto de la normalización terminológica internacional.” El español, lengua de traducción vol. 3, n. (2006).  pp.: http://www.esletra.org/Maria_Pozzi.pdf

Hacer cosas de la vida diaria hoy tan comunes como usar una tarjeta de crédito, una plancha o una secadora de pelo en cualquier lugar del mundo sin importar cuál sea su país de origen, abrir un archivo que recibimos por correo electrónico o hablar por teléfono con una persona a miles de kilómetros de distancia requiere una cantidad de normalización que es difícil imaginar. En realidad, es la ausencia de normas lo que nos hace estar conscientes de que algo no está bien, por ejemplo un bien o servicio adquirido que no es de la calidad que esperábamos, un producto que no es compatible con otro equipo que ya teníamos, o que es peligroso, etc. La normalización juega un papel muy importante en los crecientes niveles de calidad, seguridad, confiabilidad y eficiencia de los bienes y servicios que se ofrecen en la actualidad. Las normas son indispensables no sólo para los ingenieros y los fabricantes de productos sino para la sociedad en su conjunto1. Cuando la maquinaria, los aparatos y los sistemas trabajan bien y de manera segura es porque cumplen una serie de normas. Las normas facilitan el comercio internacional; proporcionan a los gobiernos las bases técnicas para legislar sobre la salud, la seguridad y el ambiente; facilitan la transferencia de tecnología a los países en vías de desarrollo; y finalmente, protegen a los consumidores. En el mundo globalizado en que vivimos, donde las barreras comerciales han desaparecido o tienden a desaparecer, las normas se han convertido de facto en barreras comerciales no arancelarias, en particular las series ISO 9000 e ISO 14000 que tratan sobre la gestión de la calidad y la gestión ambiental respectivamente. Para las pequeñas y medianas empresas (PyMEs) cumplir estas normas representa la posibilidad de acceder a los mercados nacionales e internacionales con mayores y mejores perspectivas de supervivencia.

Ramiro Valderrama, Manuel “Apuntes semióticos en torno a la traducción de textos transcontextualizados.” Hermeneus: Revista de la Facultad de Traducción e Interpretación de Soria vol., n. 3 (2001).  pp.: http://recyt.fecyt.es/index.php/HS/issue/view/586/showToc

He accedido gustoso a la invitación del director de Hermeneus para que desarrollara, a modo de introducción, un tema relacionado con alguna de las secciones de la revista de nuestra facultad, que avanza con paso firme por el camino emprendido hace tres años. La querencia, que no tengo reparo en sustituir por devoción, me ha llevado a Libro de Manuel, una obra de Cortázar de cuyas perspectivas traductológicas me he ocupado intermitentemente durante esta última década. No voy a contar de cuándo data mi afición a Cortázar, pero he de aclarar que es posterior a mis once años de estancia en Argentina.

Reichling, Alain “Le contexte du Projet Terminologie.” European Commission. Tanslation Service vol., n. (1998).  pp.: http://europa.eu.int/comm/translation/reading/articles/pdf/1998_01_tt_reichling1.pdf

la Commission européenne, il y a longtemps que l’activité terminologique existe et, pour l’essentiel, elle est organisée à l’intérieur du Service de traduction. En effet, les traducteurs ont toujours été confrontés à une variété de problèmes, beaucoup de nature terminologique, notamment en raison de la diversité des textes techniques dont la Commission prend l’initiative, et qui doivent être traduits dans toutes les langues officielles et de travail. La composante linguistique est devenue plus complexe à chaque élargissement de l’Union.

Rivas Carmona, María Del Mar and Aurelia Carranza Márquez “El concepto de “contexto” en las traducciones inglés-español: una aproximación sociolingüística a las competencias y decisiones del traductor.” Hikma: estudios de traducción = translation studies vol., n. 9 (2010).  pp. 143-160.

