Archivos por Etiqueta: Multilingüismo

Estudios de Multilingüismo, Lingua Franca y Lingua Sacra

 

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Braarvig, J. and M. J. Geller. [e-Book] Studies in Multilingualism, Lingua Franca and Lingua Sacra, Max Planck Institute, 2018

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The present book comprises a number of studies centered around the topic of how knowledge diffuses from one culture to another, and how knowledge diffusion is connected with the spread of languages and the conceptual systems they carry by translation. This diffusion also takes place also over linguistic borders, in the way that a given receiving language may also absorb systems of knowledge from languages that are linguistically quite unrelated but culturally connected with respect to knowledge transfer. Thus we find that Sumerian concepts with considerable impact were moved into the Akkadian language, along with writing-systems, religion, science and literature, even though linguistically the languages are completely unrelated. Another example is how Chinese culture and writing systems spread throughout East Asia into Korea, Japan and Vietnam, though the languages of these countries were linguistically unrelated to Chinese. The same case can be made for Buddhist ways of thinking when it was clothed in the garb of Chinese or Tibetan, or one of the other languages along the Silk Road. This is also true for the spread of Manicheism, as it was portrayed in a great number of languages, related or unrelated. German and Latin are linguistically related, but when Latin learning was communicated in Old High German, many of its terms were created in Middle German to accommodate the Latin conceptual world, and the German language was lastingly enriched with novisms denoting concepts of the Classical traditions of learning, in a process parallel to the spread of Greek Christianity into the East European cultures and languages. The book describes some cases of such knowledge transfer and what kind of mechanisms are involved in the ensuing language changes in the receiving languages and cultures.

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Agenda Estratégica de Investigación para una Europa Multilingüe 2020.

 

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Georg, R. and U. Hans (2013). [e-Book]  META-NET Strategic Research Agenda for Multilingual Europe 2020. Berlin, Springer, 2013.

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In everyday communication, Europe’s citizens, business partners and politicians are inevitably confronted with language barriers. Language technology has the potential to overcome these barriers and to provide innovative interfaces to technologies and knowledge. This document presents a Strategic Research Agenda for Multilingual Europe 2020. The agenda was prepared by META-NET, a European Network of Excellence. META-NET consists of 60 research centres in 34 countries, who cooperate with stakeholders from economy, government agencies, research organisations, non-governmental organisations, language communities and European universities. META-NET’s vision is high-quality language technology for all European languages.

Estudio sobre la traducción en servicios públicos en la asistencia sanitaria transfronteriza

 

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Angelelli, Claudia V. Study on public service translation in cross-border healthcare. European Commission., 2015

 

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Linguistic diversity permeates every thread of the European Union fabric. Cross-border healthcare is increasing among EU citizens and residents who seek care under Directive 2011/24/EU or Regulation (EC) N° 883/2004. In a multilingual and intercultural society like the EU, patients and providers may not share a language. If patients cannot access healthcare services in a language they fully understand, equal access to safe and high-quality healthcare is not guaranteed. Through the use of both quantitative and qualitative methods, this exploratory study examines language policies as well as responses provided (or lack thereof) to linguistically diverse patients in areas of Germany, Greece, Italy, Spain and the United Kingdom. The cost of language provision as well as good practices are also studied. Results show that a variety of responses, ranging from professional translation and interpreting support to informal and unprofessional ad-hoc solutions, are used to address the language needs of patients. In the absence of formal language guidance in EU legislation, in most observed cases appropriate language services are not provided for patients who do not speak the language of the Member State in which they seek healthcare. This study has implications for policy makers, healthcare providers, educators, translators and interpreters serving the needs of linguistically and culturally diverse patients

Plurilingüismo y Multialfabetización: Investigación Internacional sobre la Construcción de la Identidad en la Educación de Idiomas

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 Plurilingualism and Multiliteracies : International Research on Identity Construction in Language Education  [e-Book]. Berna, Suiza: Peter Lang International Academic Publishers

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LANGSCAPE is a plurilingual and multicultural international research network on language acquisition and language education. The current research focus is on Identity Construction in Language Education. This volume summarizes some research results of the last four years by presenting empirical research projects as well as theoretical concepts. The contributions all deal with topics linked to plurilingualism or to certain aspects of the concept of multiliteracies like globalization, language policy, multiculturalism, multimodal communication processes, intercultural learning etc. The authors conceptualize or analyse identity construction processes of learners and educators in different plurilingual and multicultural learning environments or media based settings.

