Monthly Archives: marzo 2013

Trabajos de Grado de la Licenciatura en Traducción e Interpretación

TG. Trabajos de Grado de la Licenciatura en Traducción e Interpretación

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20-mar-2013

Las dos traducciones españolas de “For Whom the Bell Tolls” e Ernest Hemingway : un análisis comparativo Fernández Redondo, Cristina

20-mar-2013

La traducción de los antropónimos en literatura infantil y juvenil de fantasía. Análisis de las traducciones española y francesa de Harry Potter and the Philosopher’s Stone y The Hunger Games. Reboredo García, Raquel

20-mar-2013

Competencias documentales del profesional de la traducción : optimización del proceso de documentación en la traducción Arroyo Izquierdo, Sonia

20-mar-2013

Estudio terminológico. La variación de la terminología de la alimentación en español: España e Hispanoamérica: base de datos terminológica en Multiterm García Alonso, Beatriz

20-mar-2013

La evolución del código deontológico de los intérpretes en tribunales penales internacionales Análisis comparativo entre los procesos de Núremberg y el Tribunal Penal Internacional para la ex Yugoslavia Muñoyerro González, Paloma

20-mar-2013

La eponimia en el lenguaje científico: razones de su existencia y principales problemas que plantea Esteban Arrea, Carolina

20-mar-2013

Las memorias de Maurice Béjart: una aproximación a la danza : traducción comentada y comparación entre versiones Fernández Martínez, Nerea

20-mar-2013

La traducción de las palabras tabú : el caso de la F-word Fernández Huertas, Rocío

20-mar-2013

Interpretación en el ámbito sanitario: preparación previa del personal médico La Greca Saint Esteven, Mariana

20-mar-2013

La propiedad intelectual en la interpretación de conferencias González Amador, Alejandro

19-mar-2013

Análisis contrastivo jurídicolingüístico como ejercicio previo a la traducción los testamentos en España y Alemania Diego Gutiérrez, Carlos

19-mar-2013

La ficción crossover y su traducción: La obra de Roald Dahl como ejemplo Hernández Sánchez, Elisa

19-mar-2013

Traducción y cultura: los elementos culturales en “Buchmendel” de Stefan Zweig y su traducción al español Isidro Gómez, Alejandro

19-mar-2013

Creación de filtros para documentos XML en la plataforma SDL Trados Studio 2009.Guía práctica para traductores Aranzana González, Raquel

19-mar-2013

Influencia de la cultura en la comunicación y la negociación: el caso de Corea del Sur Hernández Ramos, Laura

19-mar-2013

Metahistoria y Traducción : el caso de las Brigadas Internacionales Baños García, Inés

18-nov-2011

El papel del autor: análisis de la relación directa autor-traductor sobre el ejemplo de Günter Grass Toda Castán, Claudia

18-nov-2011

Análisis comparativo y consideraciones formales sobre el doblaje y subtitulado de la serie de televisión “Perdidos” González-Iglesias González, J. David

2-nov-2011

Estudio de Mercado sobre la Traducción en España Lozano Argüelles, Cristina

2-nov-2011

Traducción de una aplicación web : descripción del proceso técnico de traducción de una aplicación web con un sistema de memoria de traducción González Irureta-Goyena, Luis

2-nov-2011

La marca ideológica en el diccionario de la Real Academia : Un estudio sobre la neutralidad lexicográfica García Hervás, Pablo

6-sep-2011

Variación lingüística y doblaje : análisis del español de México en el doblaje de Buscando a Nemo Sánchez Talaván, Verónica

6-sep-2011

La importancia de la enseñanza de métodos de revisión en la primera lengua extranjera : revisión de textos traducidos y textos escritos en lenguas no maternas Vale Cisneros, Celeste Do

2-sep-2011

Teoría de la traducción : panorama de la traductología francesa 2000 – 2010 Signès, Chloé

2-sep-2011

Estudios interculturales de la traducción : Traducción en el ámbito poscolonial: la traducción de las obras de Salman Rushdie al castellano por Miguel Sáenz y el concepto de invisibilidad Gusano Merino, Elena

2-sep-2011

Imágenes de una guerra : análisis comparativo de las traducciones al español de dos poemas de Stephen Spender Fresco Quindós, Sara

2-sep-2011

La traducción y la comunicación en el ámbito turístico: el papel del traductor en la promoción del turismo cultural: el caso de Salamanca : trabajo de fin de Grado en Traducción e Interpretación de la Universidad de Salamanca Gómez Barrado, Beatriz
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Manual de traducción inglés-español de protocolos de ensayos clínicos

Manual de traducción inglés-español de protocolos de ensayos clínicos. Pablo Mugüerza. Barcelona: Fundación Dr. Antonio Esteve, 2012

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“El protocolo es el registro pormenorizado por escrito de lo que entraña el ensayo clínico para todos los involucrados y que influye de manera decisiva en la calidad del estudio y en la fiabilidad de los resultados. Es un documento científico pero destinado a lectores muy diversos, desde los más especializados a los más comunes y corrientes. Si a toda traducción cabe exigirle rigor, precisión y claridad, estos atributos cobran aún más importancia en los protocolos de ensayos clínicos, ya que un error puede acarrear consecuencias graves e incluso poner en peligro la vida de las personas estudiadas…”

Monográfico : TRADUCCIÓN AUDIOVISUAL – Subtítulos, Doblaje, Cine, Televisión

Monográfico : TRADUCCIÓN AUDIOVISUAL

Subtitulos, Doblaje, Cine, Televisión

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La traducción audiovisual (TAV) es desarrollar la actividad traductora en un contexto caracterizado por la interacción del texto (ya sea oral o escrito) con el sonido y la imagen.

Dentro de este tipo de traducción los dos ámbitos más populares son el doblaje y la subtitulación, donde la utilización de uno u otro dependerá de los diferentes mercados. Por ejemplo, en el caso de España, prácticamente todo vídeo, película, serie, documental o documento audiovisual extranjero suele doblarse al español, e incluso, en determinadas zonas, los cines comunes prácticamente no ofertan películas en versión original con subtítulos sino que tienes que ir a cines exclusivos de este tipo de formato para las películas.

de “La traducción audiovisual” 5 de noviembre de 2010 (  )

The Translation Studies Reader

Venuti, L.  The Translation Studies Reader. London and New York, 2000

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THIS READER GATHERS essays, articles, and book chapters that represent many of the main approaches to the study of translation developed during the twentieth century, focusing particularly on the past thirty years. It was during this period that translation studies emerged as a new academic field, at once international and interdisciplinary. The need for a reader is thus partly institutional, created by the rapid growth of the discipline, especially as evidenced by the proliferation of translator training programs worldwide. Recent surveys indicate more than 250, offering a variety of certificates and degrees, undergraduate and graduate, training not only professional translators, but also scholar-teachers of translation and of foreign languages and literatures (Caminade and Pym 1995; Harris 1997). This growth has been accompanied by diverse forms of translation research and commentary, some oriented toward pedagogy, yet most falling within—or crossing—traditional academic disciplines, such as linguistics, literary criticism, philosophy, and anthropology. The aim of the reader is to bring together a substantial selection from this varied mass of writing, but in the form of a historical survey that invites sustained examination of key theoretical developments

Of course, edited volumes always work to define a field, a body of knowledge,a textbook market, and so they create as much as satisfy institutional needs,especially in the case of emergent disciplines. In translation studies, the broad spectrum of theories and research methodologies may doom any assessment of its “current state” to partial representation, superficial synthesis, optimistic canonization. This Reader is intended to be an introduction to the field recognizable to the scholars who work within it. But the intention is also to challenge any disciplinary complacency, to produce a consolidation that is interrogative, to show what translation studies have been and to suggest what they might be.

The readings are organized into five chronological sections, divided into the century’s decades and the date of publication for each reading appears at the foot of its first page. Whether a decade stands on its own or is combined with others depends solely on the volume of translation commentary published within it, sheer bibliographical quantity (cf. the bibliographies in Morgan 1959, Steiner 1975, Schulte and Biguenet 1992). The sections are each prefaced by introductory essays which present a history of main trends in translation studies, establishing a context for concise expositions of the readings and calling attention to the work of influential writers, theorists, and scholars who are not represented by a reading. The section introductions are historical narratives that refer to theoretical and methodological advances and occasionally offer critical evaluations. Yet the stories they tell avoid any evolutionary model of progress, as well as any systematic critique. I wanted to outline, however rapidly, the history of the present moment in translation studies. And to some degree this meant asking questions of the past raised by the latest tendencies in theory and research.

Alerta de articulos de revista 2013/’3/11

Alerta de articulos de revista
InfoT
rad 11 de marzo de 2013





“Professor Miriam Shlesinger.” Target: International Journal on Translation Studies vol. 25, n. 1 (2013).  pp. 1-1. http://ejournals.ebsco.com/direct.asp?ArticleID=41BDB78EE9515FD47FF9

At the time of writing this, and even more so, as you read this, there have been very many tributes to Miriam Shlesinger, who died from cancer on the 10th of November 2012. The community of Translation and Interpreting Studies scholars has come together in its grief at her loss, and in appreciation of all that she did for our discipline and for so many of its members.

Al-Ghazalli, Mehdi F. “Diminutives in Arabic-to-English Translation.” Babel vol. 58, n. 4 (2012).  pp. 395-407. http://dx.doi.org/10.1075/babel.58.4.02gha

Traditionally, the term diminutive has been used to refer to words that denote smallness and possibly also express the speaker’s attitude. On his part, Crystal (1997: 116) defines what is meant by diminutive as “a term used in morphology to refer to an affix with the general meaning of ‘little’.” Trask (1993: 82) maintains that it is “a derivational affix which may be added to a word to express a notion of small size, often additionally . . . a notion of warmth or affection.” It is a common myth that English has no diminutives, but one can find out that diminutives do exist in it due to the fact that it is rare to find a book on English morphology that does not touch upon diminutives. English diminutives are categorized as synthetic and analytic: the latter are lexis signalling the sense of ‘smallness’. English has lexical units that carry the sense referred to. The units concerned do not receive morphological affixes to convey the sense in question and they are not many in number i.e. they can be counted and they belong to different word classes (e.g. (a) few, (a) little, merely, minor, solely, tinny, meager).

