Archivo mensual: mayo 2020

Adaptación y evaluación de una prueba de lengua de signos alemana


Haug, T. (2011). [e-Book] Adaptation and Evaluation of a German Sign Language Test. Hamburg, Hamburg University Press.

Texto completo


Despite the current need for reliable and valid test instruments to monitor the sign language acquisition of Deaf children in different countries, very few tests offering strong evidence for their psychometric properties are commercially available. A German Sign Language (DGS) test that focuses on linguistic structures acquired in preschool- and school-aged children (4-8 years old) is urgently needed. The present study uses as a template a test which has sound psychometric properties and has been standardized on another sign language as a starting point for tests of sign languages that are less documented, such as DGS.This book makes a novel contribution to the field by examining linguistic, cultural, methodological, and theoretical issues in the process of the adaptation from the source language test to the target language test, and by providing a model for future test adaptations. It also includes concrete steps for the test development and adaptation process.Adaptation and Evaluation of a German Sign Language Test addresses students and researchers alike who are involved in sign language test development and adaptation. It also provides a comprehensive summary in German.

320 rue St Jacques



Michallat, W. (2018). [e-Book] 320 rue St Jacques, White Rose University Press.

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«Madeleine’s diary is unique as she wrote it to record as much as she could about everyday life, people and events so she could use these written traces to rekindle memories later for the family from whom she had been parted. Many diaries of that era focus on the political situation. Madeleine’s diary does reflect and engage with military and political events. It also provides an unprecedented day-by-day account of the struggle to manage material deprivation, physical hardship, mental exhaustion and depression during the Occupation. The diary is also a record of Madeleine’s determination to achieve her ambition to become a university academic at a time when there was little encouragement for women to prioritise education and career over marriage and motherhood. Her diary is edited and translated here for the first time. Dr Wendy Michallat was born in West Yorkshire. She studied at the Universities of Warwick and Nottingham and lectures in the School of Languages and Cultures at the University of Sheffield. She researches and teaches French cultural history, life-writing and popular culture and has published on diverse subjects including cartoon art, women’s football and first-wave French feminism. Readers may prefer to download and cite from the PDF version of this book. This has a specific DOI and has a fixed structure with page numbers. Guidance on citing from other ebook versions without stable page numbers (Kindle, EPUB etc.) is now usually offered within style guidance (e.g. by the MLA style guide, The Chicago Manual of Style etc.) so please check the information offered on this by the referencing style you use.»

El lenguaje de Europa. Multilingüismo y traducción en las instituciones de la UE: Práctica, problemas y perspectivas.


Barroso, J. M., D. Cosmai, et al. (2014). [e-Book] The Language of Europe. Multilingualism and Translation in the EU Institutions: Practice, Problems and Perspectives. Bruxelles, Éditions de l’Université de Bruxelles.

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This book offers a clear and comprehensive introduction to the policy area of multilingualism and to translation practice within the EU institutions.

25 libros GRATIS sobre Interpretación



25 libros GRATIS sobre Interpretación. Seleccionados por la Biblioteca de Traducción y Documentación de la Universidad de Salamanca



(2004). [e-Book]  Guía de oportunidades profesionales para traductores e intérpretes en organizaciones internacionales. Madrid, Ministerio de Asuntos Exteriores y de Cooperación. Texto completo:

El incremento de la presencia de españoles y la difusión del idioma español en las instituciones y organizaciones internacionales constituye uno de los objetivos estratégicos de la política exterior y multilateral de España. Para atender a dicho objetivo, el Ministerio de Asuntos Exteriores y de Cooperación está impulsando una política sistemática de promoción de la presencia de españoles en organizaciones internacionales que implica el desarrollo de diferentes programas y acciones en los ámbitos de la información, la formación y el desarrollo normativo. Para ello, este Ministerio ha creado la Unidad de Funcionarios Internacionales, nombrando a su frente a un Embajador en Misión Especial. Su finalidad consiste en desarrollar, con vocación esencial de servicio público hacia la ciudadanía, diferentes iniciativas en dichos ámbitos. La Guía ofrece una información completa sobre las oportunidades profesionales para traductores e intérpretes en aquellas instituciones y organizaciones internacionales que tienen el español como lengua oficial, así como sobre los diferentes apoyos a la traducción ofrecidos por las organizaciones internacionales. Con ella se pretende dar a conocer las oportunidades profesionales en el ámbito de la traducción e interpretación tanto entre los expertos e interesados como entre universidades, colegios profesionales, y otras entidades relevantes de la sociedad española.



