Alerta de articulos de revista
InfoTrad 11 de marzo de 2013
“Professor Miriam Shlesinger.” Target: International Journal on Translation Studies vol. 25, n. 1 (2013). pp. 1-1. http://ejournals.ebsco.com/direct.asp?ArticleID=41BDB78EE9515FD47FF9
At the time of writing this, and even more so, as you read this, there have been very many tributes to Miriam Shlesinger, who died from cancer on the 10th of November 2012. The community of Translation and Interpreting Studies scholars has come together in its grief at her loss, and in appreciation of all that she did for our discipline and for so many of its members.
Al-Ghazalli, Mehdi F. “Diminutives in Arabic-to-English Translation.” Babel vol. 58, n. 4 (2012). pp. 395-407. http://dx.doi.org/10.1075/babel.58.4.02gha
Traditionally, the term diminutive has been used to refer to words that denote smallness and possibly also express the speaker’s attitude. On his part, Crystal (1997: 116) defines what is meant by diminutive as “a term used in morphology to refer to an affix with the general meaning of ‘little’.” Trask (1993: 82) maintains that it is “a derivational affix which may be added to a word to express a notion of small size, often additionally . . . a notion of warmth or affection.” It is a common myth that English has no diminutives, but one can find out that diminutives do exist in it due to the fact that it is rare to find a book on English morphology that does not touch upon diminutives. English diminutives are categorized as synthetic and analytic: the latter are lexis signalling the sense of ‘smallness’. English has lexical units that carry the sense referred to. The units concerned do not receive morphological affixes to convey the sense in question and they are not many in number i.e. they can be counted and they belong to different word classes (e.g. (a) few, (a) little, merely, minor, solely, tinny, meager).
Carballo, Pablo Zambrano “La vraisemblance linguistique: reflexions autour de la traduction du lexique balzacien.” Babel vol. 58, n. 4 (2012). pp. 423-442. http://dx.doi.org/10.1075/babel.58.4.04zam
La vraisemblance de la langue constitue sans doute l’un des principaux piliers de l’ambitieux projet réaliste de Balzac dans La Comédie humaine. L’intention avouée de présenter un roman de romans, le roman absolu pour ainsi dire, qui, à l’aide de l’échafaudage de la fiction servirait de document exhaustif et minutieux de la société française de l’époque, ne pouvait éviter de reproduire plus ou moins fidèlement les multiples nuances qui caractérisent les façons de parler de l’ensemble bigarré de personnages, y compris le narrateur omniscient, de La Comédie humaine. En définitive, Balzac fait d’une telle reproduction une source de vraisemblance réaliste déterminante pour le succès de son projet. C’est surtout dans Illusions perdues, le roman central et exemplaire de l’ensemble, où sa conscience (méta) linguistique devient plus évidente et active, une conscience que toute traduction dans d’autres langues, exemplifiées dans cet article par l’espagnol et l’anglais, doit
tenir bien en compte.
Caroline, Disler “Oxyrhynchus 1381: In memoriam Daniel Simeoni.” Target: International Journal on Translation Studies vol. 24, n. 2 (2012). pp. 225-252. http://ejournals.ebsco.com/direct.asp?ArticleID=4561B38AC2C2AA6EECEA
The Hellenistic Greek papyrus Oxyrhynchus 1381 contains a translator’s prologue that has been overlooked by translation historians despite its significance as evidence for a far more creative view of religious translation outside the confines of the Judaeo-Christian tradition. This important text is described in its historical context and compared to contemporaneous Pagan and early contending Judaeo-Christian developments in sacred translation as well as to classical secular translation practices. This will provide some valuable insights into the many factors informing the ancient origins and evolution of modern expectations and concerns in the western translation community such as translatability issues, preoccupations with fidelity, rigid adherence to the source text, the translator’s invisibility and lack of creative freedom.
Christina, Schäffner and Shuttleworth Mark “Metaphor in translation: Possibilities for process research.” Target: International Journal on Translation Studies vol. 25, n. 1 (2013). pp. 93-106. http://ejournals.ebsco.com/direct.asp?ArticleID=4C2096E569D24C1E47E4
This paper explores potential benefits of closer interaction between metaphor studies and translation process research. It presents some developments within translation studies that make use of conceptual metaphor theory and illustrates some process research methods for investigating metaphors. The paper considers a number of methodological recommendations and argues that the need to take full account of insights from metaphor studies and associated disciplines is of greatest importance. Another significant potential innovation is the use of a multilingual approach in respect of both product- and process-oriented studies in order to increase both the amount and the generality of data available for analysis. Thirdly, it is important to extend the current source-text (ST) oriented approach. The paper concludes by suggesting some options for triangulating data gathered through a combination of methods.