Carballo, Pablo Zambrano “La vraisemblance linguistique: reflexions autour de la traduction du lexique balzacien.” Babel vol. 58, n. 4 (2012).  pp. 423-442. http://dx.doi.org/10.1075/babel.58.4.04zam

La vraisemblance de la langue constitue sans doute l’un des principaux piliers de l’ambitieux projet réaliste de Balzac dans La Comédie humaine. L’intention avouée de présenter un roman de romans, le roman absolu pour ainsi dire, qui, à l’aide de l’échafaudage de la fiction servirait de document exhaustif et minutieux de la société française de l’époque, ne pouvait éviter de reproduire plus ou moins fidèlement les multiples nuances qui caractérisent les façons de parler de l’ensemble bigarré de personnages, y compris le narrateur omniscient, de La Comédie humaine. En définitive, Balzac fait d’une telle reproduction une source de vraisemblance réaliste déterminante pour le succès de son projet. C’est surtout dans Illusions perdues, le roman central et exemplaire de l’ensemble, où sa conscience (méta) linguistique devient plus évidente et active, une conscience que toute traduction dans d’autres langues, exemplifiées dans cet article par l’espagnol et l’anglais, doit
tenir bien en compte.

Caroline, Disler “Oxyrhynchus 1381: In memoriam Daniel Simeoni.” Target: International Journal on Translation Studies vol. 24, n. 2 (2012).  pp. 225-252. http://ejournals.ebsco.com/direct.asp?ArticleID=4561B38AC2C2AA6EECEA

The Hellenistic Greek papyrus Oxyrhynchus 1381 contains a translator’s prologue that has been overlooked by translation historians despite its significance as evidence for a far more creative view of religious translation outside the confines of the Judaeo-Christian tradition. This important text is described in its historical context and compared to contemporaneous Pagan and early contending Judaeo-Christian developments in sacred translation as well as to classical secular translation practices. This will provide some valuable insights into the many factors informing the ancient origins and evolution of modern expectations and concerns in the western translation community such as translatability issues, preoccupations with fidelity, rigid adherence to the source text, the translator’s invisibility and lack of creative freedom.

Christina, Schäffner and Shuttleworth Mark “Metaphor in translation: Possibilities for process research.” Target: International Journal on Translation Studies vol. 25, n. 1 (2013).  pp. 93-106. http://ejournals.ebsco.com/direct.asp?ArticleID=4C2096E569D24C1E47E4

This paper explores potential benefits of closer interaction between metaphor studies and translation process research. It presents some developments within translation studies that make use of conceptual metaphor theory and illustrates some process research methods for investigating metaphors. The paper considers a number of methodological recommendations and argues that the need to take full account of insights from metaphor studies and associated disciplines is of greatest importance. Another significant potential innovation is the use of a multilingual approach in respect of both product- and process-oriented studies in order to increase both the amount and the generality of data available for analysis. Thirdly, it is important to extend the current source-text (ST) oriented approach. The paper concludes by suggesting some options for triangulating data gathered through a combination of methods.

Cosima, Bruno “The public life of contemporary Chinese poetry in English translation.” Target: International Journal on Translation Studies vol. 24, n. 2 (2012).  pp. 253-285. http://ejournals.ebsco.com/direct.asp?ArticleID=4A29B814B6B2AAAE7D8A

This essay is an exploration of some of the social and cultural factors that have played a role in the production, publication and reception of English translations of contemporary Chinese poetry, from the beginning of the 1980s to today. The aim is to link translations to the broader context, highlighting modalities and expectations of reception that have evolved within the social structures through which the translation of contemporary Chinese poetry has been circulating: the publishing industry, universities, the periodical press, public intellectual debates, and the market. The article does not try to establish if this or that expectation are either real or perceived features of the source texts. Nor does it deal with translators’ individual interpretations, their private readings. Instead, adopting a wider sociocultural approach, the analysis proposes to shed light on the industrial and commercial dimension ­ the public life ­ of contemporary Chinese poetry in English translation.

Fabio, Alves and Gonçalves José Luiz “Investigating the conceptual-procedural distinction in the translation process: A relevance-theoretic analysis of micro and macro translation units.” Target: International Journal on Translation Studies vol. 25, n. 1 (2013).  pp. 107-124. http://ejournals.ebsco.com/direct.asp?ArticleID=4976B8A864021F733242

This article draws on relevance theory (Sperber and Wilson 1986/1995) and its application to translation (Gutt 2000) to investigate processing effort in translation in relation to two different types of encodings, namely conceptual and procedural encodings (Blakemore 2002, Wilson 2011). Building on the experimental paradigm of data triangulation in translation process research (Alves 2003; Jakobsen 2005), it analyses the translation processes of eight professional translators when performing a direct and an inverse translation task. The analysis focuses on the number and types of encodings found in micro/macro translation units (Alves and Vale 2009; 2011). Results suggest that processing effort in translation is greater in instances of procedural than conceptual encodings.

Haidee, Kruger “A corpus-based study of the mediation effect in translated and edited language.” Target: International Journal on Translation Studies vol. 24, n. 2 (2012).  pp. 355-388. http://ejournals.ebsco.com/direct.asp?ArticleID=43CE96D8110CC0451F02

This paper presents the results of a study investigating the hypothesis that the recurrent features, or universals, of translated language are primarily the result of a mediation process that is shared among different kinds of mediated language, rather than the particularities of bilingual language processing. The investigation made use of a comparable corpus consisting of a subcorpus of English texts translated from Afrikaans, a subcorpus of comparable edited English texts, and a subcorpus of comparable unedited (and also untranslated) English texts. The frequency and distribution of linguistic features associated with three of the universals of translated language (explicitation, normalisation/conservatism, and simplification) across the three subcorpora were analysed. The study was guided by the hypothesis that the frequency and distribution of linguistic features associated with the universals of translated language would demonstrate similarities in the two subcorpora of mediated text (i.e., the translated and edited subcorpus), as compared to the subcorpus of unmediated text (i.e., the unedited subcorpus). However, the study yields almost no evidence for a mediation effect that is shared by translated and edited language, at least not along the linguistic features investigated. There is, however, evidence for what appears to be a separate translation-specific effect, which seems likely to be more unconscious, more proceduralised and more related to the linguistic level alone. This offers some support for the hypothesis of universals of translated language that are unique to this kind of text mediation specifically. Furthermore, the findings of the study suggest that editing may involve a different kind of mediation effect altogether, which frequently remains invisible in conventional corpus-based studies comparing translated and non-translated language, and which requires further investigation.

Hanna, Pita “Patterns in (in)directness: An exploratory case study in the external history of Portuguese translations of Polish literature (1855–2010).” Target: International Journal on Translation Studies vol. 24, n. 2 (2012).  pp. 310-337. http://ejournals.ebsco.com/direct.asp?ArticleID=497EA05B153E83E95EF5

The goal of this descriptive, exploratory paper is to identify and analyse patterns in a case study of direct and indirect literary transfer from Poland to Portugal between 1855 and 2010. By doing so, the paper intends to contribute to a deeper understanding of indirect translation. Firstly, relevant information concerning the corpus is presented. Secondly, the methodological issues are elucidated. Thirdly, the results of the study are discussed in detail. More specifically, the correlations between the dependent variables (directness and indirectness) and the independent variables (author profile, translator profile, publisher profile and target text literary genre) are examined. In addition, the correlation between the occurrence of the label ‘(in)direct’ is tested against the independent time variable. Finally, the preliminary conclusions and future research avenues are presented.

Hanna, Risku and Windhager Florian “Extended Translation: A Sociocognitive Research Agenda.” Target: International Journal on Translation Studies vol. 25, n. 1 (2013).  pp. 33-45. http://ejournals.ebsco.com/direct.asp?ArticleID=4F5F9566BD207D0B3205

Consideration of current developments in cognitive science is indispensable when defining research agendas addressing cognitive aspects of translation. One such development is the recognition of the extended nature of human cognition: Cognition is not just an information manipulation process in the brain, it is contextualised action embedded in a body and increasingly mediated by technologies and situated in its socio-cultural environment. Parallel developments are found in neighbouring disciplines, such as sociology with its actor-network and activity theories. This paper examines these approaches, their shared methodological tenets (i.e., ethnographic field studies) and the implications of the situated cognition approach for describing the cognitive aspects of translation, using a translation management case study to discuss conceptual and methodological issues.

Inger, M. Mees, Dragsted Barbara, et al. “Sound effects in translation.” Target: International Journal on Translation Studies vol. 25, n. 1 (2013).  pp. 140-154. http://ejournals.ebsco.com/direct.asp?ArticleID=454A87452C802FA0DD81

On the basis of a pilot study using speech recognition (SR) software, this paper attempts to illustrate the benefits of adopting an interdisciplinary approach in translator training. It shows how the collaboration between phoneticians, translators and interpreters can (1) advance research, (2) have implications for the curriculum, (3) be pedagogically motivating, and (4) prepare students for employing translation technology in their future practice as translators. In a two-phase study in which 14 MA students translated texts in three modalities (sight, written, and oral translation using an SR program), Translog was employed to measure task times. The quality of the products was assessed by three experienced translators, and the number and types of misrecognitions were identified by a phonetician. Results indicate that SR translation provides a potentially useful supplement to written translation, or indeed an alternative to it.