Rodrfguez Pazos, José Gabriel “Contextual mismatches in the translation into spanish of Ernest Hemingway’s the sun also rises.” Hermeneus: Revista de la Facultad de Traducción e Interpretación de Soria vol., n. 4 (2002).  pp.: http://recyt.fecyt.es/index.php/HS/issue/view/591/showToc

The last translation into Spanish of Ernest Hemingway’s The Sun Also Rises is analysed here from the perspective of Sperber and Wilson’s theory of relevance. Taking their concept of context as a starting point, four dif- ferent contexts are considered: the context envisaged by Hemingway, the one brought to bear by the translator as reader of the original, the one envisaged by the translator as writer of the Spanish version, and, tinally, the context brought to bear by the reader of the translated texto Mismatches between the different contexts result into cases of very apparent lack of correspondence between the original and the translation. The article tries to show that Sperber and Wilson’s concept of context can account for the causes of the main deticiencies of a literary translation and, consequentIy, provide Borne useful guidelines for professional translators.

Roe, David B., Pedro J. Moreno, et al. “A spoken language translator for restricted-domain context-free languages.” Speech Communication vol. 11, n. 2-3 (1992).  pp. 311-319. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/B6V1C-48V20W4-6X/2/48b2e37488bb181757d591e7ea5d579e

An effort is underway at AT&T Bell Laboratories and Telefónica Investigación y Desarrollo to build a restricted domain spoken language translation system, which we call VEST (Voice English/Spanish Translator). The eventual goal is a voice output translator which is speaker-independent, and has a vocabulary of several thousand words covering a specific application. This paper describes the first step of our research, a system which recognizes two speakers in each of Spanish and English and is limited to some four hundred words. The key new idea is that the speech recognition and the language analysis are tightly coupled by using the same language model, an augmented phrase-structure grammar, for both.

Schneider, Vivian I., Alice F. Healy, et al. “What Is Learned under Difficult Conditions Is Hard to Forget: Contextual Interference Effects in Foreign Vocabulary Acquisition, Retention, and Transfer.” Journal of Memory and Language vol. 46, n. 2 (2002).  pp.: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/B6WK4-457MDKS-8/2/7437899ab1037ef3cfdb4692bdd14d46

In two experiments, participants were given, in an initial session, three trials of training on French-English vocabulary pairs and then were tested on these pairs. In a second session 1 week later, they were retested and then retrained on the same pairs. Both translation directions were employed (English-French and French-English). In Experiment 1, the vocabulary pairs were either blocked by category or mixed, and in Experiment 2, participants were pretrained on half of the French words before vocabulary learning. There was enhanced savings during relearning when initial learning involved the more difficult English-French translation direction or no pretraining on French words. Further, when learning involved the more difficult English-French translation direction or mixed pairs, forgetting across the 1-week delay was reduced.

Serrano Femández, Luis “La traducción de los títulos de películas inglés-español en un contexto determinado y determinante: espana 1975-1980.” Sendebar. Boletín de la Facultad de Traductores e Interpretes de Granada vol., n. 12 (2001).  pp.:

Este trabajo se propone estudiar los títulos de las películas traducidas del inglés al castellano y exhibidas en España de 1976 a 1979. Metodológicamente, partimos de que el marco espacio-temporal en el que se desenvuelven los hechos de traducción es relevante a la hora de estudiar los mismos.

Setton, Robin “Context in simultaneous interpretation.” Journal of Pragmatics vol. 38, n. 3 (2006).  pp. 374-389. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/B6VCW-4HNSB3H-4/2/fb014ba54fae5e963cc01f71d0153656

Translation has recently been analysed in the terms of modern cognitive-pragmatic theory (relevance theory) as an interlingual interpretive use of language (Gutt, 1991/2000). But Gutt’s account primarily addresses the principles and processes of text or written translation, where the displacement in time and place between the original communicator, the translator and her readers requires the translator to reconstruct the original informative intention, project the original and target addressees’ cognitive environment, and craft a stimulus according to the degree of interpretive resemblance sought. By contrast, oral translation, in particular simultaneous interpreting (SI), is performed in live situations in which the interpreter shares most of the manifest cognitive environment with the participants and is thus better able to project and control the contexts in which her addressees will process her utterances. Since the condition of simultaneity severely constrains the simultaneous interpreter’s choice of stimulus, she relies heavily on this access to immediate context and her audience’s inferential abilities. Text translators need time to project context and choose their stimuli, while in SI, access to live contexts compensates for temporal constraints. The paper concludes with a discussion on prospects for exploring patterns and possible biases in interlingual text and oral communication on this basis.