Cosima, Bruno “The public life of contemporary Chinese poetry in English translation.” Target: International Journal on Translation Studies vol. 24, n. 2 (2012). pp. 253-285. http://ejournals.ebsco.com/direct.asp?ArticleID=4A29B814B6B2AAAE7D8A
This essay is an exploration of some of the social and cultural factors that have played a role in the production, publication and reception of English translations of contemporary Chinese poetry, from the beginning of the 1980s to today. The aim is to link translations to the broader context, highlighting modalities and expectations of reception that have evolved within the social structures through which the translation of contemporary Chinese poetry has been circulating: the publishing industry, universities, the periodical press, public intellectual debates, and the market. The article does not try to establish if this or that expectation are either real or perceived features of the source texts. Nor does it deal with translators’ individual interpretations, their private readings. Instead, adopting a wider sociocultural approach, the analysis proposes to shed light on the industrial and commercial dimension the public life of contemporary Chinese poetry in English translation.
Fabio, Alves and Gonçalves José Luiz “Investigating the conceptual-procedural distinction in the translation process: A relevance-theoretic analysis of micro and macro translation units.” Target: International Journal on Translation Studies vol. 25, n. 1 (2013). pp. 107-124. http://ejournals.ebsco.com/direct.asp?ArticleID=4976B8A864021F733242
This article draws on relevance theory (Sperber and Wilson 1986/1995) and its application to translation (Gutt 2000) to investigate processing effort in translation in relation to two different types of encodings, namely conceptual and procedural encodings (Blakemore 2002, Wilson 2011). Building on the experimental paradigm of data triangulation in translation process research (Alves 2003; Jakobsen 2005), it analyses the translation processes of eight professional translators when performing a direct and an inverse translation task. The analysis focuses on the number and types of encodings found in micro/macro translation units (Alves and Vale 2009; 2011). Results suggest that processing effort in translation is greater in instances of procedural than conceptual encodings.
Haidee, Kruger “A corpus-based study of the mediation effect in translated and edited language.” Target: International Journal on Translation Studies vol. 24, n. 2 (2012). pp. 355-388. http://ejournals.ebsco.com/direct.asp?ArticleID=43CE96D8110CC0451F02
This paper presents the results of a study investigating the hypothesis that the recurrent features, or universals, of translated language are primarily the result of a mediation process that is shared among different kinds of mediated language, rather than the particularities of bilingual language processing. The investigation made use of a comparable corpus consisting of a subcorpus of English texts translated from Afrikaans, a subcorpus of comparable edited English texts, and a subcorpus of comparable unedited (and also untranslated) English texts. The frequency and distribution of linguistic features associated with three of the universals of translated language (explicitation, normalisation/conservatism, and simplification) across the three subcorpora were analysed. The study was guided by the hypothesis that the frequency and distribution of linguistic features associated with the universals of translated language would demonstrate similarities in the two subcorpora of mediated text (i.e., the translated and edited subcorpus), as compared to the subcorpus of unmediated text (i.e., the unedited subcorpus). However, the study yields almost no evidence for a mediation effect that is shared by translated and edited language, at least not along the linguistic features investigated. There is, however, evidence for what appears to be a separate translation-specific effect, which seems likely to be more unconscious, more proceduralised and more related to the linguistic level alone. This offers some support for the hypothesis of universals of translated language that are unique to this kind of text mediation specifically. Furthermore, the findings of the study suggest that editing may involve a different kind of mediation effect altogether, which frequently remains invisible in conventional corpus-based studies comparing translated and non-translated language, and which requires further investigation.
Hanna, Pita “Patterns in (in)directness: An exploratory case study in the external history of Portuguese translations of Polish literature (1855–2010).” Target: International Journal on Translation Studies vol. 24, n. 2 (2012). pp. 310-337. http://ejournals.ebsco.com/direct.asp?ArticleID=497EA05B153E83E95EF5
The goal of this descriptive, exploratory paper is to identify and analyse patterns in a case study of direct and indirect literary transfer from Poland to Portugal between 1855 and 2010. By doing so, the paper intends to contribute to a deeper understanding of indirect translation. Firstly, relevant information concerning the corpus is presented. Secondly, the methodological issues are elucidated. Thirdly, the results of the study are discussed in detail. More specifically, the correlations between the dependent variables (directness and indirectness) and the independent variables (author profile, translator profile, publisher profile and target text literary genre) are examined. In addition, the correlation between the occurrence of the label ‘(in)direct’ is tested against the independent time variable. Finally, the preliminary conclusions and future research avenues are presented.