Isabelle, Delaere, Sutter Gert De, et al. “Is translated language more standardized than non-translated language?: Using profile-based correspondence analysis for measuring linguistic distances between language varieties.” Target: International Journal on Translation Studies vol. 24, n. 2 (2012).  pp. 203-224. http://ejournals.ebsco.com/direct.asp?ArticleID=4A298DF5875164E40741

With this article, we seek to support the law of growing standardization by showing that texts translated into Belgian Dutch make more use of standard language than non-translated Belgian Dutch texts. Additionally, we want to examine whether the use of standard vs. non-standard language can be attributed to the variables text type and source language. In order to achieve that goal, we gathered a diverse set of linguistic variables and used a 10-million-word corpus that is parallel, comparable and bidirectional (the Dutch Parallel Corpus; Macken et al. 2011). The frequency counts for each of the variables are used to determine the differences in standard language use by means of profile-based correspondence analysis (Plevoets 2008). The results of our analysis show that (i) in general, there is indeed a standardizing trend among translations and (ii) text types with a lot of editorial control (fiction, non-fiction and journalistic texts) contain more standard language than the less edited text types (administrative texts and external communication) which adds support for the idea that the differences between translated and non-translated texts are text type dependent.

Jeremy, Munday “The role of archival and manuscript research in the investigation of translator decision-making.” Target: International Journal on Translation Studies vol. 25, n. 1 (2013).  pp. 125-139. http://ejournals.ebsco.com/direct.asp?ArticleID=4DDE8D8100862928C953

This paper discusses the application of research methodologies from history and literary studies to the analysis of the translation process. Specifically, this concerns the use of literary archive and manuscript material to investigate the various stages in the construction of the translation product. Such material has been drastically underexploited in translation studies to date. The paper describes the type of material available for researchers and how this has been used. This is followed by a case study involving the detailed textual analysis of a translator’s drafts and revisions. The paper considers the value of such research methods in investigating the translation process and how they might complement and interact with other methodologies.

Juliane, House “Towards a new linguistic-cognitive orientation in translation studies.” Target: International Journal on Translation Studies vol. 25, n. 1 (2013).  pp. 46-60. http://ejournals.ebsco.com/direct.asp?ArticleID=4478A6C6343186C67B67

A new linguistic-cognitive orientation in translation studies is important today because it can complement the current strong wave of socially and culturally oriented research into and around translation. For balance, it is also necessary and insightful to describe and explain how strategies of comprehending, decision-making and re-verbalisation come about in a translator’s bilingual mind. In this paper I sketch some ideas about such a new linguistic-cognitive approach. I first review introspective and retrospective studies and behavioural experiments. Secondly, I assess the value of neuro-linguistic studies for translation. Thirdly, I suggest a new combination of a translation theory and a neuro-functional theory of bilingualism.

Kelly, Washbourne “Load-managed problem formats: Scaffolding and modeling the translation task to improve transfer.” Target: International Journal on Translation Studies vol. 24, n. 2 (2012).  pp. 338-354. http://ejournals.ebsco.com/direct.asp?ArticleID=47EB97DBCE35C780779E

Does the “expert blind spot”, our “unconscious competence”, lead us to undermine the effectiveness of our translation assignments? This study characterizes the translation task as schema-based, and thus prone to cognitive overload for the learner. Accordingly, schema acquisition tasks featuring reduced-goal specificity and goal-free problems for training the novice are reviewed. The argument is put forward that we need 1) to use more scaffolding to reduce cognitive load, 2) to vary task architecture for learning (including the use of planning pre-tasks), and 3) to provide diagnostic help for the student translator to attain context-independence for ‘high road transfer’. Formats for expertise modeling are considered ­ reverse tasks, completion examples, and other whole-task models ­ as instructional designs for load-managed translation tasks that improve problem-solving, schema acquisition, process-orientation, and metacognitive monitoring.

Kilian, G. Seeber “Cognitive load in simultaneous interpreting: Measures and methods.” Target: International Journal on Translation Studies vol. 25, n. 1 (2013).  pp. 18-32. http://ejournals.ebsco.com/direct.asp?ArticleID=47C1AF55FD828D878648

The mental effort required to perform a simultaneous interpreting task or the cognitive load generated by it has attracted the interest of many a researcher in the field. To date, however, there is little agreement on the most suitable method to measure this phenomenon. In this contribution, I set out to discuss four of the most common methods of measuring cognitive load and the way in which they have been applied in interpreting research, providing examples for each and highlighting their respective advantages and disadvantages. The main focus of the contribution will be on pupillometry, a psycho-physiological method I deem to be among the most promising approaches to objectively measure cognitive load during simultaneous interpreting in real time.

Le Poder, Marie-Evelyne “Perspective sociolinguistique des emprunts de langlais dans la section economique du quotidien espagnol El Pais.” Babel vol. 58, n. 4 (2012).  pp. 377-394. http://dx.doi.org/10.1075/babel.58.4.01pod

Les unités linguistiques, au sens large du terme, ont des origines diverses. Elles peuvent naître des règles du code linguistique d’une langue, de l’élargissement du signifié d’une unité lexicale déjà formée ou bien provenir d’unités appartenant à d’autres codes ; la « grande catégorie des emprunts » comme l’aime à le dire Marianne Lederer (Lederer 1990 : 1). Lorsqu’il est fait référence aux unités provenant de codes linguistiques étrangers, il convient d’établir une classification entre emprunts et calques linguistiques. Les emprunts comprennent les cultismes, d’une part, et les emprunts aux langues vivantes, d’autre part. Les cultismes sont des emprunts provenant du fonds gréco-latin que l’on retrouve dans diverses langues. Les emprunts aux langues vivantes, pour leur part, s’incorporent dans une langue, de façon consciente ou inconsciente, sans aucune modification (emprunts purs), ou par le biais d’adaptations d’ordre graphique et/ou phonétique.

Lee, Tong King “Anna Gil-Bardaji, Pilar Orero Sara Rovira-Esteva (eds.), Translation Peripheries: Paratextual Elements in Translation, 2012.” Babel vol. 58, n. 4 (2012).  pp. 493-495. http://dx.doi.org/10.1075/babel.58.4.09lee

Anna Gil-Bardají, Pilar Orero & Sara Rovira-Esteva (eds.), Translation Peripheries: Paratextual Elements in Translation , 2012. Peter Lang International Academic Publishers, Hochfeldstrasse, 32 CH-3012, Bern, Switzerland. 196 pp. ISBN 978-3-0343-1038-3. Reviewed by Tong-King Lee , School of Chinese, Centennial College, The University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam, Hong Kong. Email: leetk@hku.hk

Lee, Tong King “Translation and Language Power Relations in Heterolingual Anthologies of Literature.” Babel vol. 58, n. 4 (2012).  pp. 443-456. http://dx.doi.org/10.1075/babel.58.4.05lee

The heterolingual literary anthology is a discursive field through which we can observe language power relations in a plurilingual society as well as changes in such relations over time. Within this kind of anthology, translation serves as a mechanism in the negotiation of symbolic capital among various languages, and becomes an ideological site where languages struggle for visibility and prestige. In a struggle of this kind, languages engage one another in exchanges, either asymmetric or symmetric, in an attempt to move towards the centre of the sociolinguistic polysystem, or otherwise enhance their central position in the polysystem by relegating competing languages to the periphery. Drawing on Even Zohar’s polysystem theory and Pascale Casanova’s conception of literary translation as unequal linguistic exchanges, one may thus propose that complex sociolinguistic transactions underlie the making of a heterolingual literary anthology, and that such transactions may be described and explained by means of conceptual models.

Maureen, Ehrensberger-Dow and Perrin Daniel “Applying a newswriting research approach to translation.” Target: International Journal on Translation Studies vol. 25, n. 1 (2013).  pp. 77-92. http://ejournals.ebsco.com/direct.asp?ArticleID=44CFB2D0A0675E89987A

Translation is a situated activity that involves more than simply producing target texts from source texts. In order to understand what translators actually do when they translate, their psycho-biographies as well as the social setting of the workplace and the contextual resources must be considered. In this paper, we outline how a mixed-method approach originally developed to study the newswriting processes of journalists at their workplaces can be applied in translation process research. We argue that progression analysis, which combines keystroke logging, screen recordings, eye-tracking, and cue-based retrospective verbalization, can be profitably used along with version analysis to gain insights into cognitive aspects of the translation process.

Rengdong, Xiang “First Translation and Retranslation in the Historical, Social and Cultural Context: A case study of two Chinese versions of Tess of the DUrbervilles.” Babel vol. 58, n. 4 (2012).  pp. 457-470. http://dx.doi.org/10.1075/babel.58.4.06xia

In the history of Chinese literary translation, retranslation is a common phenomenon. Starting in the 1930s, retranslation has become more and more popular, accompanied by a boom in debates about retranslation. Retranslation, in the view of Zou Taofen, is not economical and instead translators should translate devote their attention to untranslated classics (Zou Taofen 1920: 06–04). Contrary to this Mao Dun asserts that if we are really for consideration of the reader’s “economy”, it is necessary to criticize false and inferior translations, and so retranslation is a necessary remedy (Mao Dun 1937: 5). Moreover, Lu Xun insists definitely that retranslation is inevitably linked to the evaluation of language use (Lu Xun 1998: 275). Furthermore, in the 1950s, Mao Dun and Zhou Zuoreng reemphasized the value of retranslation (Mao Dun 1984; Zhou Zuoreng 1950-04-02); Zhou Zuoreng even indicates that the number of retranslations is proportional to cultural development. During the 1980s and the 1990s after reform and opening, the scope and range of retranslation became larger and broader.

Sharon, O’brien “The borrowers: Researching the cognitive aspects of translation.” Target: International Journal on Translation Studies vol. 25, n. 1 (2013).  pp. 5-17. http://ejournals.ebsco.com/direct.asp?ArticleID=4333BFDBF4C99B3C3C38

The paper considers the interdisciplinary interaction of research on the cognitive aspects of translation. Examples of influence from linguistics, psychology, neuroscience, cognitive science, reading and writing research and language technology are given, with examples from specific sub-disciplines within each one. The breadth of borrowing by researchers in cognitive translatology is made apparent, but the minimal influence of cognitive translatology on the respective disciplines themselves is also highlighted. Suggestions for future developments are made, including ways in which the domain of cognitive translatology might exert greater influence on other disciplines.

