Libros electrónicos sobre Traducción Febrero 2013

Libros electrónicos de Traducción Febrero 2013
  I nfoTrad 12 de enero de 2012

[e-Book]  Mapping best multilingual business practices in the EU European Commission. Texto completo:

The digital age and globalisation have together changed the European business environment for good. As companies and their employees deal with different languages and cultures on a daily basis, multilingualism can no longer be considered just as an asset or a competitive advantage, but rather as a fact of life. Thus, multilingualism has become a global issue as well as a transversal issue within organisations, since digital communication is erasing national and linguistic boundaries. Faced with this multilingual reality, companies have adopted a number of innovative business practices described in the case studies carried out in European companies. These include intercomprehension (the parallel use of different languages which have similar structures and vocabularies), collaborative interpretation and use of language technology tools, such as machine translation. However, social networks and collaborative methods have led to increasingly complex and technical content. Human resources will always be needed to validate translations, both the machine generated and the human variety. As well as case studies and analysis, this study on multilingual business practices contains a set of recommendations to enhance multilingualism in business. These include the development of multilingual business strategies, the establishment of a European Observatory of Multilingual Business Practices, a quality label for multilingual European company websites translated into more than four languages, and support for the European Company Statute

(2004). [e-Book]  A National Code of Ethics for Interpreters in Health Care. Washington The National Council on Interpreting in Health Care  Texto completo:

As the profession of health care interpreting in the United States matures and evolves, the importance of creating shared understandings of what is considered high quality and ethically appropriate principles and practices in the field becomes imperative.  To this end, the National Council on Interpreting in Health Care identified three steps that needed to take place on a national level in order to standardize the expectations that the health care industry and patients should have of interpreters and to raise the quality of health care interpreting.  The first step was to create and build support for a single Code of Ethics that would guide the practice of interpreters working in health care venues.  The second step was to develop a nationally accepted, unified set of Standards of Practice based on the Code of Ethics that would define competent practice in the field.  The third step was to create a national certification process that would set a standard for qualification as a professional health care interpreter.

(2008). [e-Book]  Professional Standards and Ethics for California Court Interpreters. San Francisco, Judicial Council of California. Texto completo:

This manual is intended to inform interpreters of their professional and ethical responsibilities so that they are better able to deal with the difficulties that commonly arise in matters involving non-English-speaking parties in the judicial system. It also serves as a reference and springboard for discussion in conjunction with the Judicial Council Ethics Workshop, which is provided as an integral part of the education and certification or registration of court interpreters in the State of California. In addition to the regulations and recommendations provided here, it is important to note that different courts have their own rules and ways of conducting business. It is the interpreter’s duty to learn and follow these rules as well. In the courtroom, the judge is the final arbiter of what is appropriate. The more prepared and informed you are about professional practices and the purpose of established norms and principles, the more you, together with all officers of the court, will be able to further the interests of justice. This manual is based largely on the rules and principles set forth in rule 2.890 of the California Rules of Court  (“Professional conduct for interpreters”, see appendix A); California Standards of Judicial Administration  adopted by the Judicial Council of California for interpreted proceedings (Standard 2.10 and Standard 2.11;  see appendix C); the Standards for Performance and Professional Responsibility for Contract Court  Interpreters in the Federal Courts (see appendix E) and W. E. Hewitt, Court Interpretation: Model Guides for Policy and Practice in the State Courts, Publication R-167 (Williamsburg, Virginia: State Justice Institute,  1995).

(2009). [e-Book]  Congreso Mundial de Traducción Especializada. La Habana, Unión Latina. Texto completo:

El Congreso Mundial de Traducción Especializada fue celebrado en el año 2008, que fuera proclamado por las Naciones Unidas Año Internacional de los Idiomas. En ese contexto, con el propósito de destacar la importancia del traductor como uno de los factores primordiales en la preservación de la diversidad lingüística, el Congreso congregó a diversos especialistas que trataron múltiples aspectos de la profesión del traductor bajo el gran lema “Lenguas y diálogo intercultural en un mundo en globalización”. Contó con cerca de 300 participantes, en su mayoría traductores, provenientes de los cinco continentes que pudieron expresarse en los cinco idiomas oficiales del Congreso: español, francés, inglés, portugués y ruso. Así, se ofrecieron durante este encuentro una variedad de comunicaciones que estudiaron, desde un punto de vista más político que científico, diferentes facetas de la traducción a escala internacional. Los grandes temas en los que se clasificaron las ponencias fueron: • La traducción en organismos internacionales y en las patentes y normas • Traducción automatizada • Herramientas lingüísticas y recursos en línea • Corpus lingüísticos y estudios de caso • La profesión del traductor: especialización, formación y sinergias • “La traducción es muy cara y lenta” o mentiras del monolingüismo