(2004). [e-Book]  A National Code of Ethics for Interpreters in Health Care. Washington The National Council on Interpreting in Health Care  Texto completo:

As the profession of health care interpreting in the United States matures and evolves, the importance of creating shared understandings of what is considered high quality and ethically appropriate principles and practices in the field becomes imperative.  To this end, the National Council on Interpreting in Health Care identified three steps that needed to take place on a national level in order to standardize the expectations that the health care industry and patients should have of interpreters and to raise the quality of health care interpreting.  The first step was to create and build support for a single Code of Ethics that would guide the practice of interpreters working in health care venues.  The second step was to develop a nationally accepted, unified set of Standards of Practice based on the Code of Ethics that would define competent practice in the field.  The third step was to create a national certification process that would set a standard for qualification as a professional health care interpreter.



(2006). [e-Book]  Interpretation Guidelines, National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). Texto completo:

                The diversity of the United States population continues to increase. According to NHANES data collected during 1999-2004, nearly 16 percent of sample persons (SPs) spoke a language other than English. Of these, approximately 96 percent spoke Spanish and the remaining 4 percent spoke an array of other non-English languages. The major difference between the two terms is that an interpreter relays a message orally, whereas a translator works with the written word. Consequently interpreters and translators develop different skill sets. Interpreters must have the capacity to work “on the spot” and convey spoken words from one language to another, in both directions. In contrast, translators require strong writing abilities and will typically convert written text from a second language into their native language, in one direction.



(2008). [e-Book]  Professional Standards and Ethics for California Court Interpreters. San Francisco, Judicial Council of California. Texto completo:

This manual is intended to inform interpreters of their professional and ethical responsibilities so that they are better able to deal with the difficulties that commonly arise in matters involving non-English-speaking parties in the judicial system. It also serves as a reference and springboard for discussion in conjunction with the Judicial Council Ethics Workshop, which is provided as an integral part of the education and certification or registration of court interpreters in the State of California. In addition to the regulations and recommendations provided here, it is important to note that different courts have their own rules and ways of conducting business. It is the interpreter’s duty to learn and follow these rules as well. In the courtroom, the judge is the final arbiter of what is appropriate. The more prepared and informed you are about professional practices and the purpose of established norms and principles, the more you, together with all officers of the court, will be able to further the interests of justice. This manual is based largely on the rules and principles set forth in rule 2.890 of the California Rules of Court  (“Professional conduct for interpreters”, see appendix A); California Standards of Judicial Administration  adopted by the Judicial Council of California for interpreted proceedings (Standard 2.10 and Standard 2.11;  see appendix C); the Standards for Performance and Professional Responsibility for Contract Court  Interpreters in the Federal Courts (see appendix E) and W. E. Hewitt, Court Interpretation: Model Guides for Policy and Practice in the State Courts, Publication R-167 (Williamsburg, Virginia: State Justice Institute,  1995).



(2011). [e-Book]  Libro Blanco de la traducción y la interpretación institucional : conocer para reconocer. Madrid, Ministerio de Asuntos Exteriores. Texto completo:

La idea de elaborar un Libro Blanco sobre la situación de traductores e intérpretes en la Administración española se lanzó en la II Jornada de Traducción y Terminología Institucional, celebrada en la primavera de 2009. El objetivo era realizar una radiografía lo más amplia posible de las condiciones en las que trabajan estos profesionales y, en función de unos resultados que ya preveíamos poco halagüeños, formular las pertinentes propuestas para una reforma que sigue siendo acuciante en el sector que nos ocupa. Con este fin y a título particular, aunque con el apoyo de la Comisión Europea y del Ministerio de Asuntos Exteriores y de Cooperación, los integrantes de la Red de Intérpretes y Traductores de las Administraciones Públicas (RITAP) hemos trabajado para obtener la instantánea más precisa posible de esa figura un poco borrosa que es la del traductor o el intérprete que trabaja en los servicios administrativos. Esa imagen está adquiriendo caracteres más nítidos en los últimos tiempos, gracias a la aparición de reportajes periodísticos o de noticias — no siempre lisonjeras— que se refieren a nuestra profesión. Sin embargo, lo cierto es que buena parte de la actividad de los organismos públicos, incluso la defensa de algunos derechos fundamentales de las personas, sería muy difícil —o directamente imposible— sin la labor de profesionales de la traducción/interpretación y que ello no siempre se ve recompensado por las condiciones de trabajo que la Administración les ofrece. Es preciso decirlo en voz bien alta: aunque existen excepciones, las condiciones en las que se desarrolla el trabajo de los traductores e intérpretes en nuestro sector público distan mucho de ser las adecuadas. El presente Libro Blanco ha sido elaborado por los integrantes de la Red de Intérpretes y Traductores de la Administración Pública (RITAP): Elhassane Benhaddou Handi, Maite Fernández, Catalina Fiol, Ramón Garrido Nombela, Luis González, Alfonso Mantecón Sancho, M.ª Dolores Ortigosa Lorenzo, Sonsoles Plaza Blázquez, Bárbara Navaza, Leandro Valencia Alonso



(2017). [e-Book]  Interpretar y traducir para Europa. Brussels, Comisión Europea. Texto completo:

A las reuniones y conferencias internacionales asisten personas de diferentes procedencias y culturas, que suelen hablar lenguas diferentes. Siempre es preferible contar con los servicios del profesional adecuado, mejor que con alguien que simplemente sea bueno en  idiomas. Los intérpretes de conferencias ayudan a los participantes a comunicarse, pero no traduciendo cada una de las palabras que pronuncian, sino transportando las ideas que expresan. Todo lo que ven y oyen es estrictamente confidencial. Los intérpretes son la máxima expresión del multilingüismo y velan con su trabajo por que la lengua no sea una barrera para la comprensión. Los servicios de interpretación de la Unión Europea son el mayor empleador de intérpretes de conferencias del mundo. Mientras que los traductores se ocupan de la palabra escrita, los intérpretes transmiten el lenguaje oral: comprenden lo que se dice en una lengua y transmiten el mismo mensaje de manera exacta y casi instantánea en otra lengua. Al permitir la comunicación y facilitar el diálogo, los intérpretes hacen de puente entre culturas y a menudo son un elemento imprescindible de las decisiones políticas.



Aneca (2004). [e-Book]  Titulo de Grado de Traducción e Interpretación: Libro Balnco. Madrid, Agencia Nacional de Evaluación de la Calidad y Acreditación. Texto completo:

Se trata de un proyecto bien estructurado, bien documentado y con una planificación del título, por lo que respecta a competencias, perfiles y distribución de créditos coherente, si bien se plantean dos posibilidades bastante diferentes. Hay que destacar la exhaustividad de las informaciones presentadas y la presencia de gráficos y valoraciones de los mismos que ayudan significativamente a interpretar los datos. Se valora especialmente la inclusión de una amplia Introducción en la que se revisa la tradición universitaria de estos estudios en España y se justifica la pertinencia del título y su relación con otros títulos del actual catálogo. Asimismo, la inclusión de tabas, gráficos y anexos es muy adecuada. Por lo que respecta al aspecto de contenidos, se valora muy positivamente la inclusión de un apartado de valoración de ventajas e inconvenientes de la implantación del título con 180 o 240 créditos, ya que da idea de la profundidad con que se ha abordado por parte de la comisión el aspecto de la duración de los estudios en relación con las competencias y perfiles. La titulación que proponen responde, en principio, a los parámetros exigidos por Europa. Por tanto, pensamos que cumple con los objetivos de la convocatoria. Estudio presentado por los centros españoles que imparten la actual Licenciatura en Traducción e Interpretación, en el marco de la segunda convocatoria de ayudas para el diseño de planes de estudios y títulos de grado de la Agencia Nacional de Evaluación de la Calidad y Acreditación (programa de convergencia europea)


Arribas Abeledo, A. (2012). [e-Book]  La interpretación judicial: el intérprete de la Ciutat de la Justícia. Texto completo:



Bogucki, Ł. (2010). [e-Book]  Teaching Translation and Interpreting: Challenges and Practices. Cambridge, Cambridge Scholars Publishing. Texto completo:

Translator and interpreter training has recently received ample attention, manifested in numerous articles, books and conference papers. However, many central issues still appear controversial. Should translation and interpreting be taught within the curricula of language studies or independently? What is translator competence made up of? Which of its elements can be developed through practice and which require coaching? What kind of translators and interpreters, if any, are «born, not made»? In an attempt to address these and other questions as well as to exchange experience and expertise regarding translation curricula in Poland and abroad, the Department of Translation Theory and Practice, part of the Chair of English Language and Applied Linguistics at Lodz University, has organised two conferences under the title «Teaching Translation and Interpreting»; the first was held in April 2008, the second almost exactly a year later. The present volume is an outcome of these two events. It is meant as a response to the developments in translation didactics which result from the recognition of the role of the  translator/interpreter and the consolidating status of Translation Studies. The rationale behind the publication is manifold. First, there is evidently a need among translation scholars and translators to exchange information on the process of becoming a translator – issues like the optimum profile of a translation adept, the most efficient methods for guiding students who wish to pursue the career or balancing formal education with practical training. What is more, the volume hopes to offer an opportunity to discuss the design of translation and interpreting teaching tracks as they actually function in different institutions within Poland and across Europe. The contributions talk about the challenges and solutions in a translation and interpreting classroom by combining theory and practice, hence allowing for implementation of the different methods in real-life situations. As the authors come from a number of institutions and countries, the volume offers varied perspectives on analogous issues to arrive at a comprehensive up-to-date account but also to discuss outlooks for the future.



Bogucki, Ł. (2010). [e-Book]  Teaching Translation and Interpreting: Challenges and Practices Cambridge, Cambridge Scholars Publishing. Texto completo:

Translator and interpreter training has recently received ample attention, manifested in numerous articles, books and conference papers. However, many central issues still appear controversial. Should translation and interpreting be taught within the curricula of language studies or independently? What is translator competence made up of? Which of its elements can be developed through practice and which require coaching? What kind of translators and interpreters, if any, are «born, not made»? In an attempt to address these and other questions as well as to exchange experience and expertise regarding translation curricula in Poland and abroad, the Department of Translation Theory and Practice, part of the Chair of English Language and Applied Linguistics at Lodz University, has organised two conferences under the title «Teaching Translation and Interpreting»; the first was held in April 2008, the second almost exactly a year later.



Coulthard, M. and A. Johnson (2010). [e-Book]  The Routledge handbook of forensic linguistics, Routledge. Texto completo:



Hansen-Schirra, S., O. Czulo, et al. (2017). [e-Book]  Empirical modelling of translation and interpreting. Berlín, Language Science Press. Texto completo:

«Empirical research is carried out in a cyclic way: approaching a research area bottom-up, data lead to interpretations and ideally to the abstraction of laws, on the basis of which a theory can be derived. Deductive research is based on a theory, on the basis of which hypotheses can be formulated and tested against the background of empirical data. Looking at the state-of-the-art in translation studies, either theories as well as models are designed or empirical data are collected and interpreted. However, the final step is still lacking: so far, empirical data has not lead to the formulation of theories or models, whereas existing theories and models have not yet been comprehensively tested with empirical methods.This publication addresses these issues from several perspectives: multi-method product- as well as process-based research may gain insights into translation as well as interpreting phenomena. These phenomena may include cognitive and organizational processes, procedures and strategies, competence and performance, translation properties and universals, etc. Empirical findings about the deeper structures of translation and interpreting will reduce the gap between translation and interpreting practice and model and theory building. Furthermore, the availability of more large-scale empirical testing triggers the development of models and theories concerning translation and interpreting phenomena and behavior based on quantifiable, replicable and transparent data.»