Sue-Ann, Harding ““How do I apply narrative theory?”: Socio-narrative theory in translation studies.” Target: International Journal on Translation Studies vol. 24, n. 2 (2012).  pp. 286-309. http://ejournals.ebsco.com/direct.asp?ArticleID=44FEBBA4D7FCC5835B3D

Since the publication of Translation and Conflict: A Narrative Account(Baker 2006), there has been a growing interest in applying socio-narrative theory to Translation Studies, with Baker’s ideas extended and applied to several different areas of inquiry. This article gives a brief overview of these projects, and discusses in more depth the example of my own application and development of narrative theory. This includes a revised typology of narratives, the combination of narratological and sociological approaches, an intratextual model of analysis, and a new emphasis on the importance of narrators and temporary narrators in the (re)configuration of narratives. The article ends with a brief discussion on further topics within Translation and Interpreting Studies to which narrative theory might be applied.

Susanne, Göpferich “Translation competence: Explaining development and stagnation from a dynamic systems perspective.” Target: International Journal on Translation Studies vol. 25, n. 1 (2013).  pp. 61-76. http://ejournals.ebsco.com/direct.asp?ArticleID=4470A54C04CA5CF2A90A

This article introduces Dynamic Systems Theory (DST) as a framework for the investigation of translation competence development. After a presentation of the basic concepts and assumptions underlying this theory, results from the longitudinal study TransComp will be discussed against the background of DST. TransComp is a three-year product- and process-oriented longitudinal study of the development of translation competence in 12 students of translation, whose translation products and processes were compared with those of 10 professional translators. The article outlines both the difficulties involved in the application of DST to the investigation of translation competence development and the added value that it promises for our understanding of developmental processes in translators, including the ways they can be fostered in translation training.

Vilar Sánchez, Karin “Holger Siever: Ubersetzen Spanisch-Deutsch. Ein Arbeitsbuch. 2008.” Babel vol. 58, n. 4 (2012).  pp. 496-498. http://dx.doi.org/10.1075/babel.58.4.10san

Holger Siever: Übersetzen Spanisch-Deutsch. Ein Arbeitsbuch. 2008. Narr´Francke Attempto Verlag GmbH + Co.KG. Dischingerweg 5. D-72070 Tübingen. 166 Seiten. ISBN 978-3-8233-6391-0. Preis: €14,90. Rezension von Karin Vilar Sánchez , Facultad de Traducción e Interpretación, Universidad de Granada, E-18071 Granada. E-Mail: kvilars@ugr.es

Xiumei, Xu and Gong Qinyan “Translatability vs Untranslatability: A relevance-theoretic view.” Babel vol. 58, n. 4 (2012).  pp. 408-422. http://dx.doi.org/10.1075/babel.58.4.03xiu

Whether translation is possible or not has long been a topic in translation studies. Those who hold that translation is impossible mainly build their ideas on the fact that there is always something that gets changed, twisted or even lost in translation. The extreme example is the case of Robert Frost who claims that “poetry is what gets lost in translation”. But in fact, just as Susan Bassnett (2001: 70) states “when we compare different translations of the same poems, we can see the diversity of translation strategies used by translators”, “poetry is not what is lost in translation, it is rather what we gain through translations and translators”. A unanimously accepted truth is the long history of civilization has witnessed the important role played by translators and their works: man owes a lot of his knowledge of other nations, races and cultures to translators’ works.

Yuefang, Wang “Exploring Cultural Transmission and Translation Strategies in the Perspective of Functionalist Approaches: A case study of the two English versions of Hongloumeng.” Babel vol. 58, n. 4 (2012).  pp. 471-487. http://dx.doi.org/10.1075/babel.58.4.07wan

Hongloumeng, one of the four great classical novels of Chinese Literature written in the mid-eighteenth century during the Qing Dynasty, is considered as the encyclopedia of feudal Chinese culture. Since the first publication of this novel, a number of admirable translators or scholars both in China and overseas have attempted to translate it into other languages. The two completely translated versions are The Story of the Stone by David Hawkes and John Minford, and The Dream of Red Mansions by Yang Xianyi and Gladys Yang. The difficulties of the translation work lie primarily in the culture-specific items in the novel, including Chinese allusions, rituals and customs, dressing, architecture, food, medicine, naming system, religion, poems, plays, games, geographic elements, and so on. Translating cultural items can be a demanding and challenging task due to the fact that such items have specific meanings in the source culture and language but not necessarily in other cultures and languages. During the process of cultural de-coding, re-coding and en-coding translators are not only dealing with words written in a certain time, space and socio-political situation, but they should also take into account the “cultural” aspect of the text by employing different translation strategies.

Zhu, Ling “Xu Jianzhong. «»(Translation Geography).” Target: International Journal on Translation Studies vol. 24, n. 2 (2012).  pp. 389-390. http://ejournals.ebsco.com/direct.asp?ArticleID=4E18B00E6A6625A5965D

Aportaciones de las mujeres a la lengua y literatura castellanas

mujeres-en-la-literatura

 

Heredero De Pedro, Carmen. [e-Book GRATIS]  Otras miradas: aportaciones de las mujeres a la lengua y literatura castellanas : para integrar en el curriculum de Secundaria Madrid, Instituto de la Mujer, 2013

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Esta Guía, Aportaciones de las Mujeres a la Lengua y Literatura castellanas, al igual que su predecesora en la colección Otras Miradas, se realiza con el propósito de suplir las insuficiencias que los actuales manuales de texto tienen en relación con las aportaciones de las mujeres, a lo largo de la historia, a la Lengua y la Literatura castellanas, así como a los estudios lingüísticos. En esta ocasión hemos elegido un total de 89 escritoras, algunas de ellas especializadas en Filología y Lingüística, a las que hemos dedicado más o menos espacio, dependiendo de la importancia que la crítica especializada les ha dado, así como de la repercusión social que han tenido, o bien, considerando nuestro específico criterio feminista. Somos conscientes de que muchas de ellas se merecen más páginas de las que les hemos podido dedicar, puesto que esta publicación tiene también sus propias limitaciones de espacio.Esta Guía se divide en seis grupos de autoras, creados en base a criterios cronológicos. En cada autora se ha tratado de abordar su biografía y su obra, contextualizándola en su época cuando el espacio lo ha permitido. Prácticamente la totalidad de las autoras son españolas.

El primero de los bloques es el que abarca los siglos XVI y XVII, los Siglos de Oro de la literatura española. Fue una etapa de esplendor para los escritores españoles: Lope de Vega, Calderón de la Barca, Góngora y, por supuesto, Miguel de Cervantes. Sin embargo, no han pasado a la historia de la misma manera nombres de mujeres, cuya ocultación solo responde a la situación relegada que la sociedad les ha dado. Para visibilizar a estas mujeres y sus obras, hemos recogido un total de nueve autoras que vivieron en unos años tremendamente difíciles para el acceso de las mujeres a la cultura y la educación. Sin embargo, y fruto de ese contexto, se desarrolló una importante literatura conventual, con autoras como Sor Juana Inés de la Cruz, Sor Marcela de San Félix o Sor María Jesús de Ágreda; mujeres que encontraron en los conventos el refugio perfecto para el acceso a la cultura y el desarrollo de su obra. No obstante, muchos de sus escritos fueron víctimas de las llamas o desaparecieron por diversos motivos, por lo que la tarea de recopilación de sus obras ha resultado bastante complicada.

El segundo bloque está formado por autoras de los siglos XVIII y XIX, los años de la Ilustración, una etapa de rupturas sociales y culturales, de progreso y de triunfo de la razón. Durante el siglo XVIII la literatura gusta de las reglas clásicas y se desarrollan con fuerza el género periodístico y el ensayo. Entre los autores más conocidos destacan Jovellanos y José Cadalso. De la misma manera que en apartado anterior, podemos decir que el conocimiento de importantes autoras de estos siglos también han sido ocultado o difuminado a las generaciones posteriores. En este apartado hemos incluido un total de nueve autoras, entre las que, además de Rosalía de Castro, Fernán Caballero o Emilia Pardo Bazán, que sí han logrado importante reconocimiento, se encuentran Concepción Arenal, Carolina Coronado o Gertrudis Gómez de Avellaneda, entre otras.

En tercer lugar figuran las autoras pertenecientes al siglo XX, una etapa marcada por la lucha de las mujeres por acceder a la vida política y al trabajo hasta entonces vetado para ellas, pero sobre todo, marcada por la Guerra Civil y el exilio. La Guerra Civil Española supone un antes y un después en la literatura, que nos ha llevado a subdividir este siglo en dos etapas correspondientes al antes y después de dicha guerra. Surge la literatura de la posguerra con autoras tan importantes como Ana María Matute, Carmen Martín Gaite o Mercè Rodoreda, entre otras muchas. En el conjunto del siglo hemos incluído un total de treinta y cinco autoras.

En cuarto lugar figuran las autoras actuales, un grupo de once mujeres que o bien siguen publicando o bien han fallecido muy recientemente, entre las que se encuentran escritoras como Blanca Andreu, Lourdes Ortiz o Soledad Puértolas, entre otras. Tras estos cuatro apartados hemos añadido un quinto en el que recogemos algunos nombres de mujeres lingüistas y filólogas que realizan una importante tarea de investigación sobre diferentes aspectos del lenguaje, de la gramática española y de la literatura.Al final de cada bloque se han incluido una serie de ejercicios para facilitar la reflexión del alumnado sobre las aportaciones de cada autora No se ha establecido una recomendación para un determinado curso dentro de la etapa de secundaria, ya que consideramos que consideramos que será el profesor o profesora quien mejor utilice o adapte esos ejercicios a su alumnado específico.Por último incluimos una extensa bibliografía y algunos recursos de fácil acceso para que tanto el profesorado como el alumnado pueda seguir investigando.