Fraseología computacional y basada en corpus: perspectivas monolingües y multilingües

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Corpas Pastor, G. (2016.). [e-Book] Computerised and Corpus-based Approaches to Phraseology: Monolingual and Multilingual Perspectives. Fraseología computacional y basada en corpus: perspectivas monolingües y multilingües. Geneva, Editions Tradulex.

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The notion of phraseology is now used across a wide range of linguistic disciplines: Phraseology (proper), Corpus Linguistics, Discourse Analysis, Pragmatics, Cognitive Linguistics, Computational Linguistics. It is, however, conspicuously absent from most studies in the area of Translation Studies (e.g. Delisle 2003, Baker & Saldanha 2011). The paradox is that many practical difficulties encountered by translators and interpreters are directly related to phraseology in the broad sense (Colson 2008, 2013), and this can most clearly be seen in the failure of SMT-models (statistical machine translation) to deal efficiently with the translation of set phrases (used here as a generic term for all categories of phraseological constructions, from collocations to proverbs).

La educación y la diversidad lingüística en las primeras legislaciones internacionales de derechos humanos

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La educación y la diversidad lingüística en las primeras legislaciones internacionales de derechos humanos
Contradicciones en el principio de igualdad de oportunidades

Adriana Victoria Rodríguez Caguana. [Autora]
…………………………………………………………………………
Colección Estudios sobre las Desigualdades.
ISBN 978-987-722-170-1
CLACSO.
Buenos Aires.
Marzo de 2016

 

El presente trabajo indaga el derecho a la educación y a la diversidad cultural en las primeras declaraciones, convenciones y pactos de la legislación internacional de derechos humanos, desde la Declaración Universal de Derechos Humanos (1948), hasta la Convención Americana (1960) y los dos Pactos Internacionales de derechos civiles, políticos, y de derechos económicos, sociales y culturales (1969). En el desarrollo del análisis normativo se expondrán los presupuestos teóricos del principio universal y del relativismo cultural, tratando de encontrar los puntos más fuertes y débiles en cada teoría. En este sentido, el principio de “igualdad de oportunidades” ligado a la “meritocracia” y a los “dotes naturales” en el derecho a la educación se convierte en problemático y contradictorio. Por último, se destaca la apropiación del discurso de los derechos humanos por parte de los colectivos culturales discriminados, lo cual lo convierte en una estrategia emancipadora.

The future of dialects: Selected papers from Methods in Dialectology

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Côté, M.-H., R. Knooihuizen, et al. (2016). [e-Book] The future of dialects: Selected papers from Methods in Dialectology XV, Language Science Press, 2016

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Traditional dialects have been encroached upon by the increasing mobility of their speakers and by the onslaught of national languages in education and mass media. Typically, older dialects are “leveling” to become more like national languages. This is regrettable when the last articulate traces of a culture are lost, but it also promotes a complex dynamics of interaction as speakers shift from dialect to standard and to intermediate compromises between the two in their forms of speech. Varieties of speech thus live on in modern communities, where they still function to mark provenance, but increasingly cultural and social provenance as opposed to pure geography. They arise at times from the need to function throughout the different groups in society, but they also may have roots in immigrants’ speech, and just as certainly from the ineluctable dynamics of groups wishing to express their identity to themselves and to the world.