Martín García, M. C. (2011). [e-Book]  Inhibitory control in bilingualism. Granada, Universidad de Granada. Departamento de Psicología Experimental y Fisiología del Comportamiento. Texto completo:

Tesis Univ. Granada. Departamento de Psicología Experimental y Fisiología del Comportamiento. Leída el 4 de noviembre de 2011


Nolan, J. (2005). [e-Book]  Interpretation Techniques and Exercises Clevedon. Texto completo:

Over recent decades the explosive growth of globalization and regional integration has fueled parallel growth in multi-lingual conferences. Although conference interpreting has come of age as a profession, interpreter training programs have had varied success, pointing to the need for an instructional manual which covers the subject comprehensively. This book seeks to fill that need by providing a structured syllabus and an overview of interpretation accompanied by exercises, developed for the classroom, in the main aspects of the art. It is meant to serve as a practical guide for interpreters and as a complement to interpreter training programs, particularly those for students preparing for conference interpreting in international governmental and business settings.



Nolan, J. (2005). [e-Book]  Interpretation: Techniques and Exercises. Clevedon, Multilingual Maters. Texto completo:

Over recent decades the explosive growth of globalization and regional integration has fueled parallel growth in multi-lingual conferences. Although conference interpreting has come of age as a profession, interpreter training programs have had varied success, pointing to the need for an instructional manual which covers the subject comprehensively. This book seeks to fill that need by providing a structured syllabus and an overview of interpretation accompanied by exercises, developed for the classroom, in the main aspects of the art. It is meant to serve as a practical guide for interpreters and as a complement to interpreter training programs, particularly those for students preparing for conference interpreting in international governmental and business settings.It is assumed students have mastered their active and passive working languages and the fundamentals of translation. Those exercises which deal with lexicon focus on expanding the student’s range of expression in order to build vocabulary to the level needed for conference interpreting. The texts used in the exercises have been selected both to illustrate various aspects of translation and interpretation and to introduce the student to the wide range of topics and perspectives that arise in the international fora where conference interpreters work.


Pöchhacker, F. (2003). [e-Book]  Introducing interpreting studies, Routledge. Texto completo:



Pozo Triviño, M. d. and C. Toledano Buendía (2015). [e-Book]  Interpretación en contextos de violencia de género. Vigo, Universidad de Vigo. Texto completo:

El día 1 de noviembre de 2012 echaba a andar oficialmente el proyecto piloto europeo Speak Out for Support (SOS-VICS) para la formación de intérpretes con especialización en el trabajo con mujeres víctimas de violencia de género. Cofinanciado por el Programa Justicia Penal de la Unión Europea y las nueve universidades socias, el proyecto nacía con la vocación de apuntalar uno de los derechos fundamentales de las víctimas extranjeras de delitos, recogido en el artículo 7 de la Directiva 2012/29/UE: el derecho a la asistencia lingüística de aquellas víctimas que no hablen la lengua o las lenguas del país en el que residen. Al amparo de este marco normativo y motivado por la necesaria labor que se le había encomendado, SOS-VICS inició una trayectoria que ha durado dos años, en los que un equipo multidisciplinar de investigadores excelentes procedentes de toda la geografía española trabajó para conseguir dos objetivos principales: crear materiales de formación para intérpretes especializadas/os en la atención a víctimas y supervivientes de violencia de género, y contribuir a la sensibilización de todas las personas implicadas en la asistencia a víctimas sobre la necesidad de trabajar con intérpretes profesionales que cuenten con cualificación y especialización en violencia de género.



Rozan, J. F. (2001). [e-Book]  Note-taking in Consecutive Interpreting. Cracow., Tertium. Texto completo:

The following text is taken from a new translation of Jean-Francois Rozan’s masterpiece «Note-taking in Consecutive Interpreting» which is now available again, this time in English and Polish translations. It is reprinted here without the permission of the publishers Tertium, Cracow, Poland. If you like the extract below please visit their site and buy THE text on Consecutive interpreting there.



Service, Q. H. I. (2007). [e-Book]  Working with Interpreters Guidelines. Queensland, Queensland Health Interpreter Service. Texto completo:

These guidelines were based on a review of existing guidelines used by government and non-government agencies in Queensland and Australia. These guidelines were developed by the Interpreter Services Working Party which comprised representations of National Accreditation Authority for Translators and Interpreters (NAATI), Australian Institute of Interpreters and Translators Incorporated (AUSIT), Multicultural Affairs Queensland, Queensland Deaf Society, Multicultural Development Association (Brisbane), Spiritus, Local Government Association Queensland, Policy and Legislation Branch, Southside Health Service District, Mater Hospitals, Princess Alexandra Hospital, Queensland Transcultural Mental Health Centre, Royal Brisbane and Womens’ Hospital and West Moreton Health Service District.



