Archivos por Etiqueta: Lenguaje

Estudio de Caracterización del Sector de las Tecnologías del Lenguaje en España 2018



Estudio de Caracterización del Sector de las Tecnologías del Lenguaje en España 2018. Madrid : ONTSI, 2018

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Este estudio, en el ámbito del Plan de Impulso de las Tecnologías del Lenguaje, tiene por objeto caracterizar a la industria y a los agentes que la conforman, conocer los productos y la situación actual y evolución reciente de las características estructurales y económicas específicas de cada una de las actividades que componen el sector, la descripción del mismo en términos de cadena de valor, modelos de ingresos y producción, inversión, investigación e innovación en el sector, así como las tendencias, oportunidades y barreras, junto al rol de la Administración. Para ello se ha llevado a cabo un censo de empresas y grupos de investigación que componen el sector, una encuesta al mismo y entrevistas y reuniones con expertos, todo ello apoyado sobre la revisión bibliográfica.

Las tecnologías del lenguaje son un conjunto de sistemas de software diseñados para manejar el lenguaje humano en todas sus formas, permiten analizar lenguaje escrito, hablado y facilitar su explotación en aplicaciones informáticas de uso en los sectores productivos de la economía.

El estudio muestra un sector conformado fundamentalmente por microempresas y pequeñas empresas, con una actividad de tecnologías del lenguaje madura en lo que se refiere a su antigüedad, la mayoría de los agentes llevan entre 11 y 20 años dedicándose a la actividad TL.

Niveles de idioma en inglés




Discourse, Pragmatics, Grammar, Lexis, Semantics and Phonology. Key terminology and links to contextual factors. Ideal for lesson or revision.

12 libros sobre lengua y lingüística GRATIS en BookBoon



Download all “Languages” books in one ZIP-file



Language Dispersal Beyond Farming


Martine, R. and S. Alexander (2017). [e-Book]  Language Dispersal Beyond Farming. Amsterdam, John Benjamins Publishing Company Texto completo:


Why do some languages wither and die, while others prosper and spread? Around the turn of the millennium a number of archaeologists such as Colin Renfrew and Peter Bellwood made the controversial claim that many of the world’s major language families owe their dispersal to the adoption of agriculture by their early speakers. In this volume, their proposal is reassessed by linguists, investigating to what extent the economic dependence on plant cultivation really impacted language spread in various parts of the world. Special attention is paid to “tricky” language families such as Eskimo-Aleut, Quechua, Aymara, Bantu, Indo-European, Transeurasian, Turkic, Japano-Koreanic, Hmong-Mien and Trans-New Guinea, that cannot unequivocally be regarded as instances of Farming/Language Dispersal, even if subsistence played a role in their expansion.

Desarrollo del lenguaje en la era digital


Mila, V., B. Giosue, et al. (2017). [e-Book] Language Development in the Digital Age, Frontiers Media SA, 2017

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The digital age is changing our children’s lives and childhood dramatically. New technologies transform the way people interact with each other, the way stories are shared and distributed, and the way reality is presented and perceived. Parents experience that toddlers can handle tablets and apps with a level of sophistication the children’s grandparents can only envy. The question of how the ecology of the child affects the acquisition of competencies and skills has been approached from different angles in different disciplines. In linguistics, psychology and neuroscience, the central question addressed concerns the specific role of exposure to language. Two influential types of theory have been proposed. On one view the capacity to learn language is hard-wired in the human brain: linguistic input is merely a trigger for language to develop. On an alternative view, language acquisition depends on the linguistic environment of the child, and specifically on language input provided through child-adult communication and interaction. The latter view further specifies that factors in situated interaction are crucial for language learning to take place. In the fields of information technology, artificial intelligence and robotics a current theme is to create robots that develop, as children do, and to establish how embodiment and interaction support language learning in these machines. In the field of human-machine interaction, research is investigating whether using a physical robot, rather than a virtual agent or a computer-based video, has a positive effect on language development.

The Research Topic will address the following issues:
● What are the methodological challenges faced by research on language acquisition in the digital age?
● How should traditional theories and models of language acquisition be revised to account for the multimodal and multichannel nature of language learning in the digital age?
● How should existing and future technologies be developed and transformed so as to be most beneficial for child language learning and cognition?
● Can new technologies be tailored to support child growth, and most importantly, can they be designed in order to enhance specifically vulnerable children’s language learning environment and opportunities?
● What kind of learning mechanisms are involved?
● How can artificial intelligence and robotics technologies, as robot tutors, support language development?

These questions and issues can only be addressed by means of an interdisciplinary approach that aims at developing new methods of data collection and analysis in cross-sectional and longitudinal perspectives.


El lenguaje de Shakespeare


Shakespeare’s Language.  [e-Book] Londom, Routledge, 2016.

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As tribute to William Shakespeare on the 400th anniversary of his death, we bring you this FreeBook which draws together a unique selection of Routledge content on Shakespeare’s Language.