El alma multilingüe. Traducción e Interpretación en la monarquía de los Habsburgo 1848-1918

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Wolf, M. (2012). [e-Book] Die vielsprachige Seele Kakaniens: Übersetzen und Dolmetschen in der Habsburgermonarchie 1848 bis 1918 , Böhlau

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In the last few decades, the discipline of Translation Studies has been characterized by a considerable increase of interdisciplinary approaches which both helped to sharpen its profiling and to promote its multilayered epistemological discussions. The contribution of this book to these developments is located on various levels. I claim that in view of its multifaceted forms, translation as practiced in the late Habsburg Empire to a high degree contributed to the construction of cultures in the pluri-cultural space of the Habsburg Monarchy: on the one hand, I have revealed the various layers of translation’s constructive character and then – on the basis of Pierre Bourdieu’s sociological framework – shed light on the various construction processes on behalf of detailed analyses which focus on the agents involved in these processes. These considerations are then reflected in the delineation of a model which I call the “pluri-cultural communication space of the Habsburg Monarchy”. In terms of methodology, I have drawn on post-colonial theoretical frameworks. On such a basis, I have sketched a concept of culture which aims to correspond to the hybrid constellations characteristic to vast parts of the Monarchy and which claims to detect the symbolic forms of ethnically articulated dominance. The metaphorically inspired translation concept developed in the wake of these reflections (“cultural translation”) results in conceptualizing a typology of various translation forms which claim to do justice to the complexity of the Monarchy’s translatorial practices in the continuum between “communication” and “translation”. Primarily on the basis of archival sources, the analysis covers the translatorial practice in the various ministries (“Commission of Terminology “,“Bureau of Redaction of the Imperial Law Gazette”, “Section of Ciphering and Translatorial Work”), in court (sworn interpreters), and in the diplomatic service, among others. On the other hand, I have worked on extensive corpora analyzing the translation flows both between various languages of the crown lands and with countries outside the Monarchy by adopting numerous parameters (focus: translations into German). Finally, the focus is laid on the translations from Italian, with a particular emphasis on laying bare the construction processes operating in the selection, production, distribution and reception of these translations. The features which make up the construction of culture in the Habsburg context can be particularly detected in two instances: first, in the tensions related to national conflicts which are inscribed in all translation types dealt with in the period under investigation. Secondly, in the phenomenon of bi- and multilingualism which – according to the territory and the legal situation respectively – represented a basic prerequisite for the translation and interpreting activity and as such in many cases made a professional and qualitatively differentiated formation in translation at least at first sight avoidable. Nevertheless, it has been able to reconstruct a gradual institutionalization of the translatorial activity. English version of the book: http://e-book.fwf.ac.at/o:786<p>Die Translationswissenschaft der vergangenen Jahre ist durch eine zunehmende interdisziplinäre Auseinandersetzung gekennzeichnet, die der Disziplin zu einer ausgeprägten Profilierung verhalf und vielschichtige wissenschaftstheoretische Diskussionen vorantrieb. Der Beitrag der vorliegenden Arbeit zu dieser Konturierung ist auf mehreren Ebenen zu orten: Zum einen werden, ausgehend von der These, dass das Phänomen der Übersetzung in seinen vielfachen Ausformungen wesentlich zur Konstituierung des plurikulturellen Raumes der Habsburgermonarchie beitrug, verschiedene Schichten des Konstruktcharakters von Übersetzung freigelegt, zum anderen auf der Grundlage des kultursoziologischen Theorierahmens von Pierre Bourdieu die einzelnen Konstruktionsprozesse vor dem Hintergrund detaillierter akteurInnenbezogener Analysen ausgeleuchtet und i die Skizzierung eines „plurikulturellen Kommunikationsraumes der Habsburgermonarchie“ übergeleitet.Zur Bestimmung des Beitrages des übersetzerischen Phänomens zur Konstruktion der habsburgischen Kultur im Untersuchungszeitraum 1848-1918 wird in der postkolonialen Theorie Anleihe genommen und ein Kulturkonzept skizziert, das der auf weite Teile der Monarchie zutreffenden hybriden Befindlichkeit zu entsprechen und die symbolischen Formen ethnisch artikulierter Herrschaft zu erfassen sucht. Unter Anwendung des daraus konzipierten metaphorischen Translationsbegriffs („kulturelle Übersetzung“) wird anschließend auf der Basis der translatorischen Praktiken der Habsburgermonarchie eine Typologie der verschiedenen Übersetzungsformen entworfen, die der Vielschichtigkeit dieser Praktiken entlang der Bandbreite von „Kommunikation“ bis „Translation“ entsprechen. Untersucht wird – vorrangig auf der Grundlage von Archivquellen – zum einen die translatorische Praxis in den Ministerien („Terminologiekommission“, „Redaktionsbureau des Reichsgesetzblattes“, „Sektion für Chiffrewesen und translatorische Arbeiten“), bei Gericht (gerichtliche beeidete Dolmetscher), im diplomatischen Dienst etc., zum anderen werden anhand umfangreicher Korpora die Übersetzungsströme zwischen den einzelnen Sprachen der Kronländer und auch mit Ländern außerhalb der Monarchie nach zahlreichen Parametern aufgearbeitet (Schwerpunkt: Übersetzungen ins Deutsche). Der Fokus dieser letztgenannten Untersuchungen wird schließlich auf die Übersetzungen aus dem Italienischen gelegt, wobei besonderes Augenmerk auf die durch Selektion, Produktion, Distribution und Rezeption dieser Übersetzungen vorgenommenen Konstruktionsprozesse gelegt wird. Der kulturkonstruierende Charakter der Translationspraktiken im habsburgischen Kontext ist an zwei wesentlichen Momenten festzumachen: Zum einen an den nationalitätenbezogenen Spannungen, die allen genannten Translationstypen im Untersuchungszeitraum eingeschrieben sind; zum anderen an der Bi- und Plurilingualität, die, je nach Territorium und jeweiliger gesetzlicher Lage, eine grundsätzliche Voraussetzung für die Übersetzungs- und Dolmetschtätigkeit darstellte und als solche eine professionelle und qualitativ differenzierte translatorische Ausbildung vordergründig nicht erforderlich machte. Dennoch ist eine sukzessiv erfolgende Institutionalisierung der translatorischen Tätigkeit rekonstruierbar. Englische Version des Buches: http://e-book.fwf.ac.at/o:786