Libros electrónicos sobre Traducción Febrero 2013

Libros electrónicos de Traducción Febrero 2013
  I nfoTrad 12 de enero de 2012


[e-Book]  Mapping best multilingual business practices in the EU European Commission. Texto completo: http://www.google.es/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&frm=1&source=web&cd=1&cad=rja&ved=0CB0QFjAA&url=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.lt-innovate.eu%2Fsystem%2Ffiles%2Fdocuments%2F1326-BvD%2520study%2520on%2520multilingualism%25202011.pdf&ei=jvViUODFCanF0QW19oGIBw&usg=AFQjCNGZzmyK4B5J-WQQF9hZDL-yd-BrWw&sig2=91q5kWM-auSECXqK-FXhcw

The digital age and globalisation have together changed the European business environment for good. As companies and their employees deal with different languages and cultures on a daily basis, multilingualism can no longer be considered just as an asset or a competitive advantage, but rather as a fact of life. Thus, multilingualism has become a global issue as well as a transversal issue within organisations, since digital communication is erasing national and linguistic boundaries. Faced with this multilingual reality, companies have adopted a number of innovative business practices described in the case studies carried out in European companies. These include intercomprehension (the parallel use of different languages which have similar structures and vocabularies), collaborative interpretation and use of language technology tools, such as machine translation. However, social networks and collaborative methods have led to increasingly complex and technical content. Human resources will always be needed to validate translations, both the machine generated and the human variety. As well as case studies and analysis, this study on multilingual business practices contains a set of recommendations to enhance multilingualism in business. These include the development of multilingual business strategies, the establishment of a European Observatory of Multilingual Business Practices, a quality label for multilingual European company websites translated into more than four languages, and support for the European Company Statute

(2004). [e-Book]  A National Code of Ethics for Interpreters in Health Care. Washington The National Council on Interpreting in Health Care  Texto completo: http://hospitals.unm.edu/language/documents/ncihc.pdf

As the profession of health care interpreting in the United States matures and evolves, the importance of creating shared understandings of what is considered high quality and ethically appropriate principles and practices in the field becomes imperative.  To this end, the National Council on Interpreting in Health Care identified three steps that needed to take place on a national level in order to standardize the expectations that the health care industry and patients should have of interpreters and to raise the quality of health care interpreting.  The first step was to create and build support for a single Code of Ethics that would guide the practice of interpreters working in health care venues.  The second step was to develop a nationally accepted, unified set of Standards of Practice based on the Code of Ethics that would define competent practice in the field.  The third step was to create a national certification process that would set a standard for qualification as a professional health care interpreter.

(2008). [e-Book]  Professional Standards and Ethics for California Court Interpreters. San Francisco, Judicial Council of California. Texto completo: http://www.courts.ca.gov/documents/Ethics_Manual_4th_Ed_Master.pdf

This manual is intended to inform interpreters of their professional and ethical responsibilities so that they are better able to deal with the difficulties that commonly arise in matters involving non-English-speaking parties in the judicial system. It also serves as a reference and springboard for discussion in conjunction with the Judicial Council Ethics Workshop, which is provided as an integral part of the education and certification or registration of court interpreters in the State of California. In addition to the regulations and recommendations provided here, it is important to note that different courts have their own rules and ways of conducting business. It is the interpreter’s duty to learn and follow these rules as well. In the courtroom, the judge is the final arbiter of what is appropriate. The more prepared and informed you are about professional practices and the purpose of established norms and principles, the more you, together with all officers of the court, will be able to further the interests of justice. This manual is based largely on the rules and principles set forth in rule 2.890 of the California Rules of Court  (“Professional conduct for interpreters”, see appendix A); California Standards of Judicial Administration  adopted by the Judicial Council of California for interpreted proceedings (Standard 2.10 and Standard 2.11;  see appendix C); the Standards for Performance and Professional Responsibility for Contract Court  Interpreters in the Federal Courts (see appendix E) and W. E. Hewitt, Court Interpretation: Model Guides for Policy and Practice in the State Courts, Publication R-167 (Williamsburg, Virginia: State Justice Institute,  1995).

(2009). [e-Book]  Congreso Mundial de Traducción Especializada. La Habana, Unión Latina. Texto completo: http://dtil.unilat.org/cmte2008/actas/Actas%20CMTE.pdf

El Congreso Mundial de Traducción Especializada fue celebrado en el año 2008, que fuera proclamado por las Naciones Unidas Año Internacional de los Idiomas. En ese contexto, con el propósito de destacar la importancia del traductor como uno de los factores primordiales en la preservación de la diversidad lingüística, el Congreso congregó a diversos especialistas que trataron múltiples aspectos de la profesión del traductor bajo el gran lema “Lenguas y diálogo intercultural en un mundo en globalización”. Contó con cerca de 300 participantes, en su mayoría traductores, provenientes de los cinco continentes que pudieron expresarse en los cinco idiomas oficiales del Congreso: español, francés, inglés, portugués y ruso. Así, se ofrecieron durante este encuentro una variedad de comunicaciones que estudiaron, desde un punto de vista más político que científico, diferentes facetas de la traducción a escala internacional. Los grandes temas en los que se clasificaron las ponencias fueron: • La traducción en organismos internacionales y en las patentes y normas • Traducción automatizada • Herramientas lingüísticas y recursos en línea • Corpus lingüísticos y estudios de caso • La profesión del traductor: especialización, formación y sinergias • “La traducción es muy cara y lenta” o mentiras del monolingüismo

(2010). [e-Book]  Étude portant sur la contribution de la traduction à la société multilingue dans l’Union européenne Luxemburg, European Commission. Texto completo: http://www.lt-innovate.eu/system/files/documents/1348-Contribution%20de%20la%20traduction%20%C3%A0%20la%20soci%C3%A9t%C3%A9%20multilingue%20dans%20l%E2%80%99Union%20europ%C3%A9enne%202010.pdf

Economic, cultural, legal and political dimensions of translation in the EU, and different countries’ perceptions of translation. Translation (transposing a text from one language into another) unquestionably plays a major role in today’s world (daily life, information, interaction, cultural and economic activities, etc.) – and that role is growing with globalization and the consequent proliferation of interactions in which the partners speak different languages. In an ordinary day, a European citizen may drink coffee imported from Peru, on which the label has been translated, read an article in a newspaper translated by a news agency, check his or her emails on a localized interface installed on a computer with a localized operating system, read a translated Finnish novel in the bus or tube, operate a machine tool at work, of which the manual is translated, use an automatic translation website to obtain up-to-date news on events in Iceland, go home to watch a TV series with subtitles, and so on.

(2010). [e-Book]  Study on the size of the language industry in the EU. Luxemburg, European Commission. Texto completo: http://bookshop.europa.eu/en/study-on-the-size-of-the-language-industry-in-the-eu-pbHC8009985/downloads/HC-80-09-985-EN-N/HC8009985ENN_002.pdf?FileName=HC8009985ENN_002.pdf&SKU=HC8009985ENN_PDF&CatalogueNumber=HC-80-09-985-EN-N

A study on the rapid growth of the language industry, covering translation, interpreting, software localisation, website globalisation, language technology and related fields. Includes country factsheets.

(2011). [e-Book]  Lingua Franca: Chimera or Reality? . Luxemburg, European Commission. Texto completo: http://cordis.europa.eu/fp7/ict/language-technologies/docs/lingua-franca-en.pdf

The intensification of exchanges in our globalised world has dramatically increased the need for a common language. More and more often this common language is English, considered by many to be today’s lingua franca and only secondarily the mother tongue of specific communities of speakers. The issue, however, is extremely controversial and raises as many questions as it tries to answer. English is not the first language to play this role, other languages have been used as lingue franche in the past and others may therefore acquire this status in the future. Moreover, the concept of lingua franca itself is often questioned. Before examining the status of English in order to see whether it can be considered a lingua franca or, more precisely, today’s lingua franca, the very concept of lingua franca needs to be defined more precisely. In addition, a review of other lingue franche can provide a clearer image of how they develop and disappear, as well as the needs they are supposed to meet, in relation to the present situation. Based on the definition, this study will focus on the lingua franca as a vehicular language which allows inter-comprehension among people speaking different mother tongues, as a neutral language or jargon of which nobody can claim ownership, but also as the mother tongue of one of the parties in the exchange. Based on this analysis, the second part of the study will be devoted to English to try and define more precisely its new status as a global language and to explore the implications of this new role

(2012). [e-Book]  Crowdsourcing translation: Studies on translation and multilingualism. Luxembourg, European Commission. Texto completo: http://ec.europa.eu/dgs/translation/publications/studies/crowdsourcing_translation_en.pdf

The advent of the Internet  and its rash development in the past few decades have revolutionised our habits and patterns of behaviour. It offers huge opportunities for communication or access to information, but is often blamed for disrupting human relations. We all ­ and especially young people ­ spend more and more hours in front of the screen. An increasing number of tasks, which in the past involved direct human contacts, are now performed through a  machine ­ from carrying out banking transactions or buying plane  tickets, to playing interactive games with people living thousands of kilometres away, or even donating money for a worthy cause. However, new forms of communication are emerging thanks to the Web, notably the Web 2.0 ­ web applications that facilitate participatory information sharing, interaction and collaboration among users and creation of user-generated content, like social networks, blogs, and wikis. Among these applications, crowdsourcing deserves great attention. The term crowdsourcing was created at the end of the 1990s to indicate a new way of getting work done, by involving the ‘crowd’. It is constantly gaining ground and has by now penetrated a wide range of highly diversified areas. And yet, it remains for many an obscure concept. What does crowdsourcing exactly mean and what does it imply, notably in translation where it has lately become a hot topic?