Hanna, Risku and Windhager Florian “Extended Translation: A Sociocognitive Research Agenda.” Target: International Journal on Translation Studies vol. 25, n. 1 (2013). pp. 33-45. http://ejournals.ebsco.com/direct.asp?ArticleID=4F5F9566BD207D0B3205
Consideration of current developments in cognitive science is indispensable when defining research agendas addressing cognitive aspects of translation. One such development is the recognition of the extended nature of human cognition: Cognition is not just an information manipulation process in the brain, it is contextualised action embedded in a body and increasingly mediated by technologies and situated in its socio-cultural environment. Parallel developments are found in neighbouring disciplines, such as sociology with its actor-network and activity theories. This paper examines these approaches, their shared methodological tenets (i.e., ethnographic field studies) and the implications of the situated cognition approach for describing the cognitive aspects of translation, using a translation management case study to discuss conceptual and methodological issues.
Inger, M. Mees, Dragsted Barbara, et al. “Sound effects in translation.” Target: International Journal on Translation Studies vol. 25, n. 1 (2013). pp. 140-154. http://ejournals.ebsco.com/direct.asp?ArticleID=454A87452C802FA0DD81
On the basis of a pilot study using speech recognition (SR) software, this paper attempts to illustrate the benefits of adopting an interdisciplinary approach in translator training. It shows how the collaboration between phoneticians, translators and interpreters can (1) advance research, (2) have implications for the curriculum, (3) be pedagogically motivating, and (4) prepare students for employing translation technology in their future practice as translators. In a two-phase study in which 14 MA students translated texts in three modalities (sight, written, and oral translation using an SR program), Translog was employed to measure task times. The quality of the products was assessed by three experienced translators, and the number and types of misrecognitions were identified by a phonetician. Results indicate that SR translation provides a potentially useful supplement to written translation, or indeed an alternative to it.
Isabelle, Delaere, Sutter Gert De, et al. “Is translated language more standardized than non-translated language?: Using profile-based correspondence analysis for measuring linguistic distances between language varieties.” Target: International Journal on Translation Studies vol. 24, n. 2 (2012). pp. 203-224. http://ejournals.ebsco.com/direct.asp?ArticleID=4A298DF5875164E40741
With this article, we seek to support the law of growing standardization by showing that texts translated into Belgian Dutch make more use of standard language than non-translated Belgian Dutch texts. Additionally, we want to examine whether the use of standard vs. non-standard language can be attributed to the variables text type and source language. In order to achieve that goal, we gathered a diverse set of linguistic variables and used a 10-million-word corpus that is parallel, comparable and bidirectional (the Dutch Parallel Corpus; Macken et al. 2011). The frequency counts for each of the variables are used to determine the differences in standard language use by means of profile-based correspondence analysis (Plevoets 2008). The results of our analysis show that (i) in general, there is indeed a standardizing trend among translations and (ii) text types with a lot of editorial control (fiction, non-fiction and journalistic texts) contain more standard language than the less edited text types (administrative texts and external communication) which adds support for the idea that the differences between translated and non-translated texts are text type dependent.
Jeremy, Munday “The role of archival and manuscript research in the investigation of translator decision-making.” Target: International Journal on Translation Studies vol. 25, n. 1 (2013). pp. 125-139. http://ejournals.ebsco.com/direct.asp?ArticleID=4DDE8D8100862928C953
This paper discusses the application of research methodologies from history and literary studies to the analysis of the translation process. Specifically, this concerns the use of literary archive and manuscript material to investigate the various stages in the construction of the translation product. Such material has been drastically underexploited in translation studies to date. The paper describes the type of material available for researchers and how this has been used. This is followed by a case study involving the detailed textual analysis of a translator’s drafts and revisions. The paper considers the value of such research methods in investigating the translation process and how they might complement and interact with other methodologies.