(2010). [e-Book]  Étude portant sur la contribution de la traduction à la société multilingue dans l’Union européenne Luxemburg, European Commission. Texto completo:

Economic, cultural, legal and political dimensions of translation in the EU, and different countries’ perceptions of translation. Translation (transposing a text from one language into another) unquestionably plays a major role in today’s world (daily life, information, interaction, cultural and economic activities, etc.) – and that role is growing with globalization and the consequent proliferation of interactions in which the partners speak different languages. In an ordinary day, a European citizen may drink coffee imported from Peru, on which the label has been translated, read an article in a newspaper translated by a news agency, check his or her emails on a localized interface installed on a computer with a localized operating system, read a translated Finnish novel in the bus or tube, operate a machine tool at work, of which the manual is translated, use an automatic translation website to obtain up-to-date news on events in Iceland, go home to watch a TV series with subtitles, and so on.

(2010). [e-Book]  Study on the size of the language industry in the EU. Luxemburg, European Commission. Texto completo:

A study on the rapid growth of the language industry, covering translation, interpreting, software localisation, website globalisation, language technology and related fields. Includes country factsheets.

(2011). [e-Book]  Lingua Franca: Chimera or Reality? . Luxemburg, European Commission. Texto completo:

The intensification of exchanges in our globalised world has dramatically increased the need for a common language. More and more often this common language is English, considered by many to be today’s lingua franca and only secondarily the mother tongue of specific communities of speakers. The issue, however, is extremely controversial and raises as many questions as it tries to answer. English is not the first language to play this role, other languages have been used as lingue franche in the past and others may therefore acquire this status in the future. Moreover, the concept of lingua franca itself is often questioned. Before examining the status of English in order to see whether it can be considered a lingua franca or, more precisely, today’s lingua franca, the very concept of lingua franca needs to be defined more precisely. In addition, a review of other lingue franche can provide a clearer image of how they develop and disappear, as well as the needs they are supposed to meet, in relation to the present situation. Based on the definition, this study will focus on the lingua franca as a vehicular language which allows inter-comprehension among people speaking different mother tongues, as a neutral language or jargon of which nobody can claim ownership, but also as the mother tongue of one of the parties in the exchange. Based on this analysis, the second part of the study will be devoted to English to try and define more precisely its new status as a global language and to explore the implications of this new role

(2012). [e-Book]  Crowdsourcing translation: Studies on translation and multilingualism. Luxembourg, European Commission. Texto completo:

The advent of the Internet  and its rash development in the past few decades have revolutionised our habits and patterns of behaviour. It offers huge opportunities for communication or access to information, but is often blamed for disrupting human relations. We all ­ and especially young people ­ spend more and more hours in front of the screen. An increasing number of tasks, which in the past involved direct human contacts, are now performed through a  machine ­ from carrying out banking transactions or buying plane  tickets, to playing interactive games with people living thousands of kilometres away, or even donating money for a worthy cause. However, new forms of communication are emerging thanks to the Web, notably the Web 2.0 ­ web applications that facilitate participatory information sharing, interaction and collaboration among users and creation of user-generated content, like social networks, blogs, and wikis. Among these applications, crowdsourcing deserves great attention. The term crowdsourcing was created at the end of the 1990s to indicate a new way of getting work done, by involving the ‘crowd’. It is constantly gaining ground and has by now penetrated a wide range of highly diversified areas. And yet, it remains for many an obscure concept. What does crowdsourcing exactly mean and what does it imply, notably in translation where it has lately become a hot topic?

(2012). [e-Book]  Intercomprehension: Exploring its usefulness for DGT, the Commission and the EU, European Commission. Texto completo:

Intercomprehension is a relatively new field in linguistic research, which has focused mainly on the usefulness of intercomprehension in language teaching. The present study aims at broadening this scope. The study does not pretend to be academic, but to describe how intercomprehension is used in organisations, companies and society at large, and look into how the European Commission could benefit from intercomprehension. Intercomprehension refers to a relationship between languages in which speakers of different but related languages can readily understand each other without intentional study or extraordinary effort. It is a form of communication in which each person uses his/her own language and understands that of the other(s). Intercomprehension is used in society, education and the business world. Since its precondition is the existence of more languages, the same as for translation, it seems logical to explore to what extent translation can benefit from intercomprehension. The study aims to examine the potential of intercomprehension for: society and the European citizens, multilingualism within the European institutions