Setton, Robin “Context in simultaneous interpretation: Translation and Context.” Journal of Pragmatics vol. 38, n. 3 (2006).  pp. 374-389. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/B6VCW-4HNSB3H-4/2/fb014ba54fae5e963cc01f71d0153656

Translation has recently been analysed in the terms of modern cognitive–pragmatic theory (relevance theory) as an interlingual interpretive use of language (Gutt, 1991/2000). But Gutt’s account primarily addresses the principles and processes of text or written translation, where the displacement in time and place between the original communicator, the translator and her readers requires the translator to reconstruct the original informative intention, project the original and target addressees’ cognitive environment, and craft a stimulus according to the degree of interpretive resemblance sought. By contrast, oral translation, in particular simultaneous interpreting (SI), is performed in live situations in which the interpreter shares most of the manifest cognitive environment with the participants and is thus better able to project and control the contexts in which her addressees will process her utterances. Since the condition of simultaneity severely constrains the simultaneous interpreter’s choice of stimulus, she relies heavily on this access to immediate context and her audience’s inferential abilities. Text translators need time to project context and choose their stimuli, while in SI, access to live contexts compensates for temporal constraints. The paper concludes with a discussion on prospects for exploring patterns and possible biases in interlingual text and oral communication on this basis.

Sevilla Muñoz, Manuel “Procedimientos de traducción (inglés-español) de locuciones en contexto.” Paremia vol., n. 18 (2009).  pp. 197-207. http://www.paremia.org/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=76&Itemid=87&lang=es

Shestakov, Tatyana “Lars T. Lih. Lenin Rediscovered: What Is to Be Done? In Context. Leiden/Boston, Brill, 2006, 867 p.” TTR : traduction, terminologie, rédaction vol. 18, n. 2 (2005).  pp. 258-262. http://id.erudit.org/iderudit/015775ar

Revisión del libro: Lars T. Lih. Lenin Rediscovered: What Is to Be Done? In Context. Leiden/Boston, Brill, 2006, 867 p

Shouyi, Fan “Transiation of English fiction and drama in modern China: social context, literary trends, and impact.” Meta vol. 44, n. 1 (1999).  pp.: http://www.erudit.org/revue/meta/1999/v44/n1/002717ar.pdf

This article, which is organized along a chronological-thematic framework, will briefly review the early days of translating American and British fiction and drama into Chinese, the social context in which these translations were done, the literary ideas which have affected the work of Chinese writers, and the social impact that translated works of literature and literary theory have had in various periods of literature. The bottom line is that the literary works introduced to China to date represent only the tip of the iceberg. We need more quality translations for Chinese readers and more qualified and experienced translators to complete the job

Sirakova, Yoana “Transformation of Literary Imagery in Translation : Sallust’s Personage of Catiline in Bulgarian Translation Context.” The Translation Journal vol. 11, n. 3 (2007).  pp.: http://www.accurapid.com/journal/41catilina.htm

History is probably the field where one can find most parallels between modern and ancient concepts of life and world. Why history? Because history is a continuous sequence of events, where context provides images of different individuals that we can imitate or, on the contrary, try to not imitate. For the value of history is measured by the possibility for deducting morals to be applied in every context. Thus, in the constant change of contexts, some images remain the same and others change their shapes in order to serve various purposes. As far as translation theory is concerned, the reception of history is determined to a great extent by the strategies chosen by different translators, as well as their objectives. Two Bulgarian translations of Sallust’s Coniuratio Catilinae, edited in Bulgaria in 1940 and in 1982, provide examples of two different ways of reception of a particular part of ancient history and ancient literary models. As a matter of fact, these two texts are the only complete translations of Coniuratio Catilinae in Bulgarian.

Sobashima, Yasuhiro, Osamu Furuse, et al. “A corpus-based local context analysis for spoken dialogues.” Speech Communication vol. 15, n. 3-4 (1994).  pp. 205-212. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/B6V1C-4903R58-2K/2/633a7b1c096feb771842fbad23be1d7f

Grammatical and semantic constraints are effective for interpreting or understanding linguistic expressions. However, they appear to be inadequate for selecting among several candidates, all of which may be relatively correct or inadequate grammatically or semantically. Clearly, we humans interpret a linguistic expression contextually even if there are many potential interpretations. This paper introduces an example-based local context analysis method using tagged corpora to deal with contextual selection of linguistic expressions, taking into account the cohesive nature of spoken dialogues. This method performs calculations for similarity scores between linguistic expressions and for likelihood scores to select the most suitable expression. Both illocutionary force-based and morpho-syntactic classifications are considered, along with the frequencies of existing sets of neighboring linguistic expressions stored in an example database. An experimental processing unit which performs such local context analysis has been implemented in a bidirectional (English and Japanese) translation prototype system, and has shown its applicability to the selection of context-dependent translation candidates. This local context analysis mechanism can be used with conventional translation systems without contextual processing to raise translation accuracy.