El lenguaje en la era digital



Dejica, D., G. Hansen, et al. (2016). [e-Book]  Language in the Digital Era. Challenges and Perspectives. London De Gruyter, 2016.

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This collected volume brings together the contributions of several humanities scholars who focus on the evolution of language in the digital era. The first part of the volume explores general aspects of humanities and linguistics in the digital environment. The second part focuses on language and translation and includes topics that discuss the digital translation policy, new technologies and specialised translation, online resources for terminology management, translation of online advertising, or subtitling. The last part of the book focuses on language teaching and learning and addresses the changes, challenges and perspectives of didactics in the age of technology. Each contribution is divided into several sections that present the state of the art and the methodology used, and discuss the results and perspectives of the authors. The book is recommended to scholars, professionals, students and anyone interested in the changes within the humanities in conjunction with technological innovation or in the ways language is adapting to the challenges of today’s digitized world.

Movimiento y emoción en la intersubjetividad, la conciencia y el lenguaje


Moving Ourselves, Moving Others : Motion and Emotion in Intersubjectivity, Consciousness and Language. [e-Book]  Amsterdam, John Benjamins Publishing Company, 2012

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The close relationship between motion (bodily movement) and emotion (feelings) is not an etymological coincidence. While moving ourselves, we move others; in observing others move – we are moved ourselves. The fundamentally interpersonal nature of mind and language has recently received due attention, but the key role of (e)motion in this context has remained something of a blind spot. The present book rectifies this gap by gathering contributions from leading philosophers, psychologists and linguists working in the area. Framed by an introducing prologue and a summarizing epilogue the volume elaborates a dynamical, active view of emotion, along with an affect-laden view of motion – and explores their significance for consciousness, intersubjectivity, and language. As such, it contributes to the emerging interdisciplinary field of mind science, transcending hitherto dominant computationalist and cognitivist approaches.

¿Es el lenguaje una habilidad no lingüística?


Ansaldo, U. and N. J. Enfield. [e-Book]  Is the Language Faculty Non Linguistic?, Frontiers Media SA, 2016

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A line of research in cognitive science over several decades has been dedicated to finding an innate, language-specific cognitive system, a faculty which allows human infants to acquire languages natively without formal instruction and within short periods of time. In recent years, this search has attracted significant controversy in cognitive science generally, and in the language sciences specifically. Some maintain that the search has had meaningful results, though there are different views as to what the findings are: ranging from the view that there is a rich and rather specific set of principles, to the idea that the contents of the language faculty are – while specifiable – in fact extremely minimal. But other researchers rigorously oppose the continuation of this search, arguing that decades of effort have turned up nothing. The fact remains that the proposal of a language-specific faculty was made for a good reason, namely as an attempt to solve the vexing puzzle of language in our species. Much work has been developing to address this, and specifically, to look for ways to characterize the language faculty as an emergent phenomenon; i.e., not as a dedicated, language-specific system, but as the emergent outcome of a set of uniquely human but not specifically linguistic factors, in combination. A number of theoretical and empirical approaches are being developed in order to account for the great puzzles of language – language processing, language usage, language acquisition, the nature of grammar, and language change and diversification. This research topic aims at reviewing and exploring these recent developments and establishing bridges between these young frameworks, as well as with the traditions that have come before. The goal of this Research Topic is to focus on current developments in what many regard as a paradigm shift in the language sciences. In this Research Topic, we want to ask: If current explicit proposals for an innate, dedicated faculty for language are not supported by data or arguments, how can we solve the problems that UG was proposed to solve? Is it possible to solve the puzzles of language in our species with an appeal to causes that are not specifically linguistic?

Causas naturales del lenguaje: Marcos, sesgos y transmisión cultural



Enfield, N. J. (2014). [e-Book]  Natural causes of language: Frames, biases, and cultural transmission. Berlin, Language Science Press, 2014.

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What causes a language to be the way it is? Some features are universal, some are inherited, others are borrowed, and yet others are internally innovated. But no matter where a bit of language is from, it will only exist if it has been diffused and kept in circulation through social interaction in the history of a community. This book makes the case that a proper understanding of the ontology of language systems has to be grounded in the causal mechanisms by which linguistic items are socially transmitted, in communicative contexts. A biased transmission model provides a basis for understanding why certain things and not others are likely to develop, spread, and stick in languages. Because bits of language are always parts of systems, we also need to show how it is that items of knowledge and behavior become structured wholes. The book argues that to achieve this, we need to see how causal processes apply in multiple frames or ‘time scales’ simultaneously, and we need to understand and address each and all of these frames in our work on language. This forces us to confront implications that are not always comfortable: for example, that “a language” is not a real thing but a convenient fiction, that language-internal and language-external processes have a lot in common, and that tree diagrams are poor conceptual tools for understanding the history of languages. By exploring avenues for clear solutions to these problems, this book suggests a conceptual framework for ultimately explaining, in causal terms, what languages are like and why they are like that.