Juliane, House “Towards a new linguistic-cognitive orientation in translation studies.” Target: International Journal on Translation Studies vol. 25, n. 1 (2013). pp. 46-60. http://ejournals.ebsco.com/direct.asp?ArticleID=4478A6C6343186C67B67
A new linguistic-cognitive orientation in translation studies is important today because it can complement the current strong wave of socially and culturally oriented research into and around translation. For balance, it is also necessary and insightful to describe and explain how strategies of comprehending, decision-making and re-verbalisation come about in a translator’s bilingual mind. In this paper I sketch some ideas about such a new linguistic-cognitive approach. I first review introspective and retrospective studies and behavioural experiments. Secondly, I assess the value of neuro-linguistic studies for translation. Thirdly, I suggest a new combination of a translation theory and a neuro-functional theory of bilingualism.
Kelly, Washbourne “Load-managed problem formats: Scaffolding and modeling the translation task to improve transfer.” Target: International Journal on Translation Studies vol. 24, n. 2 (2012). pp. 338-354. http://ejournals.ebsco.com/direct.asp?ArticleID=47EB97DBCE35C780779E
Does the “expert blind spot”, our “unconscious competence”, lead us to undermine the effectiveness of our translation assignments? This study characterizes the translation task as schema-based, and thus prone to cognitive overload for the learner. Accordingly, schema acquisition tasks featuring reduced-goal specificity and goal-free problems for training the novice are reviewed. The argument is put forward that we need 1) to use more scaffolding to reduce cognitive load, 2) to vary task architecture for learning (including the use of planning pre-tasks), and 3) to provide diagnostic help for the student translator to attain context-independence for ‘high road transfer’. Formats for expertise modeling are considered reverse tasks, completion examples, and other whole-task models as instructional designs for load-managed translation tasks that improve problem-solving, schema acquisition, process-orientation, and metacognitive monitoring.
Kilian, G. Seeber “Cognitive load in simultaneous interpreting: Measures and methods.” Target: International Journal on Translation Studies vol. 25, n. 1 (2013). pp. 18-32. http://ejournals.ebsco.com/direct.asp?ArticleID=47C1AF55FD828D878648
The mental effort required to perform a simultaneous interpreting task or the cognitive load generated by it has attracted the interest of many a researcher in the field. To date, however, there is little agreement on the most suitable method to measure this phenomenon. In this contribution, I set out to discuss four of the most common methods of measuring cognitive load and the way in which they have been applied in interpreting research, providing examples for each and highlighting their respective advantages and disadvantages. The main focus of the contribution will be on pupillometry, a psycho-physiological method I deem to be among the most promising approaches to objectively measure cognitive load during simultaneous interpreting in real time.
Le Poder, Marie-Evelyne “Perspective sociolinguistique des emprunts de langlais dans la section economique du quotidien espagnol El Pais.” Babel vol. 58, n. 4 (2012). pp. 377-394. http://dx.doi.org/10.1075/babel.58.4.01pod
Les unités linguistiques, au sens large du terme, ont des origines diverses. Elles peuvent naître des règles du code linguistique d’une langue, de l’élargissement du signifié d’une unité lexicale déjà formée ou bien provenir d’unités appartenant à d’autres codes ; la « grande catégorie des emprunts » comme l’aime à le dire Marianne Lederer (Lederer 1990 : 1). Lorsqu’il est fait référence aux unités provenant de codes linguistiques étrangers, il convient d’établir une classification entre emprunts et calques linguistiques. Les emprunts comprennent les cultismes, d’une part, et les emprunts aux langues vivantes, d’autre part. Les cultismes sont des emprunts provenant du fonds gréco-latin que l’on retrouve dans diverses langues. Les emprunts aux langues vivantes, pour leur part, s’incorporent dans une langue, de façon consciente ou inconsciente, sans aucune modification (emprunts purs), ou par le biais d’adaptations d’ordre graphique et/ou phonétique.