(2012). [e-Book]  Open translation tools, Texto completo:

The first wave of the internet revolution changed expectations about the availability of information a great deal. Information that was stored in libraries, locked in government vaults or available only to subscribers suddenly became accessible to anyone with an internet connection. A second wave has changed expectations about who creates information online. Tens of millions of people are contributing content to the modern internet, publishing photos, videos, and blog posts to a global audience. The globalization of the internet has brought connectivity to almost 1.6 billion people. The internet that results from globalization and user-authorship is profoundly polyglot. Wikipedia is now available in more than 210 languages, which implies that there are communities capable of authoring content in those tongues. Weblog search engine Technorati sees at least as many blog posts in Japanese as in English, and some scholars speculate that there may be as much Chinese content created on sites like Sina and QQ as on all English-language blogs combined.

Allen, Esther (2007). [e-Book]  To be translated or not To be. Barcelona, Institut Ramon Llull. Texto completo:

This report therefore begins with the assessment of the unprecedented global scope of English and the current state of literary translation in the English-speaking world and particularly in the United States that will be undertaken in the first chapter. Then, by contrast and as context to the situation of English, the second chapter comments on responses from PEN Centers across the globe to a questionnaire about literary translation sent out by International PEN. To provide further points of comparison, the report presents in the third chapter six case studies from different parts of the world to describe what could be called the “translation economy” of each region: the Netherlands, Argentina, Catalonia, Germany, China and France. The subsequent chapter on experiences on literary translation describes the successful initiatives of a number of PEN Centers to address the need for more translation into English, as well as significant efforts by other institutions, both public and private, to engage with this issue in ways that can make a  difference. Finally, the conclusions try to summarize the main findings of the report and offer a general view of literary translation in today’s world. Three distinguished writers, Paul Auster, Narcís Comadira, and Ngu~g ~ wa Thiong’o, have contributed literary depth to what might otherwise have been a lamentably technocratic document by composing texts on the subject of translation especially for this report.

Bielsa, Esperanca (2005). [e-Book]  Globalisation as Translation: An Approximation to the Key but Invisible Role of Translation in Globalisation, CSGR Texto completo:

Two fundamental features of globalisation are the overcoming of spatial barriers and the centrality of knowledge and information. These developments, which result in the increased mobility of people and objects and a heightened contact between different linguistic communities (mass tourism, migration, information and media flows) signal, in spite of the predominance of English as a global lingua franca, an exponential growth in the significance of translation, which becomes a key mediator of global communication. Yet language and translation have been systematically neglected in the current literature on globalisation. This article critically examines current theories of globalisation and interrogates their lack of attention towards translation. It formulates an attempt to understand the significance of translation in a global context, conceptualising its analytical place in globalisation theory and its key role in the articulation of the global and the local.

Durand Guiziou, Marie-Claire, Francisca A. Muñoz Ojeda, et al. (1994). Los falsos amigos en su contexto. In: Actas del II Coloquio sobre los estudios de filología francesa en la Universidad española : (Almagro, 3-5 de mayo de 1993), [Cuenca] : Servicio de Publicaciones de la Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha, 1994: 103-110.

Este trabajo se inscribe dentro de una línea de investigación sobre los falsos amigos, fruto de unas observaciones pedagógicas llevadas a cabo en el aula universitaria y que han dado lugar a varias publicaciones (véase Gonzalez Santana R.D. y al., 1993a) y 1993b)). La presente comunicación está orientada hacia las implicaciones de estos falsos amigos en la adquisición de la competencia traslativa así como a su tratamiento mediante unas aplicaciones prácticas. Los falsos amigos dan lugar a faltas que perjudican la comunicación en el aprendizaje del francés lengua extranjera. El contacto entre dos lenguas vecinas ­como el castellano y el francés­ da lugar a numerosas interferencias1. El problema de las palabras supuestamente amigas en el plano semántico LM/LE y LE/LM (lengua materna/lengua extranjera) tiene igualmente consecuencias importantes en la adquisición de la actividad traslativa.