(2012). [e-Book]  Intercomprehension: Exploring its usefulness for DGT, the Commission and the EU, European Commission. Texto completo: http://bookshop.europa.eu/en/intercomprehension-pbHC3012594/?CatalogCategoryID=ffIKABstvy4AAAEj0JEY4e5L

Intercomprehension is a relatively new field in linguistic research, which has focused mainly on the usefulness of intercomprehension in language teaching. The present study aims at broadening this scope. The study does not pretend to be academic, but to describe how intercomprehension is used in organisations, companies and society at large, and look into how the European Commission could benefit from intercomprehension. Intercomprehension refers to a relationship between languages in which speakers of different but related languages can readily understand each other without intentional study or extraordinary effort. It is a form of communication in which each person uses his/her own language and understands that of the other(s). Intercomprehension is used in society, education and the business world. Since its precondition is the existence of more languages, the same as for translation, it seems logical to explore to what extent translation can benefit from intercomprehension. The study aims to examine the potential of intercomprehension for: society and the European citizens, multilingualism within the European institutions

(2012). [e-Book]  Open translation tools, flossmanuals.net. Texto completo: http://en.flossmanuals.net/_booki/open-translation-tools/open-translation-tools.pdf

The first wave of the internet revolution changed expectations about the availability of information a great deal. Information that was stored in libraries, locked in government vaults or available only to subscribers suddenly became accessible to anyone with an internet connection. A second wave has changed expectations about who creates information online. Tens of millions of people are contributing content to the modern internet, publishing photos, videos, and blog posts to a global audience. The globalization of the internet has brought connectivity to almost 1.6 billion people. The internet that results from globalization and user-authorship is profoundly polyglot. Wikipedia is now available in more than 210 languages, which implies that there are communities capable of authoring content in those tongues. Weblog search engine Technorati sees at least as many blog posts in Japanese as in English, and some scholars speculate that there may be as much Chinese content created on sites like Sina and QQ as on all English-language blogs combined.

Allen, Esther (2007). [e-Book]  To be translated or not To be. Barcelona, Institut Ramon Llull. Texto completo: http://llull.cat/IMAGES_2/Trad%20ENG.pdf

This report therefore begins with the assessment of the unprecedented global scope of English and the current state of literary translation in the English-speaking world and particularly in the United States that will be undertaken in the first chapter. Then, by contrast and as context to the situation of English, the second chapter comments on responses from PEN Centers across the globe to a questionnaire about literary translation sent out by International PEN. To provide further points of comparison, the report presents in the third chapter six case studies from different parts of the world to describe what could be called the “translation economy” of each region: the Netherlands, Argentina, Catalonia, Germany, China and France. The subsequent chapter on experiences on literary translation describes the successful initiatives of a number of PEN Centers to address the need for more translation into English, as well as significant efforts by other institutions, both public and private, to engage with this issue in ways that can make a  difference. Finally, the conclusions try to summarize the main findings of the report and offer a general view of literary translation in today’s world. Three distinguished writers, Paul Auster, Narcís Comadira, and Ngu~g ~ wa Thiong’o, have contributed literary depth to what might otherwise have been a lamentably technocratic document by composing texts on the subject of translation especially for this report.

Bielsa, Esperanca (2005). [e-Book]  Globalisation as Translation: An Approximation to the Key but Invisible Role of Translation in Globalisation, CSGR Texto completo: http://wrap.warwick.ac.uk/1956/1/WRAP_Bielsa_wp16305.pdf

Two fundamental features of globalisation are the overcoming of spatial barriers and the centrality of knowledge and information. These developments, which result in the increased mobility of people and objects and a heightened contact between different linguistic communities (mass tourism, migration, information and media flows) signal, in spite of the predominance of English as a global lingua franca, an exponential growth in the significance of translation, which becomes a key mediator of global communication. Yet language and translation have been systematically neglected in the current literature on globalisation. This article critically examines current theories of globalisation and interrogates their lack of attention towards translation. It formulates an attempt to understand the significance of translation in a global context, conceptualising its analytical place in globalisation theory and its key role in the articulation of the global and the local.

Durand Guiziou, Marie-Claire, Francisca A. Muñoz Ojeda, et al. (1994). Los falsos amigos en su contexto. In: Actas del II Coloquio sobre los estudios de filología francesa en la Universidad española : (Almagro, 3-5 de mayo de 1993), [Cuenca] : Servicio de Publicaciones de la Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha, 1994: 103-110. http://dialnet.unirioja.es/descarga/articulo/613643.pdf

Este trabajo se inscribe dentro de una línea de investigación sobre los falsos amigos, fruto de unas observaciones pedagógicas llevadas a cabo en el aula universitaria y que han dado lugar a varias publicaciones (véase Gonzalez Santana R.D. y al., 1993a) y 1993b)). La presente comunicación está orientada hacia las implicaciones de estos falsos amigos en la adquisición de la competencia traslativa así como a su tratamiento mediante unas aplicaciones prácticas. Los falsos amigos dan lugar a faltas que perjudican la comunicación en el aprendizaje del francés lengua extranjera. El contacto entre dos lenguas vecinas ­como el castellano y el francés­ da lugar a numerosas interferencias1. El problema de las palabras supuestamente amigas en el plano semántico LM/LE y LE/LM (lengua materna/lengua extranjera) tiene igualmente consecuencias importantes en la adquisición de la actividad traslativa.

Dzeyk, Waldemar (2010). [e-Book]  Effektiv und nutzerfreundlich. Einsatz von semantischen Technologien und Usability-Methoden zur Verbesserung der medizinischen Literatursuche, Deutsche Zentralbibliothek für Medizin (ZB MED). Texto completo: http://eprints.rclis.org/14364/

OBJECTIVE: Modern language technology has many advantages in medical information retrieval. In combination with up-to-date search software the linguistic approach leads to more and better results in medical literature search (i.e. relevant hits) for phenomena such as synonyms, translations and linguistic variants (inflection, derivation, word-composition, etc.). Additionally, a normalization of laymen and expert queries can be achieved. The book presents the results of the MorphoSaurus project conducted by the German National Library of Medicine. It describes the implementation and evaluation of a computational linguistic approach to improve the quality of the information retrieval of the MEDPILOT medical search engine. Furthermore, the usability of the user interface was evaluated and improved. METHODS: Different collections of test queries were constructed for examining the performance of information retrieval characteristics based on a content analysis of the MEDPILOT log file. In addition, a usability test with 24 physicians was conducted. RESULTS: The findings show that the new search architecture performs much better than the old MEDPILOT system. Besides these results a benchmarking with competing search engines such as PubMed, GoPubMed, Scirus, Google and Google Scholar demonstrated the superior search characteristics of the new search system. Usability tests have shown that the implemented help functions such as “faceted search” or the “auto suggest function” could improve medical literature search. Physicians stated that they found the new interface more satisfying than the old one and that they felt well supported by most of the implemented help functions. Results and consequences for the development of user centered design and usability improvements of the search engine are discussed. CONCLUSION: The combination of up up-to-date search software, semantic technologies and the application of usability principles has shown a great potential for effective information retrieval in medical literature search. The positive effects of the linguistic approach can be adapted to other content domains for improving the processing of a variety of heterogeneous databases.

Hatim, Basil  and Jeremy  Munday (2004). [e-Book]  Translation: An advanced resource book. New York, Routledge. Texto completo: http://rahbar.iauq.ac.ir/imagesMasterPage/Files/rahbar/file/Translation-An%20Advanced%20Resource%20Book_041528306X.pdf

Translation, both commercial and literary, is an activity that is growing phenomenally in today’s globalized world. The study of translation, an interdisciplinary field known as Translation Studies, has also developed enormously in the past twenty years. It interfaces with a wide range of other disciplines from linguistics and modern languages to Cultural Studies and postcolonialism. This book attempts to investigate both the practice and the theory of translation in an accessible and systematic way. It is designed specifically with the needs in mind of students of Masters degrees and nal year undergraduates in translation or applied linguistics, research students beginning to investigate the eld, and practising translators who wish to examine the theory behind the practice. It is hoped that it will also provide useful insights and examples for more experienced researchers.

Kant, Immanuel, Maria Chiara Pievatolo, et al. (2011). [e-Book]  Sette scritti politici liberi, Firenze University Press. Texto completo: http://eprints.rclis.org/15848/

Hyper-textual, open access Italian translation of Kant’s seven major political writings. Its preface tries to explain why the translations of classics should be open access and open licensed. The editor’s annotation to the essay “On the Injustice of Reprinting Books” contends that Kant, far from being an intellectual property forerunner, builds his thesis on the relationship between the author and the public and justifies the publisher’s right only as far as he is acting as a spokesperson.

Lessig, Lawrence (2004). [e-Book]  Cultura libre: cómo los grandes medios están utilizando la tecnología y las leyes para encerrar la cultura y controlar la creatividad. Chile, LOM Ediciones. Texto completo: http://libros.metabiblioteca.org/bitstream/001/122/8/956-282-745-3.pdf

Free Culture debería traducirse en realidad con un título bimembre: “Cultura libre”, pero también “Liberen la cultura”.Lawrence Lessig, catedrático de Derecho en la Universidad de Harvard, se ha convertido en uno de los activistas más prestigiosos y reconocidos por sus trabajos en el campo de los derechos y libertades en Internet. Muy especialmente por su conocimiento y compromiso frente a los problemas y perjuicios que suscita la actual legislación sobre propiedad intelectual para el progreso cultural en el contexto de la sociedad digital. La tesis principal, que viene a defender a lo largo de este libro es que hoy en día junto a la privacidad, la forma en la que se están articulando las leyes del copyright es la principal barrera para el desarrollo de la cultura tal como se viene desarrollando y tal como la entendieron los padres fundadores de la Constitución de los EE UU. Tras la digitalización de los contenidos y con la llegada de Internet la aplicación restrictiva del copyright sitúa a los usuarios y a los nuevos creadores como potenciales infractores, en la mayoría de los casos incluso en posición de indefensión frente a los gestores y herederos de los derechos del copyright. En el libro Lessig aborda de forma muy detallada la evolución de los derechos de propiedad intelectual en los EEUU a lo largo de su historia. Entre los casos que se analizan, Lessig hace especial hincapié en el papel que desempeñan grupos como Disney o los lobbys vinculados a los grandes medios y productoras que presionan al Congreso para prorrogar el copyright de forma indefi nida, dándose la paradoja de que grupos y creadores que se han benefi ciado de la creación de dominio público durante años se han convertido en los mas convencidos defensores de su extinción. El libro muestra un panorama ciertamente preocupante ante el futuro. Por este motivo el título del libro, como bien indica el traductor puede entenderse como cultura libre, en el sentido que se aplica para el software libre o también podría traducirse por el imperativo, sin duda más elocuente: “Liberen la cultura”.