Enfoques Interdisciplinarios sobr el multilingüismo

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Suzanne, C., et al. (2015). Interdisciplinary Approaches to Multilingualism, Frontiers Media SA

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This research topic stems from the IAM interdisciplinary conference, the first of its kind, which will bring together the work of researchers, educators, and policy makers in the areas of first and second language acquisition from psycholinguistic and language pedagogy perspectives. The goal is to provide an opportunity for participants to engage with the implications of multilingualism from a range of perspectives, including the effects of being bilingual from infancy to adulthood, the process and benefits of learning multiple languages, and the impact of multilingualism on society.

META-NET Strategic Research Agenda for Multilingual Europe 2020

Georg Rehm, H. U. (2013). [e-Book] META-NET Strategic Research Agenda for Multilingual Europe 2020, Springer-Verlag GmbH

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The unique multilingual setup of our European society imposes grand societal challenges on political, economic and social integration and inclusion, especially in the creation of the single digital market and unified information space targeted by the Digital Agenda. As many as 21 European languages are at risk of digital extinction. ey could become victims of the digital age as they are under-represented online and underresourced with respect to language techno–logies. Moreover, huge market opportunities remain untapped because of language barriers. If no action is taken, many European citizens will find that speaking their mother tongue leaves them at a social and economic disadvantage.Future-proofing our languages requires a modest investment which will return a strong competitive advantage, since the technologies needed to overcome language barriers and support languages in the digital age are key enabling technologies for the next IT revolution.