Howard, E. R., J. Sugarman, et al.. [e-Book] Guiding Principles for Dual Language Education, Center for Applied Linguistics, 2007.
The following document is designed to be used by dual language programs as a tool for planning, self-reflection, and growth. The guiding principles described here are based in large part on the Dual Language Program Standards developed by Dual Language Education of New Mexico (www.dlenm.org). In this document, the term dual language refers to any program that provides literacy and content instruction to all students through two languages and that promotes bilingualism and biliteracy, grade-level academic achievement, and multicultural competence for all students. The student population in such a program can vary, resulting in models such as these: Developmental bilingual programs, where all students are native speakers of the partner language, such as Spanish Two-way immersion programs, where approximately half of the students are native speakers of the partner language and approximately half of the students are native speakers of English Foreign language immersion programs, where all of the students are native speakers of English, though some may be heritage language learners However, it is important to note that foreign language immersion educators and researchers were not involved in the development of the principles. Thus, while the principles are likely to apply in general to all three program types, the applicability to foreign language immersion programs has not yet been fully explored.