Lira Dias, Massilia María (2010). [e-Book]  Los conectores discursivos desde la retórica contrastiva: uso y contraste español-portugués. Salamanca, Universidad de Salamanca. Texto completo: http://gredos.usal.es/jspui/bitstream/10366/83132/1/DLE_LiraDiasMM_Losconectoresdiscursivos.pdf

[ES]La presente tesis de doctorado se centra en un an??lisis de tres grupos de conectores discursivos en espa??ol y en portugu??s: los opositivos, los causales-consecutivos y los aditivos, desde una perspectiva ret??rico-contrastiva (RC), fundamentada en las contribuciones te??ricas de Portol??s (1998;1999,2004); Montol??o (2001); Mart??n Zorraquino y Portol??s (1999), Dom??nguez (2002;2007), Connor (1996;2001) y Trujillo (2001,2002 y 2003), con el fin validar o matizar la hip??tesis de la RC cuando sostiene que existen diferencias significativas en la organizaci??n de los textos escritos en distintas lenguas y en diferentes contextos culturales. Por tanto, el objetivo fundamental de ese trabajo ha sido el de identificar las semejanzas y diferencias existentes en el uso de los conectores que marcan relaciones argumentativas en esas dos lenguas, en el g??nero discursivo cartas. Para ello, se analiz?? una muestra compuesta 240 cartas: un corpus de referencia textual en lengua espa??ola, con 120 cartas escritas por estudiantes brasile??os para el examen de Diploma de Espa??ol Lengua Extranjera – DELE, en el nivel superior (DSE), y el otro, con 120 cartas escritas por lectores de una revista de circulaci??n nacional en Brasil, la Revista Veja. Con base en esos corpora se han seleccionado los conectores y analizado su comportamiento discursivo, con el fin de identificar el grado de similitud, las diferencias sem??ntico-pragm??ticas, los valores socioling????sticos relacionados a la frecuencia de uso y las interferencias provocadas por la L1 en el uso de esos elementos en la L2. Concretamente, en el campo de la RC ese estudio discursivo nos ha permitido afirmar que desde el punto de vista de la utilizaci??n de los conectores argumentativos, dichos elementos, en su gran mayor??a, establecen relaciones argumentativas con id??nticos valores y matices sem??ntico-pragm??ticos en espa??ol y en portugu??s, lo que nos permite acercamos m??s al t??rmino transferencia que interferencia en su uso ret??rico-argumentativo.

Madramany Bonet, Carles (2011). [e-Book]  Técnicas de doblaje aplicadas al corto Heartless: The Story of the Tin Man. Valencia, Universidad Politécnica de Valencia. Texto completo: http://riunet.upv.es/bitstream/handle/10251/14728/Memoria.pdf?sequence=1

El objeto de estudio de esta tesina es el cortometraje “Heartless: The Story of the Tin Man”. Se trata de una producción de la compañía “Whitestone Motion Pictures” ubicada en Atlanta. Esta productora ha autorizado, con   ines educativos, a que se apliquen las técnicas de doblaje y postproducción a su cortometraje, para obtener la versión en español.

Marín Gallego, Cristina (2007). [e-Book]  La traducción para el doblaje de películas multilingües: Babel. Texto completo: http://acceda.ulpgc.es/bitstream/10553/4064/1/0536366_00000_0000.pdf

¿Cómo traducimos una película en la que aparecen diferentes lenguas? ¿Qué técnicas de traducción adoptamos? ¿Subtitulación o doblaje para una película multilingüe? ¿Adaptamos los referentes culturales? Todas estas preguntas surgirían al encontrarse con un encargo de traducción de este tipo. Posiblemente muchas de ellas las respondería el estudio de doblaje, teniendo en cuenta al cliente y a la audiencia. Sin embargo, este trabajo intenta responder a estas preguntas teniendo en cuenta también la teoría de la traducción y de los estudios culturales, tomando como ejemplo la película Babel.

Martín García, María Cruz (2011). [e-Book]  Inhibitory control in bilingualism. Granada, Universidad de Granada. Departamento de Psicología Experimental y Fisiología del Comportamiento. Texto completo: http://www.tdx.cat/handle/10803/80883

Tesis Univ. Granada. Departamento de Psicología Experimental y Fisiología del Comportamiento. Leída el 4 de noviembre de 2011

Mayoral Asensio, Roberto (1997). [e-Book]  La traducción de la variación lingüística. Sevilla, Excma. Diputación Provincial de Soria. Texto completo: http://www.ugr.es/~rasensio/docs/La_traduccion_variacion_linguistica.pdf

La traducción de la variedad lingüística estudia la traducción de las formas de hablar relacionadas con parámetros sociolingüísticos y situacionales, no sólo aquellos aspectos que dependen de la definición del perfil de un texto sino también en los niveles microtextuales señalados por marcadores específicos. La descripción del problema se hace a la luz de las aportaciones anteriores de la lingüística, la sociolingüística y los estudios de traducción. Tras una crítica de estas aportaciones, que todavía encuentran un enorme eco en el análisis de la traducción de nuestros días utilizando modelos lingüísticos que -sorprendentemente- ya van hacia las cuatro décadas de vida, este trabajo ofrece nuevas perspectivas de análisis del problema basadas en estudios empíricos, enfoques cognitivos y aportaciones de la teoría funcionalista de la traducción.

Nolan, James (2005). [e-Book]  Interpretation Techniques and Exercises Clevedon. Texto completo: http://tienganhdhm.com/Images/file/Intepretation-Techniques%20and%20Exercises.pdf

Over recent decades the explosive growth of globalization and regional integration has fueled parallel growth in multi-lingual conferences. Although conference interpreting has come of age as a profession, interpreter training programs have had varied success, pointing to the need for an instructional manual which covers the subject comprehensively. This book seeks to fill that need by providing a structured syllabus and an overview of interpretation accompanied by exercises, developed for the classroom, in the main aspects of the art. It is meant to serve as a practical guide for interpreters and as a complement to interpreter training programs, particularly those for students preparing for conference interpreting in international governmental and business settings.

Pérez Velasco, Juan Manuel (2001). Los falsos amigos: Adquisición de lenguas y cambio linguístico. In: Presencia y renovación de la lingüistica francesa, Salamanca : Ediciones Universidad de Salamanca, 2001: 377-384. http://dialnet.unirioja.es/descarga/articulo/600474.pdf

En el mundo de la pedagogía y en el de la traductología, especialmente, se viene hablando desde hace casi un siglo del fenómeno de los falsos amigos. Definidos como palabras de dos lenguas diferentes que presentan semejanzas formales y significados diferentes 1 (fr. table, esp. tabla ; fr. large, esp. largo ; fr. manège, esp. manejo…), los falsos amigos no han pasado de ser considerados como un fenómeno curioso que produce efectos más o menos graciosos o anecdóticos

Pwc (2012). [e-Book]  Translation Bureau Benchmarking and Comparative Analysis : Final Report May 15, 2012. Otawa, PWC. Texto completo: http://www.btb.gc.ca/publications/documents/rapport-report-benchmarking-eng.pdf

The Government of Canada’s Translation Bureau (‘the Bureau’) engaged PricewaterhouseCoopers LLP (‘PwC’) between January 16 and May 15, 2012 to conduct a benchmarking and comparative analysis study.  The objectives of the comparative analysis study
were to provide: • Information and analysis on the capacity of the Canadian industry to meet national and government demand; and
• Benchmarks for good practices in linguistic services with other organizations of comparable size at the national and international level.

Pym, Anthony, Alexander  Perekrestenko, et al. (2006). [e-Book]  Translation Technology and its Teaching (with much mention of localization). Tarragona, Intercultural Studies Group. Texto completo: http://isg.urv.es/library/papers/isgbook.pdf

More people than ever are being trained to translate. However, the most dynamic sector of the labor market requires more than mere translation. The demand is increasingly for professional competence in a range of new technologies. Translators now need professional competence in the use of programs for translation memories, terminology management, sometimes content management, and increasingly the integration of various forms of automatic or semi-automatic translation. At the same time, the use of these technologies is being associated, rightly or wrongly, with the development of what is known as the “localization industry”. Faced with these new technologies, and with the new terms, many of the institutions that traditionally train translators are asking how, and to what extent, the existing curricula need be changed. The papers brought together in this volume seek to address this question in various ways. All have been drawn from various activities organized by the Intercultural Studies Group in recent years. The first papers seek to give a general background to the recent developments in translation technology. The paper on “Technology and Translation”, by José Ramón Biau Gil and Anthony Pym, was first written as a chapter of a university-level coursebook in translation, to be published in Italy. Its aim is not only to introduce the range of new tools available, but to encourage critical thought about the use of electronic technologies. The second paper in this introductory section, Bert Esselink’s “The Evolution of Localization”, was first published in 2003 and has been updated for this volume. It tells a similar story of technology, but this time from within the industry. Esselink traces the expansion of the localization industry from a narrow concern with software to a major way of thinking about the marketing of products across borders. Section two of this volume is drawn from the online conference on Localization and Translator Training, which took place on the ITIT list (Innovations in Translator Training) from 19 to 29 November 2003, with about 530 participants. The conference was based on number of position papers written by representatives of some of the main translator-training institutions. In most cases, those papers were responses to a brief questionnaire designed to explore the relations between the terms “translation” and “localization” with specific reference to training needs. The replies reproduced here are by Minako O’Hagan from Dublin City University in Ireland, Bob Clark, Jo Drugan, Tony Hartley and Daming Wu from the University of Leeds, UK, and Patrick Drouin from the University of Montreal. The online discussions that followed those papers can be seen on the ITIT  list ( http://groups.yahoo.com/group/itit/). What we present here are summaries of some of the main topics, written up by students in the Tarragona PhD program