Lee, Tong King “Anna Gil-Bardaji, Pilar Orero Sara Rovira-Esteva (eds.), Translation Peripheries: Paratextual Elements in Translation, 2012.” Babel vol. 58, n. 4 (2012). pp. 493-495. http://dx.doi.org/10.1075/babel.58.4.09lee
Anna Gil-Bardají, Pilar Orero & Sara Rovira-Esteva (eds.), Translation Peripheries: Paratextual Elements in Translation , 2012. Peter Lang International Academic Publishers, Hochfeldstrasse, 32 CH-3012, Bern, Switzerland. 196 pp. ISBN 978-3-0343-1038-3. Reviewed by Tong-King Lee , School of Chinese, Centennial College, The University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam, Hong Kong. Email: firstname.lastname@example.org
Lee, Tong King “Translation and Language Power Relations in Heterolingual Anthologies of Literature.” Babel vol. 58, n. 4 (2012). pp. 443-456. http://dx.doi.org/10.1075/babel.58.4.05lee
The heterolingual literary anthology is a discursive field through which we can observe language power relations in a plurilingual society as well as changes in such relations over time. Within this kind of anthology, translation serves as a mechanism in the negotiation of symbolic capital among various languages, and becomes an ideological site where languages struggle for visibility and prestige. In a struggle of this kind, languages engage one another in exchanges, either asymmetric or symmetric, in an attempt to move towards the centre of the sociolinguistic polysystem, or otherwise enhance their central position in the polysystem by relegating competing languages to the periphery. Drawing on Even Zohar’s polysystem theory and Pascale Casanova’s conception of literary translation as unequal linguistic exchanges, one may thus propose that complex sociolinguistic transactions underlie the making of a heterolingual literary anthology, and that such transactions may be described and explained by means of conceptual models.
Maureen, Ehrensberger-Dow and Perrin Daniel “Applying a newswriting research approach to translation.” Target: International Journal on Translation Studies vol. 25, n. 1 (2013). pp. 77-92. http://ejournals.ebsco.com/direct.asp?ArticleID=44CFB2D0A0675E89987A
Translation is a situated activity that involves more than simply producing target texts from source texts. In order to understand what translators actually do when they translate, their psycho-biographies as well as the social setting of the workplace and the contextual resources must be considered. In this paper, we outline how a mixed-method approach originally developed to study the newswriting processes of journalists at their workplaces can be applied in translation process research. We argue that progression analysis, which combines keystroke logging, screen recordings, eye-tracking, and cue-based retrospective verbalization, can be profitably used along with version analysis to gain insights into cognitive aspects of the translation process.
Rengdong, Xiang “First Translation and Retranslation in the Historical, Social and Cultural Context: A case study of two Chinese versions of Tess of the DUrbervilles.” Babel vol. 58, n. 4 (2012). pp. 457-470. http://dx.doi.org/10.1075/babel.58.4.06xia
In the history of Chinese literary translation, retranslation is a common phenomenon. Starting in the 1930s, retranslation has become more and more popular, accompanied by a boom in debates about retranslation. Retranslation, in the view of Zou Taofen, is not economical and instead translators should translate devote their attention to untranslated classics (Zou Taofen 1920: 06–04). Contrary to this Mao Dun asserts that if we are really for consideration of the reader’s “economy”, it is necessary to criticize false and inferior translations, and so retranslation is a necessary remedy (Mao Dun 1937: 5). Moreover, Lu Xun insists definitely that retranslation is inevitably linked to the evaluation of language use (Lu Xun 1998: 275). Furthermore, in the 1950s, Mao Dun and Zhou Zuoreng reemphasized the value of retranslation (Mao Dun 1984; Zhou Zuoreng 1950-04-02); Zhou Zuoreng even indicates that the number of retranslations is proportional to cultural development. During the 1980s and the 1990s after reform and opening, the scope and range of retranslation became larger and broader.
Sharon, O’brien “The borrowers: Researching the cognitive aspects of translation.” Target: International Journal on Translation Studies vol. 25, n. 1 (2013). pp. 5-17. http://ejournals.ebsco.com/direct.asp?ArticleID=4333BFDBF4C99B3C3C38
The paper considers the interdisciplinary interaction of research on the cognitive aspects of translation. Examples of influence from linguistics, psychology, neuroscience, cognitive science, reading and writing research and language technology are given, with examples from specific sub-disciplines within each one. The breadth of borrowing by researchers in cognitive translatology is made apparent, but the minimal influence of cognitive translatology on the respective disciplines themselves is also highlighted. Suggestions for future developments are made, including ways in which the domain of cognitive translatology might exert greater influence on other disciplines.
Sue-Ann, Harding ““How do I apply narrative theory?”: Socio-narrative theory in translation studies.” Target: International Journal on Translation Studies vol. 24, n. 2 (2012). pp. 286-309. http://ejournals.ebsco.com/direct.asp?ArticleID=44FEBBA4D7FCC5835B3D
Since the publication of Translation and Conflict: A Narrative Account(Baker 2006), there has been a growing interest in applying socio-narrative theory to Translation Studies, with Baker’s ideas extended and applied to several different areas of inquiry. This article gives a brief overview of these projects, and discusses in more depth the example of my own application and development of narrative theory. This includes a revised typology of narratives, the combination of narratological and sociological approaches, an intratextual model of analysis, and a new emphasis on the importance of narrators and temporary narrators in the (re)configuration of narratives. The article ends with a brief discussion on further topics within Translation and Interpreting Studies to which narrative theory might be applied.