Dzeyk, Waldemar (2010). [e-Book]  Effektiv und nutzerfreundlich. Einsatz von semantischen Technologien und Usability-Methoden zur Verbesserung der medizinischen Literatursuche, Deutsche Zentralbibliothek für Medizin (ZB MED). Texto completo:

OBJECTIVE: Modern language technology has many advantages in medical information retrieval. In combination with up-to-date search software the linguistic approach leads to more and better results in medical literature search (i.e. relevant hits) for phenomena such as synonyms, translations and linguistic variants (inflection, derivation, word-composition, etc.). Additionally, a normalization of laymen and expert queries can be achieved. The book presents the results of the MorphoSaurus project conducted by the German National Library of Medicine. It describes the implementation and evaluation of a computational linguistic approach to improve the quality of the information retrieval of the MEDPILOT medical search engine. Furthermore, the usability of the user interface was evaluated and improved. METHODS: Different collections of test queries were constructed for examining the performance of information retrieval characteristics based on a content analysis of the MEDPILOT log file. In addition, a usability test with 24 physicians was conducted. RESULTS: The findings show that the new search architecture performs much better than the old MEDPILOT system. Besides these results a benchmarking with competing search engines such as PubMed, GoPubMed, Scirus, Google and Google Scholar demonstrated the superior search characteristics of the new search system. Usability tests have shown that the implemented help functions such as “faceted search” or the “auto suggest function” could improve medical literature search. Physicians stated that they found the new interface more satisfying than the old one and that they felt well supported by most of the implemented help functions. Results and consequences for the development of user centered design and usability improvements of the search engine are discussed. CONCLUSION: The combination of up up-to-date search software, semantic technologies and the application of usability principles has shown a great potential for effective information retrieval in medical literature search. The positive effects of the linguistic approach can be adapted to other content domains for improving the processing of a variety of heterogeneous databases.

Hatim, Basil  and Jeremy  Munday (2004). [e-Book]  Translation: An advanced resource book. New York, Routledge. Texto completo:

Translation, both commercial and literary, is an activity that is growing phenomenally in today’s globalized world. The study of translation, an interdisciplinary field known as Translation Studies, has also developed enormously in the past twenty years. It interfaces with a wide range of other disciplines from linguistics and modern languages to Cultural Studies and postcolonialism. This book attempts to investigate both the practice and the theory of translation in an accessible and systematic way. It is designed specifically with the needs in mind of students of Masters degrees and nal year undergraduates in translation or applied linguistics, research students beginning to investigate the eld, and practising translators who wish to examine the theory behind the practice. It is hoped that it will also provide useful insights and examples for more experienced researchers.

Kant, Immanuel, Maria Chiara Pievatolo, et al. (2011). [e-Book]  Sette scritti politici liberi, Firenze University Press. Texto completo:

Hyper-textual, open access Italian translation of Kant’s seven major political writings. Its preface tries to explain why the translations of classics should be open access and open licensed. The editor’s annotation to the essay “On the Injustice of Reprinting Books” contends that Kant, far from being an intellectual property forerunner, builds his thesis on the relationship between the author and the public and justifies the publisher’s right only as far as he is acting as a spokesperson.

Lessig, Lawrence (2004). [e-Book]  Cultura libre: cómo los grandes medios están utilizando la tecnología y las leyes para encerrar la cultura y controlar la creatividad. Chile, LOM Ediciones. Texto completo:

Free Culture debería traducirse en realidad con un título bimembre: “Cultura libre”, pero también “Liberen la cultura”.Lawrence Lessig, catedrático de Derecho en la Universidad de Harvard, se ha convertido en uno de los activistas más prestigiosos y reconocidos por sus trabajos en el campo de los derechos y libertades en Internet. Muy especialmente por su conocimiento y compromiso frente a los problemas y perjuicios que suscita la actual legislación sobre propiedad intelectual para el progreso cultural en el contexto de la sociedad digital. La tesis principal, que viene a defender a lo largo de este libro es que hoy en día junto a la privacidad, la forma en la que se están articulando las leyes del copyright es la principal barrera para el desarrollo de la cultura tal como se viene desarrollando y tal como la entendieron los padres fundadores de la Constitución de los EE UU. Tras la digitalización de los contenidos y con la llegada de Internet la aplicación restrictiva del copyright sitúa a los usuarios y a los nuevos creadores como potenciales infractores, en la mayoría de los casos incluso en posición de indefensión frente a los gestores y herederos de los derechos del copyright. En el libro Lessig aborda de forma muy detallada la evolución de los derechos de propiedad intelectual en los EEUU a lo largo de su historia. Entre los casos que se analizan, Lessig hace especial hincapié en el papel que desempeñan grupos como Disney o los lobbys vinculados a los grandes medios y productoras que presionan al Congreso para prorrogar el copyright de forma indefi nida, dándose la paradoja de que grupos y creadores que se han benefi ciado de la creación de dominio público durante años se han convertido en los mas convencidos defensores de su extinción. El libro muestra un panorama ciertamente preocupante ante el futuro. Por este motivo el título del libro, como bien indica el traductor puede entenderse como cultura libre, en el sentido que se aplica para el software libre o también podría traducirse por el imperativo, sin duda más elocuente: “Liberen la cultura”.