Ramírez Zúñiga, Andrea (2003). [e-Book]  Doblaje versus subtitulaje : Comparación traductológica, Universidad Nacional. Texto completo: http://www.mogap.net/pmt/AndreaRamirez.pdf

El presente trabajo consiste en una investigación acerca del doblaje y subtitulaje audiovisual a través de la comparación de ambas modalidades en términos de género y contexto diferentes. El propósito del análisis se hará en función de determinar los procesos traductológicos empleados como lo es definir la labor del traductor dentro de un área muy moderna y por tanto flexible para poner en práctica la traducción profesional. Esta monografía se basa en la traducción audiovisual, que contrasta el doblaje y el subtitulaje como modalidades traductológicas distintas que tienen por meta dar a conocer a miles de espectadores, películas producidas en países extranjeros. La idea consistió en escoger dos películas, Shrek y The Sound of Music de las cuales se seleccionaron tres pasajes o diálogos. Luego, se procedió
a escribir las transcripciones, utilizando la versión original en inglés, la subtitulada y la versión doblada al español, de manera que se delimitara el proceso y trabajo traductológico, el tipo de acepción, el contexto o ambiente y más; todo esto con el único objetivo de determinar cual modalidad requiere de más trabajo por parte del traductor. Como resultado se da la búsqueda de equivalencias según contextos socio culturales y se destaca el tiempo como factor indispensable en el desarrollo de la traducción audiovisual, sin dejar de lado consideraciones respecto a políticas lingüísticas o restricciones sociales, léxico, mensaje, cliente y público meta. La investigación en sí, fue favorable al revelar muchos detalles ocultos en la traducción de películas, la variación de género cinematográfico cambia el tipo de léxico y la intencionalidad y a grandes rasgos se puede decir que el doblaje en términos traductológicos es mucho mejor en las dos películas estudiadas, aunque cabe destacar que la idea original del subtitulaje, es decir en pocas palabras lo que sucede en una imagen junto con el diálogo, y el doblaje por su parte consiste en cambiar la banda sonora, es decir, las voces serán al español y deberán ir sincronizadas con los movimientos visuales y gestuales de un actor.

Shiyab, Said M. , Marilyn Gaddis  Rose, et al. (2010). [e-Book]  Globalization and Aspects of Translation. Cambridge Cambridge Scholars Publishing. Texto completo: http://www.c-s-p.org/flyers/978-1-4438-1965-7-sample.pdf

The present book came to light as a result of the ideas discussed during our 1st International Conference on Translation/Interpretation and the Impact of Globalization, held at the United Arab Emirates University. I am grateful to Marilyn Gaddis Rose, Juliane House, and John Duval for their dedication, efforts and professionalism. Their vision and every-present energy helped me understand and in fact appreciate the many venues within the fields of language, linguistics and translation. This book has attempted to capture the quintessence or the epitome
embodied in the concepts of translation and globalization. It also attempted to bridge the gap between the globalizing and globalized realms. Above all, it brings to light the diversity of areas in globalization and aspects of translation that have impacted the notions of cultural  communication, translator’s code of ethics, metaphorical meaning, code switching, media, etc. Scholars from all over the world contributed to this book, representing counties such USA, Canada, Germany, Portugal, Switzerland, Belgium, Austria, Tunisia, Bahrain, Jordan, and United Arab Emirates. Those scholars have done their research in their home countries on other parts of the world. Because of this diversity, I believe this book genuinely offers an international experience. In Chapter 1, Said Shiyab examines different aspects of globalization in relation to translation. Faces of globalization are highlighted to make the point that globalization does not only evolve around language and/or translation changes, but also around information technology. One of the most significant points that this chapter addresses is that scholars, including translators and interpreters, cannot control how languages change as globalization is a result of technological advancements our society is witnessing these days and, as a consequence of this, our languages changes in accordance with the translation market needs and those who use it for marketing purposes.

Somssich, Réka , Judit  Várnai, et al. (2010). [e-Book]  Lawmaking in the EU multilingual environment Luxemburg, European Commission. Texto completo: http://bookshop.europa.eu/en/study-on-lawmaking-in-the-eu-multilingual-environment-pbHC3110678/downloads/HC-31-10-678-EN-C/HC3110678ENC_002.pdf?FileName=HC3110678ENC_002.pdf&SKU=HC3110678ENC_PDF&CatalogueNumber=HC-31-10-678-EN-C

La politique du multilinguisme de l’Union européenne poursuit trois objectifs: – Encourager l’apprentissage des langues et promouvoir la diversité linguistique dans la société; – Favoriser une économie multilingue performante; – Donner aux citoyens un accès à la législation, aux procédures et aux informations de l’Union européenne dans leur propre langue. La présente étude aborde le troisième volet de cette politique, et plus précisément le processus d’élaboration multilingue du droit européen, le rôle des différents acteurs institutionnels dans ce processus et les méthodes visant à assurer la bonne qualité rédactionnelle, juridique et linguistique des actes juridiques produits par les institutions européennes.

Story, Alan, Colin Darch, et al. (2008). [e-Book]  El dossier copia/sur: problemas económicos, políticos, e ideológicos del copyright (derecho de autor) en el sur global, Copy/South Research Group. Texto completo: http://eprints.rclis.org/11451/

In 2005, a group of scholars and activists, mostly from the global South, created the Copy/South Research Group to analyse, criticise, and confront the oppressive nature of current global copyright regimes, such as those defended by the World Intellectual Property Organisation, and similar ones around the globe. In May 2006, 22 of us, including 15 people from the global South, published THE COPY/SOUTH DOSSIER: Issues in the economics, politics, and ideology of copyright in the global South. The aim of the Dossier was to open up a critical and radical debate on the real impact of copyright laws and how they affect the daily lives of people living in more than 150 developing countries of the global South. We also highlighted issues that are not unique to the Global South, but also affect both sides of the North-South divide. This publication of more than 50 articles was addressed to researchers, educators, librarians, musicians, activists, organizations concerned about access to knowledge, and all of those who want to learn more about the oppressive global role of copyright laws and, in particular, their largely negative role in the developing countries of the global South. Given the democratic objectives of the Copy/South Research Group, the Dossier was not restricted by copyright. Therefore, it has been accessed openly and freely in both electronic and paper formats by thousands of readers from around the world in English. But English is not spoken by all citizens in the global South. With this in mind, the entire 200-page Dossier was translated into Spanish in late 2007 by an enthusiastic team of voluntary translators from Argentina, Bolivia, Cuba, Mexico, Spain, and Venezuela. As for this Spanish version, made with the support of the Intellectual Property Automous Service (SAPI), from the Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela, we must acknowledge the prior SAPI’s General Director Eduardo Samán for promoting the making of this translation. Besides the general revision of Gerardo Cárdenas and his labor as main translator, some other volunteers translated or revised important sections of the Spanish edition: María Jesús Morillo (Spain), Oscar Pérez Peña and Gilda Gil (Cuba), Edgardo Civallero (Argentina) and Rafael Carreño (Venezuela), who coordinated the process of translation in 2007. Also it is worth to mention the additional colaboration of Ana Lía López (Bolivia), Richard Castro, Rafael Bellota and Carmen Chirinos (Venezuela), Zapopan Muela and Gonzalo Lara (Mexico), and Lilian Álvarez (Cuba). But what is still more extraordinary about this Spanish translation is that it was completely coordinated and edited by the Servicio Autonomo de la Propiedad Intelectual (SAPI) of the democratic government of the Venezuelan Bolivarian Republic. The Dossier provides “useful material to introduce this topic to teachers and students” and does a good job of “summarizing a complex and conflicting situation” for developing countries, Jumersi La Rosa, SAPI’s new director, said last week in announcing the release of the Spanish edition. She has written a special new introduction for the Spanish-language edition. The Copy South Research Group is very pleased that the radical message of resistance found in the Dossier can now be read by thousands of Spanish-language speakers who are questioning the current copyright regime and who hopefully will be ignited by the ideas in the Dossier to take up the fight against oppressive regimes based on copyright. You can get a copy of the Dossier in Spanish and English by downloading it, free of charge, at http://www.copysouth.org . We also still have a limited number of printed and bound copies of the English-language version of the Dossier. If you would to be mailed a copy of the English-language version, which contains eight posters, send us an e-mail (contact@copysouth.org) and include your full postal details. COPY/SOUTH RESEARCH GROUP, 28 April 2008.

Thesauri, Working Group on Guidelines for Multilingual (2009). [e-Book]  Guidelines for Multilingual Thesauri. La Haya, IFLA. Texto completo: http://archive.ifla.org/VII/s29/pubs/Profrep115.pdf

Multilingual indexing vocabularies exist in different forms, e.g. subject heading lists, thesauri, enumerative classifications, analytico-synthetic classifications. In a multilingual indexing vocabulary both the terms and the relationships are represented in more than one language. In this document the emphasis is on multilingual thesauri. Since the drawing up of the Guidelines for the Establishment and Development of Multilingual Thesauri in the 1970s two developments have played important roles in the thinking about multilingual access to information: the building of nonsymmetrical thesauri and the linking of two or more thesauri and/or controlled vocabularies.

Yueh-Wen, Fang (2012). [e-Book]  Falsos amigos español-inglés en estudiantes de español como lengua extranjera: el caso de taiwanés. Salamanca, Universidad de Salamanca. Texto completo: http://gredos.usal.es/jspui/bitstream/10366/115556/1/DTI_YuehWenF_FalsosAmigosEspa%c3%b1olIngl%c3%a9s.pdf

[ES] Esta tesis estudia los falsos amigos entre los idiomas espa??ol-ingl??s que se le presentan a estudiantes taiwaneses en el proceso de aprendizaje de la lengua espa??ola, y se proporcionan algunas soluciones a este tipo de problemas.