Soon, Lim Beng “Wang, Hui. Translating Chinese Classics in a Colonial Context. James Legge and His Two Versions of the Zhongyong.” Babel: Revue internationale de la traduction/International Journal of Translation vol. 56, n. 4 (2010).  pp. 395-396. http://www.ingentaconnect.com/content/jbp/bab/2010/00000056/00000004/art00009

Hui Wang: Translating Chinese Classics in a Colonial Context. James Legge nd His Two Versions of the Zhongyong. World of East Asia – Welten Ostasiens, vol. 13. 2009. 224 pp. ISBN 978-3-03911-631-7. Bern: Peter Lang AG, International Academic Publishers, Hochfeldstrasse 32, Postfach 746, CH-3000 Bern 9, Switzerland. Price: €41.50. Reviewed by Lim Beng Soon. 535A Clementi Road, UniSIM, Singapore 599490.

Sun, Yifeng “(Multi)-Cultural context: Interpretation and translation adrift.” Babel: Revue internationale de la traduction/International Journal of Translation vol. 53, n. 3 (2007).  pp. 241-259. http://ejournals.ebsco.com/direct.asp?ArticleID=4FD8BDBD6FB260FBCA74

This paper argues that since in general, it is inadvisable for translation to disregard the possible unintelligibility of the text, a web of significance or signification must be reproduced irrespective of seemingly insurmountable translation difficulties. Interpretation is related to the issues of cultural translation and (un)translatability in cultural terms, necessitating a clutch of interpretative modes prior to the effective formulation of appropriate translation strategies. Temporal and cultural gaps tend to create difficulties in interpretation, and cultural pluralism may lead to multiple, hence different, interpretations. Principally because of translation, we have progressed into the age of multiculturalism, and it is not just that the necessity of acculturation seems to be diminishing, but there is a real desire to spurn it.Foreignization is a political issue. Accordingly, the tensions of ideological incommensurability need to be dissipated in order to facilitate cross-cultural understanding and communication. A degree of ideological pluralism permits cultural diversity distinctively marked by tolerance of difference and attempts to reduce an underlying distrust of the foreign. Multiculturalism, however, by no means denotes the demise of ideology. In spite of its ostensible theoretical naivety, intentionalism has some serious implications for the translator, who may ignore at his/her own peril, for instance, the complex ideological consciousness that informs not only the source text but also the resulting target text. If we say that both the author and the reader are responsible for context or its construction, then the translator must play the double role of reader and author in the sense of (re)constructing context. While we interpret with many aims, the act of interpretation is culturally and ideologically conditioned, and the ensuing complicated remapping is such that translation is always somewhat adrift.

Tang, Jun “Ezra Pound’s The River Merchant’s Wife: Representations of a Decontextualized “Chineseness”.” Meta vol. 56, n. 3 (2011).  pp. 526-537. http://id.erudit.org/iderudit/1008331ar

Le présent article fait état d’une comparaison approfondie de plusieurs interprétations de The River Merchant’s Wife : A Letter réalisées par des chercheurs occidentaux, avec celle qui fait autorité dans le domaine des études chinoises classiques et qui fait référence au texte source chinois, Changgan Xing. L’analyse des écarts entre les deux textes, effectuée sous un angle interculturel mène à la conclusion que The River Merchant’s Wife présente une idée de la Chine décontextualisée, en raison de l’usage de romanisations teintées d’influence japonaise, de manipulations de détails culturels, et de modifications du message original. Par conséquent, la réécriture et la manipulation par Ezra Pound ont introduit des erreurs à l’égard de la compréhension du texte chinois original et ont renforcé les préjugés stéréotypés sur le genre et le mariage de la Chine ancienne. $EN$This article provides a detailed comparison of various interpretations of The River Merchant’s Wife: A Letter presented by Western scholars and the widely-recognized interpretation in the field of classical Chinese studies concerning its Chinese source text Changgan Xing. Analyzing the discrepancies between the two texts from a cross-cultural perspective, this article argues that The River Merchant’s Wife has produced a decontextualized “Chineseness” by using Japanized romanizations, manipulating cultural details, and changing the original messages. Consequently, Ezra Pound’s rewriting and manipulation have induced misunderstandings regarding the Chinese source text and have reinforced stereotypical preconceptions of gender image and married life in ancient China.