Sherwood-Gabrielson, P., V. Newington, et al. (2008). [e-Book]  Consecutive Interpreting:An Instructor’s Manual : A 45-hour generic interpreting course for bilingual speakers. Builds on the Program in Translation and Interpreting’s Introduction to Interpreting: An Instructor’s Manual. Minnesota, Program in Translation and Interpreting, University of Minnesota. Texto completo:

This manual is the result of a process that began in 1991 when the first version of this course was offered at the University of Minnesota. In developing and teaching this course, we have relied upon the expertise of many colleagues. We would like to acknowledge the contributions of all  the individuals who have worked with us, both directly and indirectly. The original purpose of this manual was to provide instructors with a framework for teaching the Consecutive Interpreting course at the University of Minnesota. However, as interest in interpreter training grows throughout the country, it also serves as a tool for those who plan to initiate interpreter training elsewhere or to supplement their existing courses.



Soler Caamaño, E., M. Tricás Preckler, et al. (2007). [e-Book]  La calidad en formación especializada en interpretación: análisis de los criterios de evaluación de un jurado en un posgrado de interpretación de conferencia médica. Texto completo:

La valuació de la qualitat en interpretació al final del procés formatiu de postgrau hauria de coincidir, si més no majoritàriament, amb les expectatives de qualitat professionals respecte a un intèrpret novell. Partint daquesta hipòtesi, i inspirant-nos tan en estudis de satisfacció o expectatives de qualitat dusuaris dinterpretació (perspectiva professional) com en els protocols davaluació aplicats a diverses universitats (perspectiva acadèmica), així com en els Models dels esforços de Daniel Gile, la nostra recerca empírica i observacional suposa una contribució a la identificació dels criteris de qualitat en interpretació.Es va enregistrar i transcriure un ampli corpus amb un total de 69 avaluacions de 18 estudiants davant dun total de 7 examinadors en un postgrau dinterpretació de conferència mèdica. Després didentificar els indicadors de qualitat (67) considerats pels avaluadors, es va dur a terme una anàlisi estadística, lestabliment de categories (6) i la identificació de trets distintius entre els avaluadors. La innovació rau en el fet dhaver desgranat els criteris de qualitat implícits a partir del corpus (avaluacions en un postgrau despecialitat), en el mètode emprat per identificar les categories i en el seu processament. Els resultats mostren, entre altres qüestions, que la quantitat de comentaris positius o negatius fets pels avaluadors pràcticament no influeixen en la puntuació atorgada als estudiants.Resumen La evaluación de la calidad en interpretación al final del proceso formativo de posgrado debería coincidir, al menos mayoritariamente, con las expectativas de calidad profesionales respecto a un intérprete novel. Partiendo de esta hipótesis, e inspirándonos tanto en estudios sobre satisfacción o expectativas de calidad de usuarios de interpretación (perspectiva profesional) como en los protocolos de evaluación aplicados en distintas universidades (perspectiva académica), así como en los Modelos de los esfuerzos de Daniel Gile, nuestra investigación empírica y observacional supone una contribución a la identificación de los criterios de calidad en interpretación.Se grabó y se transcribió un amplio corpus con un total de 69 evaluaciones de 18 estudiantes ante un total de 7 examinadores en un posgrado de interpretación de conferencia médica. Tras identificar los indicadores de calidad (67) considerados por los evaluadores, se procedió a un análisis estadístico, al establecimiento de categorías (6) y a la identificación de rasgos distintivos entre los evaluadores. La innovación radica en haber desgranado los criterios de calidad implícitos a partir del corpus (evaluaciones en un posgrado de especialidad), en el método utilizado para identificar las categorías y en su procesamiento. Los resultados muestran, entre otros extremos, que la cantidad de comentarios positivos o negativos realizados apenas influyen en la puntuación que otorgan a los estudiantes.