Susanne, Göpferich “Translation competence: Explaining development and stagnation from a dynamic systems perspective.” Target: International Journal on Translation Studies vol. 25, n. 1 (2013). pp. 61-76. http://ejournals.ebsco.com/direct.asp?ArticleID=4470A54C04CA5CF2A90A
This article introduces Dynamic Systems Theory (DST) as a framework for the investigation of translation competence development. After a presentation of the basic concepts and assumptions underlying this theory, results from the longitudinal study TransComp will be discussed against the background of DST. TransComp is a three-year product- and process-oriented longitudinal study of the development of translation competence in 12 students of translation, whose translation products and processes were compared with those of 10 professional translators. The article outlines both the difficulties involved in the application of DST to the investigation of translation competence development and the added value that it promises for our understanding of developmental processes in translators, including the ways they can be fostered in translation training.
Vilar Sánchez, Karin “Holger Siever: Ubersetzen Spanisch-Deutsch. Ein Arbeitsbuch. 2008.” Babel vol. 58, n. 4 (2012). pp. 496-498. http://dx.doi.org/10.1075/babel.58.4.10san
Holger Siever: Übersetzen Spanisch-Deutsch. Ein Arbeitsbuch. 2008. Narr´Francke Attempto Verlag GmbH + Co.KG. Dischingerweg 5. D-72070 Tübingen. 166 Seiten. ISBN 978-3-8233-6391-0. Preis: €14,90. Rezension von Karin Vilar Sánchez , Facultad de Traducción e Interpretación, Universidad de Granada, E-18071 Granada. E-Mail: email@example.com
Xiumei, Xu and Gong Qinyan “Translatability vs Untranslatability: A relevance-theoretic view.” Babel vol. 58, n. 4 (2012). pp. 408-422. http://dx.doi.org/10.1075/babel.58.4.03xiu
Whether translation is possible or not has long been a topic in translation studies. Those who hold that translation is impossible mainly build their ideas on the fact that there is always something that gets changed, twisted or even lost in translation. The extreme example is the case of Robert Frost who claims that “poetry is what gets lost in translation”. But in fact, just as Susan Bassnett (2001: 70) states “when we compare different translations of the same poems, we can see the diversity of translation strategies used by translators”, “poetry is not what is lost in translation, it is rather what we gain through translations and translators”. A unanimously accepted truth is the long history of civilization has witnessed the important role played by translators and their works: man owes a lot of his knowledge of other nations, races and cultures to translators’ works.
Yuefang, Wang “Exploring Cultural Transmission and Translation Strategies in the Perspective of Functionalist Approaches: A case study of the two English versions of Hongloumeng.” Babel vol. 58, n. 4 (2012). pp. 471-487. http://dx.doi.org/10.1075/babel.58.4.07wan
Hongloumeng, one of the four great classical novels of Chinese Literature written in the mid-eighteenth century during the Qing Dynasty, is considered as the encyclopedia of feudal Chinese culture. Since the first publication of this novel, a number of admirable translators or scholars both in China and overseas have attempted to translate it into other languages. The two completely translated versions are The Story of the Stone by David Hawkes and John Minford, and The Dream of Red Mansions by Yang Xianyi and Gladys Yang. The difficulties of the translation work lie primarily in the culture-specific items in the novel, including Chinese allusions, rituals and customs, dressing, architecture, food, medicine, naming system, religion, poems, plays, games, geographic elements, and so on. Translating cultural items can be a demanding and challenging task due to the fact that such items have specific meanings in the source culture and language but not necessarily in other cultures and languages. During the process of cultural de-coding, re-coding and en-coding translators are not only dealing with words written in a certain time, space and socio-political situation, but they should also take into account the “cultural” aspect of the text by employing different translation strategies.
Zhu, Ling “Xu Jianzhong. «»(Translation Geography).” Target: International Journal on Translation Studies vol. 24, n. 2 (2012). pp. 389-390. http://ejournals.ebsco.com/direct.asp?ArticleID=4E18B00E6A6625A5965D