Vargas Gómez, Francisco Javier “Imitación/versión/hibridación: la función de la traducción en tres contextos histórico-culturales.” Tonos Digital vol., n. 17 (2009).  pp. 1-35. http://www.tonosdigital.es/ojs/index.php/tonos/article/view/296/205

El estudio explora las posibilidades de que las características funcionales del fenómeno de la traducción se reproduzcan de manera comparable en diferentes contextos histórico-culturales. Aceptando que las especificidades contextuales determinan la función de la traducción en un contexto dado, se postula que si en diferentes momentos y lugares se presentan circunstancias similares, la traducción adoptará características funcionales también similares. Así, mediante la comparación de las particularidades de la traducción en los contextos latino clásico, modernista latinoamericano y poscolonial, el estudio pretende establecer puntos de convergencia entre las funciones de la traducción en tales contextos para luego desvelar las causas contextuales que originaron dichas convergencias. Luego de demarcar una función para la traducción indistintamente aplicable a los tres contextos estudiados, se concluye que tal hecho es posible porque las especificidades de los tres contextos generaron la necesidad de un tipo de traducción que funcionara de manera similar en momentos muy distantes. (A)

Verdegal, Joan “Los neologismos literarios y sus efectos en traducción: Propuesta analítico-evaluadora de la distorsión (contexto francés-español/francés-catalán).” Sendebar. Boletín de la Facultad de Traductores e Interpretes de Granada vol., n. 13 (2002).  pp.:

Yankova, Diana “The text and context of EU Directives: implications for translators.” Ibérica: Revista de la Asociación Europea de Lenguas para Fines Específicos (AELFE) vol., n. 16 (2008).  pp. 129-146. http://www.aelfe.org/documents/08_16_Yankova.pdf

Contrastive studies of statutory legislation are very scarce world-wide. Research in legal language has mainly concentrated on adjectival law leading to linguistic insights regarding powerful versus powerless speech, fragmented versus narrative testimony, the effect on jurors of simultaneous and overlapping speech, the use of leading, suggestive or improper questions in the courtroom, etc.Language of the substantive law has so far received considerably less attention from linguists, although there is a general tendency in academic endeavours towards interdisciplinary studies. Linguistic analyses of substantive law have elucidated issues such as how to make existing or future statutes clearer, without loss of content (i.e. document design) or how law students can be taught to process legislation. The present article analyses the specific functional, linguistic and communicative characteristics of the legal genre from an applied linguist s perspective in the context of European legal texts, as representing a unique set of features and conditions. It looks at the linguistic situation in Europe and the language policy in the EU with special emphasis on the translation regime of EU institutions. The participants in the communication and the special role of the translator in the law making process in the EU are discussed.

Yankova, Diana “Texto y contexto de las Directivas de la Unión Europea: implicaciones para los traductores.” The text and context of EU directives: implications for translators vol., n. 16 (2008).  pp. 129-146. http://www.aelfe.org/documents/08_16_Yankova.pdf

Los estudios contrastivos sobre legislación parlamentaria a nivel transnacional son muy escasos. Hasta ahora, el interés investigador se ha centrado en cuestiones de derecho adjetivo, como el estudio del discurso de poder, las deposiciones testimoniales fragmentadas y las narrativas, la influencia sobre el jurado del discurso simultáneo o solapado fonéticamente, el uso de preguntas incorrectas o sesgadas en los tribunales, y así sucesivamente. El lenguaje del derecho sustantivo, por el contrario, ha recibido mucha menos atención por parte de los lingüistas, aunque comience a aparecer una corriente académica favorable a los estudios interdisciplinares. Los análisis lingüísticos del derecho sustantivo se han encaminado hacia la clarificación y simplificación del lenguaje parlamentario, sin que éste pierda contenido, o alternativamente a la didáctica de la interpretación legislativa a los juristas. Este artículo pretende analizar las características funcionales, lingüísticas y comunicativas únicas y peculiares a los géneros legales desde el punto de vista de la Lingüística Aplicada al contexto de la legislación europea, al mismo tiempo que se centra en la situación europea en lo relativo a política lingüística, con un énfasis especial en el sistema traductológico de las instituciones europeas. Asimismo, se debate sobre los participantes del proceso de elaboración de las leyes en la Unión, y el papel del traductor en dicho proceso. (A)