Stewart, K., A. Witter-Merithew, et al. (2009). [e-Book]  Best Practices: American Sign Language and English Interpretation Within Legal Settings. New York, National Consortium of Interpreter Education Centers. Legal Interpreting Workgroup. Texto completo:

This document sets forth the Best Practices and Protocols for American Sign Language interpreters working within legal settings. The mission of the National Consortium of Interpreter Education Centers (NCIEC) is to build and promote effective practices in interpreting education. The NCIEC draws upon the wisdom and energy of experts, consumers and other stakeholders to advance the field. The NCIEC is dedicated to challenging the status quo by promoting innovation, strong partner networks and multiculturalism throughout its programming. As responsible stewards of public funding, NCIEC is committed to products, programs and services that maximize resources and are replicable, measurable, sustainable and non-proprietary. Towards the goal of increasing the number of qualified interpreters and advance the field of interpreting education, the NCIEC has established a number of work teams dedicated to a specific area of specialization. One such workgroup is the NCIEC Legal Interpreting Workgroup, comprised of a group of core and expert members focused on defining the best and effective practices associated with legal interpreting. Interpreting in the legal setting is a long-recognized area of specialization in the field of ASL-English interpreting. Tradition from the field of spoken language interpreting and legal community contribute to the conventional way legal interpreting work is performed. As well, practices have been conceived by ASL-English interpreter practitioners over time through a process of application of theory drawn from the profession’s scholarship. As more scholarship and research emerge, practices evolve, improve, and change.


Takeda, K. (2006). [e-Book]  Sociopolitical aspects of interpreting at the international military tribunal for the far east (1946-1948), Bar Ilan University. Texto completo:



Takeda, K. and J. Baigorri-Jalón (2016). [e-Book]  New Insights in the History of Interpreting. Amsterdam, Netherlands, John Benjamins Publishing Company Texto completo:

Who mediated intercultural exchanges in 9th-century East Asia or in early voyages to the Americas? Did the Soviets or the Americans invent simultaneous interpreting equipment? How did the US government train its first Chinese interpreters? Bringing together papers from an international symposium held at Rikkyo University in 2014 along with two select pieces, this volume pursues such questions in an exploration of the practice of interpreting, the recruitment of interpreters, and the challenges interpreters have faced in diplomacy, colonization, religion, war, and occupation. It also introduces innovative use of photography, artifacts, personal journals, and fiction as tools for the historical study of interpreters and interpreting. Targeted at practitioners, scholars, and students of interpreting, translation, and history, the new insights presented aim to spark discussion and research on the vital roles interpreters have played in intercultural communication through history.



Wolf, M. (2012). [e-Book]  Die vielsprachige Seele Kakaniens, Böhlau Texto completo:

In the last few decades, the discipline of Translation Studies has been characterized by a considerable increase of interdisciplinary approaches which both helped to sharpen its profiling and to promote its multilayered epistemological discussions. The contribution of this book to these developments is located on various levels. I claim that in view of its multifaceted forms, translation as practiced in the late Habsburg Empire to a high degree contributed to the construction of cultures in the pluri-cultural space of the Habsburg Monarchy: on the one hand, I have revealed the various layers of translation’s constructive character and then – on the basis of Pierre Bourdieu’s sociological framework – shed light on the various construction processes on behalf of detailed analyses which focus on the agents involved in these processes. These considerations are then reflected in the delineation of a model which I call the “pluri-cultural communication space of the Habsburg Monarchy”. In terms of methodology, I have drawn on post-colonial theoretical frameworks. On such a basis, I have sketched a concept of culture which aims to correspond to the hybrid constellations characteristic to vast parts of the Monarchy and which claims to detect the symbolic forms of ethnically articulated dominance. The metaphorically inspired translation concept developed in the wake of these reflections (“cultural translation”) results in conceptualizing a typology of various translation forms which claim to do justice to the complexity of the Monarchy’s translatorial practices in the continuum between “communication” and “translation”. Primarily on the basis of archival sources, the analysis covers the translatorial practice in the various ministries (“Commission of Terminology “,“Bureau of Redaction of the Imperial Law Gazette”, “Section of Ciphering and Translatorial Work”), in court (sworn interpreters), and in the diplomatic service, among others. On the other hand, I have worked on extensive corpora analyzing the translation flows both between various languages of the crown lands and with countries outside the Monarchy by adopting numerous parameters (focus: translations into German). Finally, the focus is laid on the translations from Italian, with a particular emphasis on laying bare the construction processes operating in the selection, production, distribution and reception of these translations. The features which make up the construction of culture in the Habsburg context can be particularly detected in two instances: first, in the tensions related to national conflicts which are inscribed in all translation types dealt with in the period under investigation. Secondly, in the phenomenon of bi- and multilingualism which – according to the territory and the legal situation respectively – represented a basic prerequisite for the translation and interpreting activity and as such in many cases made a professional and qualitatively differentiated formation in translation at least at first sight avoidable. Nevertheless, it has been able to reconstruct a gradual institutionalization of the translatorial activity.<p>Die Translationswissenschaft der vergangenen Jahre ist durch eine zunehmende interdisziplinäre Auseinandersetzung gekennzeichnet, die der Disziplin zu einer ausgeprägten Profilierung verhalf und vielschichtige wissenschaftstheoretische Diskussionen vorantrieb. Der Beitrag der vorliegenden Arbeit zu dieser Konturierung ist auf mehreren Ebenen zu orten: Zum einen werden, ausgehend von der These, dass das Phänomen der Übersetzung in seinen vielfachen Ausformungen wesentlich zur Konstituierung des plurikulturellen Raumes der Habsburgermonarchie beitrug, verschiedene Schichten des Konstruktcharakters von Übersetzung freigelegt, zum anderen auf der Grundlage des kultursoziologischen Theorierahmens von Pierre Bourdieu die einzelnen Konstruktionsprozesse vor dem Hintergrund detaillierter akteurInnenbezogener Analysen ausgeleuchtet und in die Skizzierung eines „plurikulturellen Kommunika ionsraumes der Habsburgermonarchie“ übergeleitet.Zur Bestimmung des Beitrages des übersetzerischen Phänomens zur Konstruktion der habsburgischen Kultur im Untersuchungszeitraum 1848-1918 wird in der postkolonialen Theorie Anleihe genommen und ein Kulturkonzept skizziert, das der auf weite Teile der Monarchie zutreffenden hybriden Befindlichkeit zu entsprechen und die symbolischen Formen ethnisch artikulierter Herrschaft zu erfassen sucht. Unter Anwendung des daraus konzipierten metaphorischen Translationsbegriffs („kulturelle Übersetzung“) wird anschließend auf der Basis der translatorischen Praktiken der Habsburgermonarchie eine Typologie der verschiedenen Übersetzungsformen entworfen, die der Vielschichtigkeit dieser Praktiken entlang der Bandbreite von „Kommunikation“ bis „Translation“ entsprechen. Untersucht wird – vorrangig auf der Grundlage von Archivquellen – zum einen die translatorische Praxis in den Ministerien („Terminologiekommission“, „Redaktionsbureau des Reichsgesetzblattes“, „Sektion für Chiffrewesen und translatorische Arbeiten“), bei Gericht (gerichtliche beeidete Dolmetscher), im diplomatischen Dienst etc., zum anderen werden anhand umfangreicher Korpora die Übersetzungsströme zwischen den einzelnen Sprachen der Kronländer und auch mit Ländern außerhalb der Monarchie nach zahlreichen Parametern aufgearbeitet (Schwerpunkt: Übersetzungen ins Deutsche). Der Fokus dieser letztgenannten Untersuchungen wird schließlich auf die Übersetzungen aus dem Italienischen gelegt, wobei besonderes Augenmerk auf die durch Selektion, Produktion, Distribution und Rezeption dieser Übersetzungen vorgenommenen Konstruktionsprozesse gelegt wird. Der kulturkonstruierende Charakter der Translationspraktiken im habsburgischen Kontext ist an zwei wesentlichen Momenten festzumachen: Zum einen an den nationalitätenbezogenen Spannungen, die allen genannten Translationstypen im Untersuchungszeitraum eingeschrieben sind; zum anderen an der Bi- und Plurilingualität, die, je nach Territorium und jeweiliger gesetzlicher Lage, eine grundsätzliche Voraussetzung für die Übersetzungs- und Dolmetschtätigkeit darstellte und als solche eine professionelle und qualitativ differenzierte translatorische Ausbildung vordergründig nicht erforderlich machte. Dennoch ist eine sukzessiv erfolgende Institutionalisierung der translatorischen Tätigkeit rekonstruierbar.