Lira Dias, Massilia María (2010). [e-Book]  Los conectores discursivos desde la retórica contrastiva: uso y contraste español-portugués. Salamanca, Universidad de Salamanca. Texto completo:

[ES]La presente tesis de doctorado se centra en un an??lisis de tres grupos de conectores discursivos en espa??ol y en portugu??s: los opositivos, los causales-consecutivos y los aditivos, desde una perspectiva ret??rico-contrastiva (RC), fundamentada en las contribuciones te??ricas de Portol??s (1998;1999,2004); Montol??o (2001); Mart??n Zorraquino y Portol??s (1999), Dom??nguez (2002;2007), Connor (1996;2001) y Trujillo (2001,2002 y 2003), con el fin validar o matizar la hip??tesis de la RC cuando sostiene que existen diferencias significativas en la organizaci??n de los textos escritos en distintas lenguas y en diferentes contextos culturales. Por tanto, el objetivo fundamental de ese trabajo ha sido el de identificar las semejanzas y diferencias existentes en el uso de los conectores que marcan relaciones argumentativas en esas dos lenguas, en el g??nero discursivo cartas. Para ello, se analiz?? una muestra compuesta 240 cartas: un corpus de referencia textual en lengua espa??ola, con 120 cartas escritas por estudiantes brasile??os para el examen de Diploma de Espa??ol Lengua Extranjera – DELE, en el nivel superior (DSE), y el otro, con 120 cartas escritas por lectores de una revista de circulaci??n nacional en Brasil, la Revista Veja. Con base en esos corpora se han seleccionado los conectores y analizado su comportamiento discursivo, con el fin de identificar el grado de similitud, las diferencias sem??ntico-pragm??ticas, los valores socioling????sticos relacionados a la frecuencia de uso y las interferencias provocadas por la L1 en el uso de esos elementos en la L2. Concretamente, en el campo de la RC ese estudio discursivo nos ha permitido afirmar que desde el punto de vista de la utilizaci??n de los conectores argumentativos, dichos elementos, en su gran mayor??a, establecen relaciones argumentativas con id??nticos valores y matices sem??ntico-pragm??ticos en espa??ol y en portugu??s, lo que nos permite acercamos m??s al t??rmino transferencia que interferencia en su uso ret??rico-argumentativo.

Madramany Bonet, Carles (2011). [e-Book]  Técnicas de doblaje aplicadas al corto Heartless: The Story of the Tin Man. Valencia, Universidad Politécnica de Valencia. Texto completo:

El objeto de estudio de esta tesina es el cortometraje “Heartless: The Story of the Tin Man”. Se trata de una producción de la compañía “Whitestone Motion Pictures” ubicada en Atlanta. Esta productora ha autorizado, con   ines educativos, a que se apliquen las técnicas de doblaje y postproducción a su cortometraje, para obtener la versión en español.

Marín Gallego, Cristina (2007). [e-Book]  La traducción para el doblaje de películas multilingües: Babel. Texto completo:

¿Cómo traducimos una película en la que aparecen diferentes lenguas? ¿Qué técnicas de traducción adoptamos? ¿Subtitulación o doblaje para una película multilingüe? ¿Adaptamos los referentes culturales? Todas estas preguntas surgirían al encontrarse con un encargo de traducción de este tipo. Posiblemente muchas de ellas las respondería el estudio de doblaje, teniendo en cuenta al cliente y a la audiencia. Sin embargo, este trabajo intenta responder a estas preguntas teniendo en cuenta también la teoría de la traducción y de los estudios culturales, tomando como ejemplo la película Babel.

Martín García, María Cruz (2011). [e-Book]  Inhibitory control in bilingualism. Granada, Universidad de Granada. Departamento de Psicología Experimental y Fisiología del Comportamiento. Texto completo:

Tesis Univ. Granada. Departamento de Psicología Experimental y Fisiología del Comportamiento. Leída el 4 de noviembre de 2011

Mayoral Asensio, Roberto (1997). [e-Book]  La traducción de la variación lingüística. Sevilla, Excma. Diputación Provincial de Soria. Texto completo:

La traducción de la variedad lingüística estudia la traducción de las formas de hablar relacionadas con parámetros sociolingüísticos y situacionales, no sólo aquellos aspectos que dependen de la definición del perfil de un texto sino también en los niveles microtextuales señalados por marcadores específicos. La descripción del problema se hace a la luz de las aportaciones anteriores de la lingüística, la sociolingüística y los estudios de traducción. Tras una crítica de estas aportaciones, que todavía encuentran un enorme eco en el análisis de la traducción de nuestros días utilizando modelos lingüísticos que -sorprendentemente- ya van hacia las cuatro décadas de vida, este trabajo ofrece nuevas perspectivas de análisis del problema basadas en estudios empíricos, enfoques cognitivos y aportaciones de la teoría funcionalista de la traducción.