Yifeng, Sun “(Multi)-Cultural context: Interpretation and translation adrift.” Babel: Revue internationale de la traduction/International Journal of Translation vol. 53, n. 3 (2007).  pp. 241-259. http://ejournals.ebsco.com/direct.asp?ArticleID=4FD8BDBD6FB260FBCA74

This paper argues that since in general, it is inadvisable for translation to disregard the possible unintelligibility of the text, a web of significance or signification must be reproduced irrespective of seemingly insurmountable translation difficulties. Interpretation is related to the issues of cultural translation and (un)translatability in cultural terms, necessitating a clutch of interpretative modes prior to the effective formulation of appropriate translation strategies. Temporal and cultural gaps tend to create difficulties in interpretation, and cultural pluralism may lead to multiple, hence different, interpretations. Principally because of translation, we have progressed into the age of multiculturalism, and it is not just that the necessity of acculturation seems to be diminishing, but there is a real desire to spurn it.Foreignization is a political issue. Accordingly, the tensions of ideological incommensurability need to be dissipated in order to facilitate cross-cultural understanding and communication. A degree of ideological pluralism permits cultural diversity distinctively marked by tolerance of difference and attempts to reduce an underlying distrust of the foreign. Multiculturalism, however, by no means denotes the demise of ideology. In spite of its ostensible theoretical naivety, intentionalism has some serious implications for the translator, who may ignore at his/her own peril, for instance, the complex ideological consciousness that informs not only the source text but also the resulting target text. If we say that both the author and the reader are responsible for context or its construction, then the translator must play the double role of reader and author in the sense of (re)constructing context. While we interpret with many aims, the act of interpretation is culturally and ideologically conditioned, and the ensuing complicated remapping is such that translation is always somewhat adrift.

Zhang, Meifang “Social context and translation of public notices.” Babel: Revue internationale de la traduction/International Journal of Translation vol. 55, n. 2 (2009).  pp. 142-152. http://ejournals.ebsco.com/direct.asp?ArticleID=4676A5E30D29C209200C

To study the translation of public notice is in effect seeking insights which take us beyond translation itself towards the whole relationship between language activity and the social context in which the translation is intended to function. Social context is an important aspect in the study of language and translation because the three are inextricably linked. This paper attempts to investigate the text types, text functions and the translations of public notices functioning in the social context of Macao SAR of China. It tries to deduce about the contexts in which the ST and TT were produced, the purpose for which they were produced and the target reader for whom they were produced. The study is carried out in the light of Reiss’s theory of text typology (1977/1989) and the Hallidayan systemic functional linguistics. It is hoped that this study will identity differences in public notice translation and explore the reasons behind the differences, and also be a test case for examining the role of functional theories of language in explaining some phenomena of translation. Texts for the analysis are extracted from the database for a research project undertaken by the present writer, and the analysis is conducted in terms of three text types and functions: informative, expressive and operative. The results of this study reveal that although one of the language functions might be dominant in a single text in a public notice, overlapping or combining functions are very often bestowed upon most texts. They also show that although invariance in the transfer of content could be achieved in the translation of informative texts, and an analogous form in the translation could be found in the transfer of an expressive text, there are more differences than similarities in the translation of texts with operative functions. Possible reasons behind the differences between the source and target texts are discussed. It is argued that the differences are most possibly caused by differences in cultural values, different religious backgrounds and different expectations between readers of the source and target texts.

Zitawi, Jehan “Contextualizing Disney Comics within the Arab Culture.” Meta vol. 53, n. 1 (2008).  pp. 139-153. http://id.erudit.org/iderudit/017979ar

Cet article examine les stratégies employées par les traducteurs arabes pour contextualiser des bandes dessinées de Disney dans la culture arabe. L’accent est mis sur les traducteurs égyptiens et des pays du Golfe.

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