Nolan, James (2005). [e-Book]  Interpretation Techniques and Exercises Clevedon. Texto completo:

Over recent decades the explosive growth of globalization and regional integration has fueled parallel growth in multi-lingual conferences. Although conference interpreting has come of age as a profession, interpreter training programs have had varied success, pointing to the need for an instructional manual which covers the subject comprehensively. This book seeks to fill that need by providing a structured syllabus and an overview of interpretation accompanied by exercises, developed for the classroom, in the main aspects of the art. It is meant to serve as a practical guide for interpreters and as a complement to interpreter training programs, particularly those for students preparing for conference interpreting in international governmental and business settings.

Pérez Velasco, Juan Manuel (2001). Los falsos amigos: Adquisición de lenguas y cambio linguístico. In: Presencia y renovación de la lingüistica francesa, Salamanca : Ediciones Universidad de Salamanca, 2001: 377-384.

En el mundo de la pedagogía y en el de la traductología, especialmente, se viene hablando desde hace casi un siglo del fenómeno de los falsos amigos. Definidos como palabras de dos lenguas diferentes que presentan semejanzas formales y significados diferentes 1 (fr. table, esp. tabla ; fr. large, esp. largo ; fr. manège, esp. manejo…), los falsos amigos no han pasado de ser considerados como un fenómeno curioso que produce efectos más o menos graciosos o anecdóticos

Pwc (2012). [e-Book]  Translation Bureau Benchmarking and Comparative Analysis : Final Report May 15, 2012. Otawa, PWC. Texto completo:

The Government of Canada’s Translation Bureau (‘the Bureau’) engaged PricewaterhouseCoopers LLP (‘PwC’) between January 16 and May 15, 2012 to conduct a benchmarking and comparative analysis study.  The objectives of the comparative analysis study
were to provide: • Information and analysis on the capacity of the Canadian industry to meet national and government demand; and
• Benchmarks for good practices in linguistic services with other organizations of comparable size at the national and international level.

Pym, Anthony, Alexander  Perekrestenko, et al. (2006). [e-Book]  Translation Technology and its Teaching (with much mention of localization). Tarragona, Intercultural Studies Group. Texto completo:

More people than ever are being trained to translate. However, the most dynamic sector of the labor market requires more than mere translation. The demand is increasingly for professional competence in a range of new technologies. Translators now need professional competence in the use of programs for translation memories, terminology management, sometimes content management, and increasingly the integration of various forms of automatic or semi-automatic translation. At the same time, the use of these technologies is being associated, rightly or wrongly, with the development of what is known as the “localization industry”. Faced with these new technologies, and with the new terms, many of the institutions that traditionally train translators are asking how, and to what extent, the existing curricula need be changed. The papers brought together in this volume seek to address this question in various ways. All have been drawn from various activities organized by the Intercultural Studies Group in recent years. The first papers seek to give a general background to the recent developments in translation technology. The paper on “Technology and Translation”, by José Ramón Biau Gil and Anthony Pym, was first written as a chapter of a university-level coursebook in translation, to be published in Italy. Its aim is not only to introduce the range of new tools available, but to encourage critical thought about the use of electronic technologies. The second paper in this introductory section, Bert Esselink’s “The Evolution of Localization”, was first published in 2003 and has been updated for this volume. It tells a similar story of technology, but this time from within the industry. Esselink traces the expansion of the localization industry from a narrow concern with software to a major way of thinking about the marketing of products across borders. Section two of this volume is drawn from the online conference on Localization and Translator Training, which took place on the ITIT list (Innovations in Translator Training) from 19 to 29 November 2003, with about 530 participants. The conference was based on number of position papers written by representatives of some of the main translator-training institutions. In most cases, those papers were responses to a brief questionnaire designed to explore the relations between the terms “translation” and “localization” with specific reference to training needs. The replies reproduced here are by Minako O’Hagan from Dublin City University in Ireland, Bob Clark, Jo Drugan, Tony Hartley and Daming Wu from the University of Leeds, UK, and Patrick Drouin from the University of Montreal. The online discussions that followed those papers can be seen on the ITIT  list ( What we present here are summaries of some of the main topics, written up by students in the Tarragona PhD program

Ramírez Zúñiga, Andrea (2003). [e-Book]  Doblaje versus subtitulaje : Comparación traductológica, Universidad Nacional. Texto completo:

El presente trabajo consiste en una investigación acerca del doblaje y subtitulaje audiovisual a través de la comparación de ambas modalidades en términos de género y contexto diferentes. El propósito del análisis se hará en función de determinar los procesos traductológicos empleados como lo es definir la labor del traductor dentro de un área muy moderna y por tanto flexible para poner en práctica la traducción profesional. Esta monografía se basa en la traducción audiovisual, que contrasta el doblaje y el subtitulaje como modalidades traductológicas distintas que tienen por meta dar a conocer a miles de espectadores, películas producidas en países extranjeros. La idea consistió en escoger dos películas, Shrek y The Sound of Music de las cuales se seleccionaron tres pasajes o diálogos. Luego, se procedió
a escribir las transcripciones, utilizando la versión original en inglés, la subtitulada y la versión doblada al español, de manera que se delimitara el proceso y trabajo traductológico, el tipo de acepción, el contexto o ambiente y más; todo esto con el único objetivo de determinar cual modalidad requiere de más trabajo por parte del traductor. Como resultado se da la búsqueda de equivalencias según contextos socio culturales y se destaca el tiempo como factor indispensable en el desarrollo de la traducción audiovisual, sin dejar de lado consideraciones respecto a políticas lingüísticas o restricciones sociales, léxico, mensaje, cliente y público meta. La investigación en sí, fue favorable al revelar muchos detalles ocultos en la traducción de películas, la variación de género cinematográfico cambia el tipo de léxico y la intencionalidad y a grandes rasgos se puede decir que el doblaje en términos traductológicos es mucho mejor en las dos películas estudiadas, aunque cabe destacar que la idea original del subtitulaje, es decir en pocas palabras lo que sucede en una imagen junto con el diálogo, y el doblaje por su parte consiste en cambiar la banda sonora, es decir, las voces serán al español y deberán ir sincronizadas con los movimientos visuales y gestuales de un actor.

Shiyab, Said M. , Marilyn Gaddis  Rose, et al. (2010). [e-Book]  Globalization and Aspects of Translation. Cambridge Cambridge Scholars Publishing. Texto completo:

The present book came to light as a result of the ideas discussed during our 1st International Conference on Translation/Interpretation and the Impact of Globalization, held at the United Arab Emirates University. I am grateful to Marilyn Gaddis Rose, Juliane House, and John Duval for their dedication, efforts and professionalism. Their vision and every-present energy helped me understand and in fact appreciate the many venues within the fields of language, linguistics and translation. This book has attempted to capture the quintessence or the epitome
embodied in the concepts of translation and globalization. It also attempted to bridge the gap between the globalizing and globalized realms. Above all, it brings to light the diversity of areas in globalization and aspects of translation that have impacted the notions of cultural  communication, translator’s code of ethics, metaphorical meaning, code switching, media, etc. Scholars from all over the world contributed to this book, representing counties such USA, Canada, Germany, Portugal, Switzerland, Belgium, Austria, Tunisia, Bahrain, Jordan, and United Arab Emirates. Those scholars have done their research in their home countries on other parts of the world. Because of this diversity, I believe this book genuinely offers an international experience. In Chapter 1, Said Shiyab examines different aspects of globalization in relation to translation. Faces of globalization are highlighted to make the point that globalization does not only evolve around language and/or translation changes, but also around information technology. One of the most significant points that this chapter addresses is that scholars, including translators and interpreters, cannot control how languages change as globalization is a result of technological advancements our society is witnessing these days and, as a consequence of this, our languages changes in accordance with the translation market needs and those who use it for marketing purposes.

Somssich, Réka , Judit  Várnai, et al. (2010). [e-Book]  Lawmaking in the EU multilingual environment Luxemburg, European Commission. Texto completo:

La politique du multilinguisme de l’Union européenne poursuit trois objectifs: – Encourager l’apprentissage des langues et promouvoir la diversité linguistique dans la société; – Favoriser une économie multilingue performante; – Donner aux citoyens un accès à la législation, aux procédures et aux informations de l’Union européenne dans leur propre langue. La présente étude aborde le troisième volet de cette politique, et plus précisément le processus d’élaboration multilingue du droit européen, le rôle des différents acteurs institutionnels dans ce processus et les méthodes visant à assurer la bonne qualité rédactionnelle, juridique et linguistique des actes juridiques produits par les institutions européennes.

Story, Alan, Colin Darch, et al. (2008). [e-Book]  El dossier copia/sur: problemas económicos, políticos, e ideológicos del copyright (derecho de autor) en el sur global, Copy/South Research Group. Texto completo:

In 2005, a group of scholars and activists, mostly from the global South, created the Copy/South Research Group to analyse, criticise, and confront the oppressive nature of current global copyright regimes, such as those defended by the World Intellectual Property Organisation, and similar ones around the globe. In May 2006, 22 of us, including 15 people from the global South, published THE COPY/SOUTH DOSSIER: Issues in the economics, politics, and ideology of copyright in the global South. The aim of the Dossier was to open up a critical and radical debate on the real impact of copyright laws and how they affect the daily lives of people living in more than 150 developing countries of the global South. We also highlighted issues that are not unique to the Global South, but also affect both sides of the North-South divide. This publication of more than 50 articles was addressed to researchers, educators, librarians, musicians, activists, organizations concerned about access to knowledge, and all of those who want to learn more about the oppressive global role of copyright laws and, in particular, their largely negative role in the developing countries of the global South. Given the democratic objectives of the Copy/South Research Group, the Dossier was not restricted by copyright. Therefore, it has been accessed openly and freely in both electronic and paper formats by thousands of readers from around the world in English. But English is not spoken by all citizens in the global South. With this in mind, the entire 200-page Dossier was translated into Spanish in late 2007 by an enthusiastic team of voluntary translators from Argentina, Bolivia, Cuba, Mexico, Spain, and Venezuela. As for this Spanish version, made with the support of the Intellectual Property Automous Service (SAPI), from the Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela, we must acknowledge the prior SAPI’s General Director Eduardo Samán for promoting the making of this translation. Besides the general revision of Gerardo Cárdenas and his labor as main translator, some other volunteers translated or revised important sections of the Spanish edition: María Jesús Morillo (Spain), Oscar Pérez Peña and Gilda Gil (Cuba), Edgardo Civallero (Argentina) and Rafael Carreño (Venezuela), who coordinated the process of translation in 2007. Also it is worth to mention the additional colaboration of Ana Lía López (Bolivia), Richard Castro, Rafael Bellota and Carmen Chirinos (Venezuela), Zapopan Muela and Gonzalo Lara (Mexico), and Lilian Álvarez (Cuba). But what is still more extraordinary about this Spanish translation is that it was completely coordinated and edited by the Servicio Autonomo de la Propiedad Intelectual (SAPI) of the democratic government of the Venezuelan Bolivarian Republic. The Dossier provides “useful material to introduce this topic to teachers and students” and does a good job of “summarizing a complex and conflicting situation” for developing countries, Jumersi La Rosa, SAPI’s new director, said last week in announcing the release of the Spanish edition. She has written a special new introduction for the Spanish-language edition. The Copy South Research Group is very pleased that the radical message of resistance found in the Dossier can now be read by thousands of Spanish-language speakers who are questioning the current copyright regime and who hopefully will be ignited by the ideas in the Dossier to take up the fight against oppressive regimes based on copyright. You can get a copy of the Dossier in Spanish and English by downloading it, free of charge, at . We also still have a limited number of printed and bound copies of the English-language version of the Dossier. If you would to be mailed a copy of the English-language version, which contains eight posters, send us an e-mail ( and include your full postal details. COPY/SOUTH RESEARCH GROUP, 28 April 2008.

Thesauri, Working Group on Guidelines for Multilingual (2009). [e-Book]  Guidelines for Multilingual Thesauri. La Haya, IFLA. Texto completo:

Multilingual indexing vocabularies exist in different forms, e.g. subject heading lists, thesauri, enumerative classifications, analytico-synthetic classifications. In a multilingual indexing vocabulary both the terms and the relationships are represented in more than one language. In this document the emphasis is on multilingual thesauri. Since the drawing up of the Guidelines for the Establishment and Development of Multilingual Thesauri in the 1970s two developments have played important roles in the thinking about multilingual access to information: the building of nonsymmetrical thesauri and the linking of two or more thesauri and/or controlled vocabularies.

Yueh-Wen, Fang (2012). [e-Book]  Falsos amigos español-inglés en estudiantes de español como lengua extranjera: el caso de taiwanés. Salamanca, Universidad de Salamanca. Texto completo:

[ES] Esta tesis estudia los falsos amigos entre los idiomas espa??ol-ingl??s que se le presentan a estudiantes taiwaneses en el proceso de aprendizaje de la lengua espa??ola, y se proporcionan algunas soluciones a este tipo de problemas.

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